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Electoral Systems and Party SystemsA Study of Twenty-Seven Democracies, 1945-1990$

Arend Lijphart

Print publication date: 1994

Print ISBN-13: 9780198273479

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198273479.001.0001

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(p.163) Appendix C: Data: Sources, Additions, Corrections, Clarifications

(p.163) Appendix C: Data: Sources, Additions, Corrections, Clarifications

Source:
Electoral Systems and Party Systems
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

With the exceptions to be noted below, the data used for this study can all be found in the following basic and easily accessible sources: Thomas T. Mackie and Richard Rose, The International Almanac of Electoral History (3rd edn., London: Macmillan, 1991); Thomas T. Mackie, ‘General Elections in Western Nations During 1989’, European Journal of Political Research, 19 (1991), 157–62; Thomas T. Mackie, ‘General Elections in Western Nations During 1990’, European Journal of Political Research, 21 (1992), 317–32; T. T. Mackie and F. W. S. Craig, Europe Votes 2:European Parliamentary Election Results 1979–1984 (Chichester, West Sussex: Parliamentary Research Services, 1985); T. T. Mackie, Europe Votes 3: European Parliamentary Election Results 1989 (Aldershot, Hants: Dartmouth, 1990).

However, several additions, corrections, and clarifications must be noted. I shall organize these by country and by election year. The main additions are the votes and seats data for the ten elections held in Costa Rica from 1953 to 1990 and for the eight elections held in India from 1952 to 1984. (1 December 1990 is the cut-off date for the purpose of this study, which means that the December 1990 elections in Denmark and Germany were excluded. Moreover, the November 1989 election in India had to be excluded because of the lack of comparable data.)

All of the indices used in this study (the indices of bias and the effective numbers of parties) are calculated on the basis of the raw numbers of votes and seats, rather than the vote and seat percentages supplied in the above data sources, because these percentages are given to only a single decimal place—which is not accurate enough for the calculation of the indices. Numbers of votes and seats won by parties are corrected only if they entail substantial errors. Incorrect numbers are presented in square brackets. Small errors in the sources, such as ‘0’ votes or seats which should have been ‘—’ (indicating, for instance, that the party did not participate in the election) or vice versa, are ignored, since they do not influence the calculation of the indices. Where the reported total of ‘valid votes’ deviates from the total of the votes received by the parties, I used (p.164) the latter figure. Most of the corrections listed below were supplied by Thomas T. Mackie.

Finally, clarifications are necessary in all cases in which it is not obvious to which particular parties numbers of votes and seats belong, such as when parties present joint lists.

Australia

1951–5: I counted only the contested seats won by the Labour, Country, and Liberal Parties. Hence the seat totals in these three elections are 118, 114, and 112 respectively.

1975–83: The votes received by the Country-Liberal Party (no. 26 in the Almanac) in these four elections were added to those of the National Party (no. 7).

1984: The votes received by the Country-Liberal Party (no. 26) were added to those of the Liberal Party (no. 18).

Austria

1983: United Greens of Austria (no. 13) 93,798 [93,766] votes; others 9,765 [9,777] votes.

Belgium

1946, 1950–8: The votes received by the Liberal/Socialist cartels (no. 5) in these four elections were split equally between the Liberal Party (no. 2) and the Socialist Party (no. 3), as recommended by Keith Hill.1

1968: Liberal Party (no. 2) 1,081,079 [—] votes and 47 [—] seats.

1971: The Liberal Party (no. 2) did not split until 1972; hence the Party of Liberty and Progress (no. 21), Francophone Liberals (no. 22), and Brussels Liberal Party (no. 23) were counted as one party receiving 868,842 votes and 34 seats.

1974: I added the 3 seats won by Brussels Liberal Party (no. 23) to the 9 won by the Francophone Democratic Front (no. 14) because they were in an electoral alliance, the votes of which are reported under the latter.

1977: Francophone Liberals (no. 22) 328,567 [328,608] votes; Others 12,375 [12,334] votes.

1978: Communist Party (no. 10) 181,931 [181,921] votes; Flemish Block (no. 29) 76,051 [75,864] votes; Others 26,075 [21,262] votes.

1981: Communist Party (no. 10) 138,526 [138,992] votes; Others 57,309 [57,763] votes.

(p.165) Canada

1953 and 1957: Only the contested seats won by the Liberal Party and Others were counted; hence the seat totals for these two elections are 261 and 263.

1980: Communist Party (no. 6) 6,022 [6,002] votes.

