Conclusion: Multi-Level Problem-Solving in Europe
This chapter returns to the issue of democratic legitimacy. Even though European institutions in their present shape are able to convey output-oriented legitimacy, the policies that can in fact be adopted under these conditions are limited in their problem-solving capacity. However, these European policies do contribute to a ‘democratic deficit’ at the national level as governments find themselves increasingly constrained by the legal rules of negative integration and by the economic competition among national systems of regulation. It seems worth exploring, therefore, whether this regulatory competition could itself be regulated by the evolution of a European ‘law of unfair regulatory competition’.
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