Experimental Study Of Thermodynamic Properties
This chapter is devoted to the experimental study of the various low-frequency compliances relating the electric displacement, entropy, and strain to the electric field, temperature, and stress which characterize a ferroelectric, along with measurement of the spontaneous polarization. In view of the enormous growth of experimental data on a large number of ferroelectrics in recent years, particular reference is made only to a few materials which adequately demonstrate the techniques and principles with respect to thermodynamics. The starting point for the experimental study of ferroelectricity is the preparation of single crystals which are both single domain electrically and untwinned crystallographically. This chapter looks at poling, experimental constraints, measurements of small-signal dielectricity and pyroelectricity, electrocaloric effect, specific heat, thermal expansion, elastic constants, piezoelectricity, high-pressure studies, and the effect of high electric fields.
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