Costa Rica2

1953: Results of the 26 July 1953 election:

VOTES

SEATS

National Liberation

114,043

30

Democratic

37,322

11

Independent National Republican

12,696

3

National Union

12,069

1

Total

176,130

45

1958: Results of the 2 February 1958 election:

VOTES

SEATS

National Liberation

86,081

20

Republican

46,171

11

National Union

44,125

10

Independent Party

20,314

3

Revolutionary Civic Union

6,855

1

Others

2,970

0

Total

206,516

45

1962: Results of the 4 February 1962 election:

VOTES

SEATS

National Liberation

184,135

29

Republican

126,249

18

National Union

50,021

9

Popular Democratic Action

9,256

1

Solidarity Action

3,358

0

Others

3,918

0

Total

376,937

57

1966: Results of the 6 February 1966 election:

VOTES

SEATS

National Liberation

202,891

29

National Unification

178,905

26

Revolutionary Civic Union

22,721

2

Democratic

8,543

0

Guanacaste Republican

1,577

0

Total

414,637

57

(p.166) 1970: Results of the 1 February 1970 election:

VOTES

SEATS

National Liberation

269,038

32

National Unification

190,387

22

Socialist Action

29,133

2

National Front

16,392

0

Christian Democratic

13,489

1

National Union

6,105

0

Costa Rican Renewal Movement

3,279

0

Others

2,602

0

Total

530,425

57

1974: Results of the 3 February 1974 election:

VOTES

SEATS

National Liberation

271,867

27

National Unification

164,323

16

Independent National

66,222

6

Democratic Renewal

51,082

3

National Republican

32,475

1

Socialist Action

29,310

2

Democratic

14,161

1

Christian Democratic

13,688

0

Cartago Farmers' Union

8,074

1

Costa Rican Socialist

6,032

0

Others

7,730

0

Total

664,964

57

1978: Results of the 5 February 1978 election:

VOTES

SEATS

Unity Coalition

356,215

27

National Liberation

318,904

25

United People‧s Coalition

62,865

3

United People‧s Coalition

62,865

3

National Unification

25,824

0

Costa Rican Popular Front

12,834

1

Republican Union

8,215

0

Cartago Farmers' Union

7,887

1

Independent National

6,673

0

Independent Party

5,774

0

Socialist Workers 'Organization

4,059

0

Others

11,310

0

Total

820,560

57

(p.167) 1982: Result of the 7 February 1982 election:

VOTES

SEATS

National Liberation

527,231

33

Unity Coalition

277,998

18

United People's Coalition

61,465

4

National Movement

34,437

1

Alajuela Democratic Action

12,486

1

National Democratic

11,575

0

Cartago Farmers' Union

7,235

0

Costa Rican Concord

5,014

0

Independent Party

4,671

0

Others

13,878

0

Total

955,990

57

1986: Result of the 2 February 1986 election:

VOTES

SEATS

National Liberation

560,694

29

Christian Social Unity

485,860

25

United People's Coalition

31,685

1

Popular Alliance

28,551

1

Christian National Alliance

19,972

0

Cartago Farmers' Union

13,575

1

National Republican

10,598

0

Generaleña Union

4,402

0

Alajuela Democratic Action

4,324

0

Others

12,538

0

Total

1,172,199

57

1990: Results of the 4 February 1990 election:

VOTES

SEATS

Christian Social Unity

617,478

29

National Liberation

559,632

25

United People's Coalition

44,161

1

Generaleña Union

32,292

1

Christian National Alliance

22,154

0

Cartago Farmers' Union

14,190

1

Independent National

10,643

0

Progress

7,733

0

Alajuela Solidarity

7,330

0

Independent Party

5,566

0

Others

14,993

0

Total

1,336,172

57

(p.168) Denmark

1973–7: The seats won by the Schleswig Party (no. 8) in these three elections were added to those of the Centre Democrats (no. 20) since the former's candidates were included in the latter‧s lists.

Germany

1969: Others 71,330 [72,330] votes.

1972: Christian Democratic Union (no. 36) 13,190,837 [16,806,020] votes; Others 27,223 [27,233] votes.

1976: Christian Democratic Union (no. 36) 14,367,302 [18,394,801] votes.

1980: Christian Democratic Union (no. 36) 12,989,200 [16,897,659] votes.

1987: Christian Democratic Union (no. 36) 13,045,745 [16,761,572] votes; Free Democrats (no. 38) 3,440,911 [3,449,686] votes.

