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The Zoroastrian DiasporaReligion and Migration$

John R. Hinnells

Print publication date: 2005

Print ISBN-13: 9780198267591

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198267591.001.0001

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(p.741) Appendix 2 Survey Data

(p.741) Appendix 2 Survey Data

Source:
The Zoroastrian Diaspora
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

(p.742)

Table 1: The Global Data

Table 1 (1) Where respondents came from (%)

Previous county of residence

London

UK

Hong Kong

Present abode Karachi

Chicago

California

Houston

New York

USA

Toronto

Canada

Melbourne

Sydney

Kenya

Iran

6

2

0

NA

11

40

10

8

9

4

6

3

7

NA

Bombay

52

42

51

NA

60

32

35

67

51

54

53

74

54

NA

Rest of India

11

13

26

NA

12

12

16

11

17

8

16

11

22

NA

East Africa

17

18

0

NA

1

0

0

0

0

6

3

0

0

NA

Pakistan

10

6

0

NA

5

6

31

2

10

12

2

0

12

NA

China

0

2

13

NA

0

0

0

3

0

0

0

3

3

NA

London

2

14

2

NA

4

2

6

6

6

13

20

3

1

NA

UK

0

2

0

NA

4

2

0

1

4

2

0

6

0

NA

Canada

1

0

4

NA

2

5

0

2

2

0

0

0

0

NA

USA

1

1

2

NA

1

1

2

0

0

1

0

0

1

NA

Australia

0

0

0

NA

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

NA

[N=]

[198]

[203]

[47]

[83]

[128]

[49]

[101]

[175]

[206]

[90]

[70]

[100]

Missing observations = 336.

Figures are not given for Karachi or Kenya because they are ‘Not Appropriate’ (NA) on this table because respondents had been born there. The sample size for Kenya is so small that percentages need to be viewed with great caution on every table. They at most indicate only a broad trend. In charts UK/USA/Canada shorthand for ‘rest of the country’.

Table 1 (2) Decade of arrival in present abode (%)

Previous county of residence

London

UK

Hong Kong

Present abode Karachi

Chicago

California

Houston

New York

USA

Toronto

Canada

Melbourne

Sydney

Kenya

Pre-1940s

2

2

12

NA

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

NA

1940s

3

4

14

NA

2

1

0

3

0

0

0

0

0

NA

1950s

17

15

8

NA

3

1

0

3

8

1

4

0

1

NA

1960s

37

41

19

NA

39

14

11

21

26

35

28

9

13

NA

1970s

33

31

20

NA

45

52

47

53

51

49

44

39

37

NA

1980s*

18

16

14

NA

9

45

23

11

37

31

24

39

57

NA

[N=]

[226]

[220]

[51]

NA

[85]

[143]

[55]

[60]

[229]

[218]

[101]

[75]

[116]

NA

Missing observations = 225. *Survey conducted mid 1980s, full decadel figures unavailable

(p.743)

Table 1 (3) Gender (%)

London

UK

Hong Kong

Karachi

Chicago

California

Houston

New York

USA

Toronto

Canada

Melbourne

Sydney

Kenya

Men

51

53

47

59

51

54

55

55

60

50

58

53

40

53

Women

49

47

53

41

49

46

45

45

40

50

42

47

60

47

[N=]

[251]

[232]

[66]

[115]

[86]

[149]

[55]

[110]

[186]

[224]

[101]

[79]

[119]

[32]

Missing observations = 35.

Table 1 (4) Age of respondents (%)

London

UK

Hong Kong

Karachi

Chicago

California

Houston

New York

USA

Toronto

Canada

Melbourne

Sydney

Kenya

Under 20s

9

8

6

6

4

6

4

3

2

4

3

12

7

3

20s

13

13

16

16

11

19

17

8

14

11

13

12

19

0

30s

16

14

19

11

35

30

35

29

35

24

25

16

24

14

40s

19

30

23

16

30

26

22

33

30

29

31

22

18

20

50s

20

20

14

21

15

11

18

18

15

9

18

29

19

33

60s

17

9

14

19

4

4

0

5

3

9

5

7

12

23

70s

6

6

8

11

1

4

4

4

1

5

5

2

1

7

[N=]

[240]

[226]

[64]

[112]

[82]

[145]

[54]

[101]

[181]

[221]

[98]

[76]

[117]

[30]

Missing observations = 88.

(p.744)

Table 1 (5) Marital status of respondents (%)

London

UK

Hong Kong

Karachi

Chicago

California

Houston

New York

USA

Toronto

Canada

Melbourne

Sydney

Kenya

Single

34

22

20

26

11

31

18

16

15

17

20

19

29

13

Married

55

67

71

63

85

66

76

79

80

76

71

76

65

78

Separated/div.

