Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Mapping the SpectrumTechniques of Visual Representation in Research and Teaching$

Prof. Dr. Klaus Hentschel

Print publication date: 2002

Print ISBN-13: 9780198509530

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2010

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198509530.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.oxfordscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2017. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy). Subscriber: null; date: 26 February 2017

(p.467) Appendix 1

(p.467) Appendix 1

Source:
Mapping the Spectrum
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Appendix 1:Survey of maps of the solar spectrum 1802–1900. Abbreviations in col. 3: C copper engraving, E metal relief engraving, Se steel engraving, Le stone engraving. Lg lithograph, H heliogravure, A autotype, Ht heliotype, P photograph. At Albertype, dCIP dry collodion photograph, wClP wet collodion photograph, Gbe gelatino-bromide silver emulsion, D daguerreotype; cLg[V] means color lithograph based on visual observations, o in col. 5 means without overlap, that is, the total spectrum length, e means length of each, t total length; col. 6 with the average density R/L refers to the ratio ‘wavelength region [in Å)/length of representation [in cm]’; minimal overlap of adjacent maps were counted twice; R/L thus gives an approximate measure of the scale of representation. Wavelength measurements prior to 1868 have been converted to Å-units for comparison.

Name

Year

Type

λ region R[Å]

Length L [cm]

R/L (Å/cm)

Noteworthy instrumentation

Illustrator or printer

Remarks

Wollaston

1802

1×Lg[V]

(B−H)

c2.7

1110

simple flint glass prism

J. Basire

First drawing indicating dark lines interpreted as color boundaries (’’ primary divisions‘‘)

Fraunhofer

1814/15

1×E[V]

(7610–3900)

36

c.103

prism spectroscope mounted on theodolite, vernier protractor, achromatic telescope 40 x

Fraunhofer

354 dark lines, used as color markers for measurements of refractive index

Brewster (Gladstone)

1833–41 (1860)

2×C[V]

(7610–3900)

2x74 = 148

c.25

prism spectroscope mounted on theodolite

J. Basire

More than 2000 dark lines on 4x Fraunhofer's scale. details in 12 x

B. Powell

1839

E[V]

A-I-(7610–3900)

c.14

c.265

prism spectroscope, achromatic telescope 10 x

B. Powell

Only main lines together with a scale indicating angle of deviation

J. Herschel

1840

Lg

ε-G

(1.4μ-4200)

13

c.250

Fraunhofer glass prism

J. Basire

Thermograph of solar spectrum registered on smoked wet paper incl. heat spots of lines a — s in IF

E. Becquerel

1842

1×lg[P]

X-A-P-(8860–3360)

26.8

c.19

quartz prism, silver bromide emulsion

Dulos

First permanent spectrum photography

J.W. Draper

1843/44

1 E[D]

-γ-P-(9800–3300)

16.8

c.387

silver iodide emulsion

J. Basire

‘Tithonograph’ incl. near IF and UV with α, β, γ

G.G. Stokes

1852

1 E[V]

H-P (4000–3360)

17.5

c.36.5

quartz optics, phosphoro-genic screen

J. Basire

New line groups in the UV

Kirchhoff

K.Hofmann

1861/62 (1866)

4x2Lg[V]on 6lith stones

D-F-; A-D;-G- (7600–4300)

8x33 = 264

12.5

Steinheil 4 flint-glass prism spectrograph

C. Laue (F. Barth)

Arbitrary Kirchhoff scale; first map containing chemical identification of many lines, incl. 70 iron lines

J. Müller

1862

1 P[D]

G-R (4350–3100)

15

c.83

quartz optics, various photosensitive surfaces

J. Muller & v.Babo

Photography of composite drawing based on several UV photographs, varying exposure times

Rutherfurd

1862/63 (1872)

15wCIP (At)

-b-H-5200–3900

210 t

c.6

3 bisulphide of carbon prisms, photographic camera without objective lens

Rutherfurd (Lith. Inst. A.Schiitze)

UV photography that claims 20x resolution compared to Kirchhoff (lithograph in Secchi [1874]), Kirchhoff scale

Mascart

1864

2xLg [wCIP]