1979 European election: Christian Democratic Union (no. 1) 32 [35] seats; Total 78 [81] seats. Note: these adjustments are necessary in order to correct errors in the reported Christian Democratic Union candidates elected and to exclude the 3 indirectly elected Berlin deputies.

1984 European election (excluding the 3 indirectly elected Berlin deputies): Christian Democratic Union (no. 1) 32 [34] seats; Social Democratic Party (no. 2) 32 [33] seats; Total 78 [81] seats.

1989 European election (excluding the 3 indirectly elected Berlin deputies): Social Democratic Party (no. 1) 30 [31] seats; Christian Democratic Union 24 [25] seats; Greens 7 [8] seats; Total 78 [81] seats.

Greece

1974: The Communist Party (no. 4), United Democratic Left (no. 25), and Communist Party (Interior) (no. 35) were counted as one party, winning 8 seats.

1977: The United Democratic Left (no. 25), Communist Party (Interior) (no. 35), and Christian Democracy (no. 33) were counted as one party, winning 2 seats.

India

The following election results are based on the excellent and extremely detailed data handbook by V. B. Singh and Shankar Bose; I also follow their abbreviations of party names.3 The results are given separately for all parties that received at least 0.5 per cent of the total valid vote and/or that won more than one seat. Most of the votes received by ‘others’ are votes cast not for minor parties but for independent candidates. Only votes cast for, and candidates elected to, contested seats were counted. (p.169) (The number of uncontested seats ranged from 1 to 12 in the eight elections, with an average of 4.4.) In 1952, there were 86 two-member districts and one three-member district in which each voter had, respectively, 2 and 3 votes; the votes cast in these districts were divided by 2 (or by 3 in the one three-member district). The same adjustment was made for the 91 two-member districts in the 1957 election.

1952: Result of the 1952 (25 October 1951 to 21 February 1952) election:

VOTES

SEATS

INC

35,944,791

357

SOC

8,336,515

12

KMPP

4,588,700

8

CPI

2,764,610

16

BJS

2,318,817

3

RRP

1,401,774

3

SCF

1,282,972

2

PDF

939,626

7

HMS

868,893

4

KLP

865,769

1

PWP

736,124

2

SAD

665,031

1

FBM

658,130

1

GP

594,256

5

JKD

512,793

3

TNT

506,374

4

RSP

338,637

3

COMW

266,321

3

LSS

154.970

2

Others

15,627,140

2

Total

79,372,243

479

1957: Result of the 24 February to 9 June 1957 election:

VOTES

SEATS

INC

43,073,083

359

PSP

9,513,654

19

CPI

8,082,852

27

BJS

5,192,666

4

SCF

1,258,684

6

GP

784,082

7

HMS

728,835

1

PWP

725,301

4

PDF

711,136

2

JKD

610,764

6

FBM

514,854

2

CSJ

414,861

3

Others

18,123,005

42

Total

89,733,777

482

1962: Result of the 16 February to 6 June 1962 election:

VOTES

SEATS

INC

51,509,084

358

CPI

11,450,037

29

SWA

9,085,252

18

PSP

7,848,345

12

BJS

7,415,170

14

RPI

3,255,985

3

SOC

3,099,397

6

DMK

2,315,610

7

SAD

829,129

3

FBL

826,588

2

HMS

747,861

1

PWP

703,582

0

RRP

688,990

2

JKD

467,338

3

RSP

451,717

2

MUL

417,761

2

GP

342,970

4

LSS

281,755

2

Others

13,432,319

23

Total

115,168,890

491

1967: Result of the 15–28 February 1967 election:

VOTES

SEATS

INC

59,490,701

279

BJS

13,640,677

35

SWA

12,646,847

44

CPI

7,225,163

23

SSP

7,171,627

23

CPM

6,479,755

19

DMK

5,529,405

25

PSP

4,456,487

13

RPI

3,607,711

1

BAC

1,204,356

5

PWP

1,028,755

2

ADS

968,712

3

FBL

627,910

2

MUL

413,868

2

Others

21,374,536

39

Total

145,866,510

515

1971: Result of the 1–13 March 1971 election:

