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Regimes, Politics, and MarketsDemocratization and Economic Change in Southern and Eastern Europe$

José María Maravall

Print publication date: 1997

Print ISBN-13: 9780198280835

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198280835.001.0001

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(p.245) Appendix 1 The Impact of Economies on Regimes: A Chronology of Comparative Quantitative Studies

(p.245) Appendix 1 The Impact of Economies on Regimes: A Chronology of Comparative Quantitative Studies

Source:
Regimes, Politics, and Markets
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Seymour Martin Lipset, ‘Some Social Requisites of Democracy: Economic Development and Political Legitimacy’, American Political Science Review, 53 (1959). Study of 46 European, English-speaking, and Latin American countries. Conclusion: positive effect of thirteen indices of development on democracy.

James S. Coleman, ‘Conclusion: The Political Systems of Developing Areas’, in Gabriel A. Almond and James S. Coleman (eds.), The Politics of Developing Areas (Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 1960). Study of 75 countries. Conclusion: positive effect of development on democracy.

Phillips Cutright, ‘National Political Development: Measurement and Analysis’, American Sociological Review, 28 (1963). Study of 77 countries between 1940 and 1961. Conclusion: positive effect of development on democracy.

Bruce M. Russett, Trends in World Politics (New York, Macmillan, 1965). Study of 89 countries. Conclusion: positive effect of development on democracy.

Deane E. Neubauer, ‘Some Conditions of Democracy’, American Political Science Review, 61 (1967). Study of 23 countries. Conclusion: weak effect of development (through the expansion of communications).

Donald J. McCrone and Charles F. Cnudde, ‘Toward A Communications Theory of Democratic Political Development: A Causal Model’, American Political Science Review, 61 (1967). Re-examination of Cutright's data for 77 countries. Conclusion: positive effect of development on democracy, through the spread of communications due to education and urbanization.

Marvin E. Olsen, ‘Multivariate Analysis of National Political Development’, American Sociological Review, 33 (1968). Study of 115 countries. Conclusion: positive effect of development on democracy.

Phillips Cutright and James A. Wiley, ‘Modernization and Political Representation: 1927–1966’, Studies in Comparative International Development, 5 (1969). Study of 40 countries between 1927 and 1966. Conclusion: positive effect, albeit mediated by the level of literacy and social security provision. (p.246)

Arthur K. Smith, ‘Socioeconomic Development and Political Democracy: A Causal Analysis’, Midwest Journal of Political Science, 13 (1969). Study of 110 countries between 1946 and 1955. Conclusion: positive effect of development on democracy, except in sub-Saharan Africa.

Gilbert R. Winham, ‘Political Development and Lerner's Theory: Further Test of a Causal Model’, American Political Science Review, 64 (1970). Longitudinal study of the United States. Conclusion: positive effect of development on democracy, above all through education and communications.

Arthur S. Banks, ‘Modernization and Political Change: The Latin American and Amer-European Nations’, Comparative Political Studies, 2 (1970). Study of 36 countries between 1868 and 1963. Conclusion: positive effect of development on democracy.

Robert A. Dahl, Polyarchy (New Haven, Conn., Yale University Press, 1971). Study of 144 countries around 1969. Conclusion: positive effect of development on democracy.

William Flanigan and Edwin Fogelman, ‘Patterns of Political Development and Democratization: A Quantitative Analysis’, in John V. Gillespie and Betty A. Nesvold (eds.), Macro-Quantitative Analysis: Conflict, Development and Democratization (Beverly Hills, Calif, Sage, 1971). Study of 29 countries between 1800 and 1960. Conclusion: positive effect, in terms of both stability and persistence, of development on democracy.

Robert W. Jackman, ‘On the Relation of Economic Development to Democratic Performance’, American Journal of Political Science, 17 (1973). Study of 60 countries. Conclusion: positive effect, but in a curvilinear relation.

Philip Coulter, Social Mobilization and Liberal Democracy (Lexington, Mass., Lexington Books, 1975). Study of 85 countries. Conclusion: positive effect of development on democracy.