G-T. c. 4315–3321

2 x 31.4 = 62.8

c.20

Babinet goniometer, quartz optics, quartz and spar prism. Nobert grating

Dulos

First detailed study of the UV part of the spectrum with c.700 lines

Ångstrom/Thalén

1861/62 (1866)

2 x 2Lg (V + wCIP)

G-H-. c. 4315–3321

4x28 = 112

8.8

single bisulphide of carbon prism of 60°, Steinheil con-densor of c.90 mm aperture and 3 m focal length, electric-arc between iron poles. Bun-sen battery of 50 cells

Schlachter & Seedorff (Stockholm)

Violet and near-UV extension of Kirchhoff [1861/62] with Kirchhoff s numerical scale: comparison with c.460 iron arc spectrum lines

v.d.Willigen

1866

2E[V]

-A-H- 7610–3960

29.3

c.22

3 Nobert gratings. Steinheil prism of 45°. Meyerstein spectrometer

E.Molenaar

Precise wavelength determination of 51 dark lines and comparison of Nobert gratings, map with enumerated main lines, based on prismatic spectrum

Ångstrọm

1868

6 x Lg[V]

-a-H 7320–3933

11 x 32.8 ⋍ 348 t

9.4

Pistor & Martins theodolite spectrometer and Nobert grating with 1331 lines/mm

Gen. Stab. Lith. Inr.

First ‘normal’ spectrum with numerical scale 10-10m [=later |Å|; standard until 1886

Janssen

1870/71

1 E[V]

-C-D-6595–5890

32.4

c.28

5 flint-glass prisms

E. Pérot

Comparison of high and low sun for C and D group

Cornu

1871/74

2 x Se [CIP]

-h-0 4125–3435

33.2+35 = 68.2

10

Nobert grating of 1801 ruled lines, ε = 0.0037mm, flint-glass prisms and Iceland spar

Dulos & C. Legros

Near-UV extension of Ångstrom (in same manner and scale) up to the absorption limit of crown or flint glass

Lamansky

1872

Lg

IF-G-??-4200

c.17.5

c.200

flint-glass and fluorite prisms, thermo-multiplier

A. Schiitze Lith. Anstalt

Rediscovery of Draper's lines α, β, γ in the IF region

H. Draper

1873

2 x At [CIP]

G-O/-H-4350–3440; 4205–3766

28.4 33.8

32 13

Rutherfurd diffraction grating

E.Bierstadt

’’absolutely unretouched … represents the work of the sun itself‘‘

H.C.Russell

1877

1 Lg[V]

-D1-D2-5896–5889

3.5

2

Hilger prism spectroscope

Zoomed comparison of D region in London, Oxford, and Sydney

H.C.Vogel & G. Müller

1879

2 × 8 Lg Lg(V + wCIP)

-E-H2-5405–3895

16 × 30.6 = 489.6

3.1

Schröder spectroscope with 4 Rutherfurd prisms, Hilger micrometer

Gebrüder Burchard

High dispersion map, in the -F-H region based on wet collodion photographs

Abney

1880

3 × Lg [CIP]

A-9830–7600

2 × 41.7+ 37.7 + 34 = 155.6

14.4

Rutherfurd diffraction grating

West Newman & Co.

Near-IF extension of Ångstrom 1868; dyed collodionfilms containing silver bromide

Winlock

1880

l × Lg[V]

b group 5192–5161

12.3

2.5

Rutherfurd diffraction grating

?

Detailed “chart” of b group as a good test group for spectroscopes

Cornu

1880

4 × Lg[P]

-h-U 4125–2948

33.2,35, 31.19.5 118.6t

9.9

Iceland spar prism, Nobert grating and Brunner grating

C. Legros

Further UV extension of Cornu [1874] up to the limit of atmospheric absorption

G.Müller

1881

3 + 1 Lg[V]

-B-H-6950–3900 6600–3900

3 × 33.5 100.5 t 25

30.4 108

Schröder spectrometer, flint-glass prism

Grohmann (Berlin)

Medium and small dispersion for orientation purposes

Lockyer

1881

Ht + LglCIP]

-H-K-4005–3895

43.5

2.5

Rutherfurd diffraction grating

Lith.enl.by Corp.Murray, Ewings

Begun in 1875, resumed around 1880 with Rutherfurd-grating; enlargement done at School of Military Engineering, Chatham