VOTES

SEATS

INC

64,040,246

351

NCO

15,279,051

16

BJS

10,786,921

22

CPM

7,510,889

25

CPI

6,935,627

23

DMK

5,622,758

23

SWA

4,498,188

8

SSP

3,554,839

3

BKD

3,190,321

1

TPS

1,873,589

10

PSP

1,526,076

2

SAD

1,279,873

1

UTC

1,053,176

1

FBL

962,971

2

PWP

7,41,535

0

KEC

542,431

3

RSP

457,815

3

MUL

416,545

2

Others

16,329,425

21

Total

146,602,276

517

1977: Result of the 16–20 March 1977 election:

VOTES

SEATS

BLD

78,062,828

295

INC

65,211,589

152

CPM

8,113,659

22

ADK

5,579,043

19

CPI

5,322,088

7

NCO

3,252,217

3

DMK

3,224,654

1

SAD

2,373,331

9

PWP

1,030,232

5

RPK

956,072

2

RSP

851,164

4

FBL

633,644

3

MUL

565,007

2

KEC

491,674

2

JKN

483,192

2

Others

12,767,110

12

Total

188,917,504

540

1980: Result of the 3–6 January 1980 election:

VOTES

SEATS

INCI

84,455,313

353

JNP

37,493,334

31

JNPS

18,611,590

41

CPM

12,156,988

36

INCU

10,450,405

13

CPI

5,122,685

11

ADK

4,674,064

2

DMK

4,236,537

16

SAD

1,396,412

1

RSP

1,285,517

4

FBL

1,011,564

3

JKN

493,143

2

MUL

475,507

2

Others

15,961,215

13

Total

197,824,274

528

1984: Result of the 24–8 December 1984 election:

INC

120,108,318

414

BJP

18,446,147

2

JNP

16,630,596

10

CPM

14,287,111

22

LKD

14,095,890

3

TDP

10,132,859

30

CPI

6,733,117

6

DMK

5,695,179

2

ICS

4,035,082

5

ADK

3,968,967

12

SAD

2,577,279

7

AGP

2,505,377

7

ICG

1,510,900

1

RSP

1,173,869

3

FBL

1,055,556

2

JKN

1,010,243

3

MUL

658,821

2

KCJ

598,113

2

Others

24,636,465

8

Total

249,879,889

541

(p.170) (p.171) (p.172)

(p.173) Ireland

1948–89: The one uncontested seat (that of the Speaker) was subtracted from the relevant party's seats and from the seat totals in all fourteen elections.

1977: Others 88,482 [88,668] votes.

1979–89 European elections: Independents (no. 8) were regarded as ‘Others’.

Israel

1949: Agudat Israel (no. 8), Poalei Agudat Israel (no. 9), Mizrachi (no. 10), and Hapoel Ha'mizrachi (no. 11) were counted as one party (the United Religious Front), winning 16 seats.

1955, 1959, 1973, and 1988: Agudat Israel (no. 8) and Poalei Agudat Israel (no. 9) were counted as one party, winning 6 seats in 1955 and 1959 and 5 seats in 1973 and 1988.

1959: The errors in the votes and seats figures can be corrected, for the purposes of this analysis, by attributing seats to parties as follows: Achdut Ha'avoda (no. 18) 9 [8] seats; Minority Lists (no. 6) 5 [4] seats; Mapam (no. 7) 7 [9] seats.

1961.: Minority Lists (no. 6) 35,376 [35,356] votes and 4 [5] seats; Mapam (no. 7) 8 [7] seats.

1977: Others 42,573 [46,969] votes.

1981: Agudat Israel (no. 8) 72,312 [73,312] votes; Others 46,367 [51,535] votes.

1984: Other 56,548 [94,560] votes. Tehiya (no. 40) and Tsomet (no. 46) were counted as one party, winning 5 seats.

1988: Others 55,424 [27,012] votes.

Italy

1946: Others 595,539 [697,932] votes.

1948: Others 284,081 [—] votes. The Communist Party (no. 11) and the Socialist Party (no. 3) were counted as one party, winning 183 seats.

1976: Liberal Party (no. 19) 478,185 [4,478,185] votes; MSI (no. 24) 2,244,113 [224,113] votes; Others 84,593 [84,553] votes. Proletarian Unity (no. 32), Continuous Struggle (no. 35), and Workers' Vanguard (no. 36) were counted as one party, winning 6 seats.

1979: Proletarian Democracy (no. 37) 294,462 [—] votes; Trieste List (no. 39) 65,937 [65,637] votes; Others 310,897 [605,359] votes.

1983: The Communist Party (no. 11) and Proletarian Unity (no. 32) were counted as one party, winning 198 seats.

