This chapter concentrates on the classic measurements of nucleon spin structure made using inclusive polarized deep inelastic scattering. A short account is given of the ‘spin crisis’ — how early measurements did not support the simple quark model prediction that the valence quarks would carry most of the nucleon's spin. Current data on polarized structure functions is then summarised. A section on theory outlines the operator product expansion for the polarized case, spin sum rules, and the axial anomaly. This last is the key to a deeper understanding of the ‘spin crisis’. The polarized analogues of the DGLAP evolution equations are then outlined, focusing on their use for extracting polarized quark and gluon momentum densities. The remaining sections cover: semi-inclusive polarized DIS; how better information might be gained on the polarized gluon density; and a short mention of transverse spin. An appendix gives a summary of the formalism for polarized DIS.
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