Kenneth A. Bollen, ‘Political Democracy and the Timing of Development’, American Sociological Review, 44 (1979). Study of 99 countries. Conclusion: positive effect of development on democracy.

George M. Thomas, Francisco O. Ramirez, John W. Meyer, and Jeanne G. Gobalet, ‘Maintaining National Boundaries in the World System: The Rise of Centralist Regimes’, in John W. Meyer and Michael T. Hannan (eds.), National Development and the World System (Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1979). Study of 102 countries between 1950 and 1965 and between 1960 and 1975. Conclusion: positive effect of development on democracy.

Kenneth A. Bollen, ‘Issues in the Comparative Measurement of Political Democracy’, American Sociological Review, 45/3 (1980). Data on 113 countries in 1960 and 123 in 1965. Conclusion: positive effect of development on democracy.

Larry Diamond, ‘The Social Foundations of Democracy: The Case of Nigeria’, Ph.D. thesis (Stanford University, 1980). Calculations referring to 123 countries. Conclusion: positive effect of development on democracy.

Michael T. Hannan and Glenn R. Carroll, ‘Dynamics of Formal Political (p.247) Structure: An Event-History Analysis’, American Sociological Review, 46 (1981). Study of 90 countries between 1950 and 1975. Conclusion: development stabilizes dictatorships.

G. Bingham Powell Jr., Contemporary Democracies: Participation, Stabil ity and Violence (Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 1982). Data for 29 countries between 1965 and 1972. Conclusion: positive effect of development on democracy.

Kenneth A. Bollen and Robert W. Jackman, ‘World System Position, Dependency and Democracy: The Cross-National Evidence’, American Sociological Review, 48 (1983). Conclusion: if countries are situated on the periphery or semi-periphery of the world economy, the effect of development on democracy is less probable.

Samuel P. Huntington, ‘Will More Countries Become Democratic?’, Political Science Quarterly, 99/2 (1984). Study of 120 countries in 1981. Conclusion: development promotes democratization.

Kenneth A. Bollen and Robert W. Jackman, ‘Economic and Non-Economic Determinants of Political Democracy in the 1960s’, Research in Political Sociology, 1 (1985). Study of 109 countries between 1960 and 1965. Conclusion: positive effect of development on democracy, but in a curvilinear relation.

Glaucio A. D. Soares, ‘Desenvolvimento economico e democracia na America Latina’, Dados, 30 (1987). Study of countries in Western Europe, the English-speaking world, and Latin America. Conclusion: development has effects on democracy in the first two regions, but not in the third.

Zehra F. Arat, ‘Democracy and Economic Development: Modernization Theory Revisited’, Comparative Politics, 21/1 (1988). Study of 130 countries between 1948 and 1977. Conclusion: the level of development is not a sufficient condition for democratization.

John F. Helliwell, ‘Empirical Linkages between Democracy and Economic Growth’, NBER Working Paper no. 4066 (Cambridge, Mass., National Bureau of Economic Research, 1992). Study of 90 countries between 1960 and 1985. Conclusion: positive effect of development on democracy.

Larry Diamond, ‘Economic Development and Democracy Reconsidered’, in Gary Marks and Larry Diamond (eds.), Reexamining Democracy (Newbury Park, Calif., Sage Publications, 1992). Study of 142 countries between 1989 and 1990. Conclusion: positive effect of development on democracy.

Seymour M. Lipset, Kyoung-Ryung Seong, and John C. Torres, ‘A Comparative Analysis of the Social Requisites of Democracy’, International Social Science Journal, 136 (1993). Study of 104 countries in 1960, 1965, 1975, 1980, and 1985. Conclusion: positive effect of development on democracy.

Adam Przeworski and Fernando Limongi, ‘Modernization: Theories and Facts’ (unpublished manuscript, 1994). Study of 139 countries between 1950 and 1990. Conclusion: development is irrelevant for the establishment of democracies, but the growth rate is crucial for the survival of regimes.

(p.248) Ross E. Burkhart and Michael S. Lewis-Beck, ‘Comparative Democracy: The Economic Development Thesis’, American Political Science Review, 88/4 (1994). Study of 131 countries between 1972 and 1989. Conclusion: the level of economic development improves the prospects for democracy.