1984 European election: Venetian League (no. 12) 0 [1] seat.

(p.174) Japan

1946: Adjusted results of the 10 April 1946 election, based on data provided by Sadafumi Kawato, Faculty of Law, Hokkaido University (votes in districts with 2 votes per voter divided by 2, and in districts with 3 votes per voter divided by 3):

VOTES

SEATS

Liberal

5,694,321

140

Progressive

4,516,044

94

Socialist

4,187,118

93

Communist

872,879

5

Co-operative

728,698

14

Constitutional Promotion

223,426

0

Hokkaido Alliance

138,992

3

Miyagi Local

102,212

3

Nikko Democratic

101,616

4

Co-operative Democratic

100,993

2

Agricultural

75,050

2

Japan Agricultural

33,507

2

Others (including independents)

6,858,828

102

Total

23,633,684

464

Luxembourg

1948 and 1951: The two partial elections held in these years were treated as one regular election.

1989: Liberal Party (no. 14) — [11] seats; Democratic Party (no. 16) 11 [—] seats.

Malta

1950: Labour Party (no. 3) 29,850 [30,332] votes; Nationalist Party (no. 5) 31,945 [31,431] votes; Jones Party (no. 6) 852 [—] votes; Democratic Action Party (no. 7) 6,329 [6,361] votes; Others 1,953 [2,805] votes.

1951: Constitutional Party (no. 1) 9,150 [9,151] votes; Labour Party (no. 3) 40,208 [40,315] votes; Jones Party (no. 6) 957 [—] votes; Malta Workers' Party (no. 9) 21,158 [21,053] votes; Others 1,206 [2,163] votes.

1953: Constitutional Party (no. 1) 1,374 [1,385] votes; Progressive Constitutional Party (no. 10) 5,128 [5,117] votes.

(p.175) 1966: Christian Workers' Party (no. 11) 8,594 [8,561] votes; Democratic Nationalist Party II (no. 12) 1,845 [1,878] votes.

1971: Labour Party (no. 3) 85,515 [85,448] votes; Nationalist Party (no. 5) 80,686 [80,753] votes.

Netherlands

1979 European election: Labour Party (no. 1) 9 [10] seats; Christian Democratic Appeal (no. 2) 10 [9] seats.

1989 European election: Christian Democratic Appeal (no. 1) 1,813,935 [1,813,035] votes; God With Us (no. 10) 18,854 [28,854] votes.

Norway

1949–81: The votes received by the Joint Non-Socialist Lists (no. 13) were allocated to each of the participating parties according to its percentage share (the difference between its total estimated vote percentage and its ‘own’ vote percentage) as given in Table 19.5b of the Mackie—Rose International Almanac.

1953: Farmers'/Centre (no. 7) estimated vote percentage 9.0 per cent [9.9 per cent]

1981: Christian People's Party (no. 10) estimated vote percentage 9.4 per cent [no estimated percentage indicated].

Portugal

1975–87: Since the votes do not include the votes cast by Portuguese citizens residing abroad, the seats won by their representatives must be subtracted from the seat numbers won by the different parties. This reduces the seat totals to 247 [250] in 1975, 259 [263] in 1976, and 246 [250] in the subsequent five elections.

1979 and 1980: The parties belonging to the Democratic Alliance were regarded as one party, winning 125 seats in 1979 and 131 seats in 1980. 1979–85: The parties belonging to the United People's Alliance were regarded as one party, winning 47 seats in 1979, 41 in 1980, 44 in 1983, and 38 in 1985.

1980: The parties belonging to the Republican Socialist Front were regarded as one party, winning 73 seats.

1983: The Popular Democratic Union (no. 7) and the Revolutionary Socialist Party (no. 12) were counted as one party, winning 65,189 votes and 0 seats. Others 42,541 [67,561] votes.

1987: The parties belonging to the United Democratic Coalition were counted as one party, winning 31 seats.

(p.176) Spain

1977: The seat won by the Andalusian Socialists (no. 35) was added to the 5 seats won by the Popular Socialist Party (no. 32) with which it had an alliance (Socialist Unity). The Catalan Centre Party (no. 37) and the Democratic Union of Catalonia (no. 38) were counted as one party, winning 2 seats.

1986: The Popular Alliance (no. 29), Popular Democrats (no. 51), and the Liberal Party (no. 52) were counted as one party (Popular Coalition), winning 105 seats.

1989 European election: Nationalist Coalition (no. 9) 1 [2] seat.

Sweden

1985: The Centre Party (no. 7) and the Christian Democratic Union (no. 20) were counted as one party, winning 44 seats.

