This chapter begins with a review of classical tomography, which reconstructs hidden structures inside an object by successive transmissions of an X-ray beam at different angles and lateral displacements. By interpreting the Wigner distribution as an analogue of the density distribution in a physical object, the mathematical methods of classical tomography — the Radon transform, the Fourier slice theorem, and the inverse Radon transform — are adapted to perform a high resolution determination of a quantum state of light. In optical homodyne tomography, the classical transmission angle is replaced by the adjustable phase of a local oscillator, and the successive lateral displacements are replaced by a series of measurements of the quadrature operator defined by the local oscillator phase. Experimental data is presented showing various properties of the Wigner distribution for a coherent state.
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