C.P. Smyth (Madeira)

1881/82

17 x 7C

-A-G-

c.7–20

Rutherfurd grating, Hilger optics

W. & A.K. Johnston

Revision of 21 parts in the red half of the visible solar spectrum; ‘symbolic’ drawing

Fievez

1882/83

7 × 3Le[V] on 1 lith. stone

-C-F-6600–4500

7 × 3 × 28.3 = 594.3

3.5

two high-dispersion half prisms. Rutherfurd grating

Gheselle, Lith. de G. Severeyns

High resolution map that resolves bands into distinct lines, but true haze by dotted surface shading

Langley

1883

Lg

-H-Ω-28000–3000

44

568

Hilger flint-glass prism, Rowland concave grating of very short focus, bolometer

A. Schanz

Survey of far-IF region in two different plots (prismatic and normal)

C.P. Smyth Winchester

spectra

1884/87

60 Lg

-A-h-7697–4032

60 × 24.2 = 1452

2.5

Rowland grating of 3.5 × 5′ with 14438 lines/in

W. & A.K. Johnston Edinburgh

Comparative map of Ångström [1868], Cornu (1880), Fievez [1883], and 3 series of Smyth's own ⊙ obs. June-July 1884; printed with 12 different monochromatic backgrounds for different spectrum regions

Abney

1886

A[CIP]

-Z- × XIV 9870–7145

ll × 29.6 + 2.8 328t

8.3

Rowland concave grating in Abney mounting

IF extension of Ångstrom

Thollon

1886/90

33 Se[V]

-A-b-7690–5160

33 × 33.5 1107.5 t 1023o

2.25

Laurent spectroscope with high-dispersion fluid prisms, Gauthier micrometer

C. Legros

Each segment in 4 × representation: sun at 10°, at 30° in normal and dry atmosphere, and without atmospheric lines

Rowland

1886

7 × 2.3)P

5795–3200

89 e c.1000

c.2.8 c.2.2

Large Rowland concave grating, various color filters-

scrolled photograph of the sun's normal spectrum mounted on linen, overlapping orders below 3200 Å and large overlaps in other intervals

Rowland

1888

10 × 2P

6953–2967

91 e c.l200t

3–4

ditto

Jewell, photogr.

2nd series; improved photographic quality, served as international standard, nearly 20 000 lines altogether

Higgs

1888

4 × P

4405–3860

3 × 30 + 1 × 19

c.10

high-dispersion prism, cylindrical lens

Good photographic quality, sharply defined lines

Lommel

1888/90

3 Gbe

Z-B-9500–6870

16e

c.6.6

photography of phosphorescent screen

Lommel L. Fomm

Phosphoro-photography, i.e., photo of screen e × posed to the spectrum (in particular infrared)

C.P. Smyth

1889

2 × 13Gbe

4450–4020 4030–3650

25 e 4m t

2.2

plane Rowland grating

unpubl.

2 enlarged photos of each section for comparison, 13 plates of part 1 replicate pis. 49–61 of C.P. Smyth (1884); pi. 62–74 cover near-UV

McClean

1890

13 × A[P]

7820–2985

35.5 e 461.5 t

c.10.4

Rowland plane grating, absorption screens

Direct Photo Engr.Co.

Comparative photographic spectra of the high and low sun, enlarged 8.5 × from negative

Higgs

1894

c.32 × P

8345–2985

30.5 e, overlap

c.7

concave Rowland grating with 14 438 lines/inch

Higgs

Normal solar spectrum with comparison spectra of superposed order and under different conditions; 1894 full spectrum; 1896 in a ‘consecutive wavelength ed.’

Spée

1899

17 × 2Lg

b-f 5166–4383

c.33e

c.l

same as Thollon

Neirynck, Pepermans & Henrijean

Continuation of Thollon's atlas up to line f

Langley

1900

Lg

-Y-A-53400–7500

8 × 50 400t

115

rock-salt prism, Rowland concave grating, bolometer

A. Hoen & Co. Lith., Baltimore

Normal map of lower IF region in spectral region inaccessible to contemporary photography

(p.468) (p.469)