Switzerland

1947–71, 1979, 1987: Only the contested seats were counted in these nine elections, reducing the seat totals by 2 to 7 seats.

1951: Social Democrats (no. 5) 49(2) [49] seats; Total 196(4) [196(2)] seats.

1955: Social Democrats (no. 5) 53(2) [53] seats; Total 196(4) [196(2)] seats.

1963: Christian Democrats (no. 1) 48(1) [48] seats; Social Democrats (no. 5) 53(2) [53(1)] seats; Total 200(6) [200(4)] seats.

1967: Christian Democrats (no. 1) 45(1) [45] seats; Social Democrats (no. 5) 51(3) [51(1)] seats; Total 200(7) [200(4)] seats.

1971: Christian Democrats (no. 1) 44(1) [44] seats; Radical Democrats (no. 4) 49(1) [49] seats; Total 200(2) [200] seats.

1987: Protestant People's Party (no. 8) 37,263 [—] votes.

United Kingdom

1945: Only the votes cast and candidates elected in the contested 598 single-member and 15 two-member districts were counted, and the results in the 3 uncontested single-member districts and in the 4 STV districts (with a total of 9 seats) were disregarded.

Moreover, the votes cast in the two-member districts, in which each voter had 2 votes, were divided by 2.4 The results are as follows.

VOTES

SEATS

1.

Conservative

8,819,150

195

2.

Liberal

2,176,066

12

5.

Independent Labour

46,769

3

6.

Labour

11,551,547

391

7.

United Ireland

92,819

2

10.

Communist

97,945

2

11.

Scottish National

26,707

0

12.

Plaid Cymru

16,017

0

14.

National Liberal

686,652

11

Others

468,179

12

Total

23,981,851

628

.

(p.177) 1950 and 1951: Only the contested seats were counted in these elections, reducing the seats won by the Conservative Party (no. 1) as well as the total number of seats by 2 in 1950 and by 4 in 1951.

1966: Plaid Cymru (no. 12) 61,071 [6,107,199] votes.

1974 (October): Others 114,838 [143,838] votes.

1983 and 1987: The Alliance was counted as one party in these elections, and the separate votes and seats figures for the Liberal Party (no. 3) and the Social Democratic Party (no. 20) were disregarded.

1979–89 European Elections: Only the votes cast and seats won in te 78 British single-member districts were counted, and the votes and seats in the Northern Ireland three members STV district were disregarded.5 Independent candidates were classified as Others.

1984 European election: The Liberal Party (no. 11) and the Social Democratic Party (no. 14) were counted as one party, winning 2,591,635 votes and 0 seats.

Notes:

(1.) Keith Hill, ‘Belgium: Political Change in a Segmented Society’, in Richard Rose (ed.), Electoral Behavior: A Comparative Handbook (New York: Free Press, 1974), 101–2. See also Wilfried Dewachter, ‘Changes (p.194) in a Particratie: The Belgian Party System from 1944 to 1986’, in Hans Daalder (ed.), Party Systems in Denmark, Austria, Switzerland, the Netherlands, and Belgium (London: Frances Pinter, 1987), 294–5.

(2.) The results of the ten elections from 1953 to 1990 are based on the seven official volumes of statistics entitled Computo de votos y declaratorias de elección para Presidente y Vicepresidentes, Diputados a la Asamblea Legislativa, Regidores y Sίndicos Municipales (San José: Tribunal Supremo de Elecciones, República de Costa Rica), published since 1969.

(3.) V. B. Singh and Shankar Bose, Elections in India: Data Handbook on Lok Sabha Elections, 1952–85 (New Delhi: Sage, 1986). See also David Butler, Ashok Lahiri, and Prannoy Roy, India Decides: Elections 1952–1991 (New Delhi: Living Media India, 1991).

(4.) The adjusted numbers of votes are based on the constituency-level data in F. W. S. Craig (ed.), British Parliamentary Election Results, 1918–1949 (London: Macmillan, 1977).

(5.) Since the 1979 European election result as presented in Europe Votes 2 includes Northern Ireland and since the Northern Ireland votes and seats are not provided separately in this volume, they have to be subtracted on the basis of the Northern Ireland data supplied in F. W. S. Craig and T. T. Mackie, Europe Votes 1: European Parliamentary Election Results 1979 (Chichester, West Sussex: Parliamentary Research Services, 1980), 126–7.