4

4

3

2

2

1

4

1

3

4

4

3

0

6

Widowed

7

7

6

9

2

2

2

4

2

3

5

2

6

3

[N =]

[251]

[233]

[66]

[114]

[87]

[150]

[55]

[110]

[185]

[221]

[101]

[79]

[119]

[32]

Missing observations = 37.

Table 1 (6) Intermarriage (%)

London

UK

Hong Kong

Karachi

Chicago

California

Houston

New York

USA

Toronto

Canada

Melbourne

Sydney

Kenya

Z’ian spouse

84

76

88

96

84

92

95

87

77

92

80

92

82

93

Non Z’ian spouse

16

24

12

4

16

8

5

13

23

8

20

8

18

7

[N=]

[166]

[180]

[51]

[84]

[76]

[101]

[43]

[93]

[156]

[181]

[75]

[65]

[82]

[28]

Missing observations = 456 (question inappropriate for single persons).

Table 1 (7) Type of family (%)

London

UK

Hong Kong

Karachi

Chicago

California

Houston

New York

USA

Toronto

Canada

Melbourne

Sydney

Kenya

Nuclear

13

11

13

3

11

16

7

13

13

25

25

79

91

87

Extended

73

76

70

97

77

66

73

71

66

60

61

17

7

13

No family

14

13

27

1

13

18

20

16

21

15

14

4

2

0

[N =]

[250]

[234]

[64]

[114]

[86]

[146]

[55]

[109]

[184]

[222]

[100]

[77]

[115]

[30]

Missing observations = 53.

(p.745)

Table 1 (8) Language respondents read in (%)

London

UK

Hong Kong

Karachi

Chicago

California

Houston

New York

USA

Toronto

Canada

Melbourne

Sydney

Kenya

Gujarati

51

45

51

56

41

26

45

42

37

46

29

30

36

60

Persian

6

1

0

0

13

35

11

8

7

4

8

0

4

0

English only

43

54

49

44

46

39

44

50

56

50

63

70

60

40

[N =]

[203]

[188]

[53]

[75]

[71]

[113]

[45]

[76]

[127]

[187]

[70]

[54]

[94]

[25]

Missing observations = 459 (numerous variations of different combinations of languages).

Table 1 (9) Level at which respondents completed formal education (%)

London

UK

Hong Kong

Karachi

Chicago

California

Houston

New York

USA

Toronto

Canada

Melbourne

Sydney

Kenya

School

22

26

36

25

13

14

26

7

5

24

20

22

18

55

1st degree

51

48

47

57

41

52

30

41

37

52

57

52

59

38

Postgraduate

27

26

17

18

46

34

43

52

58

34

23

26

23

0

[N =]

[222]

[215]

[64]

[109]

[86]

[146]

[53]

[105]

[182]

[209]

[93]

[73]

[113]

[29]

Missing observations = 141 (many ‘other’ e.g. business qualifications).

Table 1 (10) Type of education (%)

London

UK

Hong Kong

Karachi

Chicago

California

Houston

New York

USA

Toronto

Canada

Melbourne

Sydney

Kenya

Arts

32

28

54

46

30

27

33

28

29

40

25

38

40

55

Sciences

29

29

14

21

40

43

35

33

45

25

27

32

22

15

‘Other’

35

43

32

33

30

30

32

39

26

35

48

30

38

30

[N =]

[227]

[211]

[56]

[102]

[83]

[139]

[49]

[104]

[177]

[196]

[90]

[69]

[114]

[27]*

Missing observations = 141 (many ‘other’ e.g. combinations and business qualifications).

(p.746)

Table 1 (11) Place of postgraduate education (%)

London

UK

Hong Kong

Karachi

Chicago

California

Houston

New York

USA

Toronto

Canada

Melbourne

Sydney

Kenya

India

35

17

36

5

14

17

19

24

18

38

65

91

67

NA

Pakistan

2

0

9

90

3

0

14

2

4

9

0

0

17

NA

UK

60

83

55

5

9

0

5

6

5

7

18

0

11

NA

Canada

0

0

0

0

0

2

0

0

0

33

17

0

0

NA

USA

3

0

0

0

74

80

62

69

73

13

0

9

6

NA

[N =]

[57]

[47]

[11]

[19]

[35]

[40]

[21]

[51]

[89]

[45]

[17]

[11]

[18]

NA

As the sample size is small in several categories, considerable caution is required when interpreting these figures.

Missing observations = 1379 (the table was concerned with only group).

Table 1 (12) Career (%)

London

UK

Hong Kong

Karachi

Chicago

California

Houston

New York

USA

Toronto

Canada

Melbourne

Sydney

Kenya

At home

32

21

38

25

19

24

22

16

22

20

14

24

25

31

Manual

2

4

3

6

3

0

8

4

2

7

5

10

1

3

Clerical

31

36

16

19

14

18

16

16

12

31

29

24

36

35

Managerial

8

7

25

28

10

21

12

13

10

10

17

13

11

21

Executive

27

32

18

22

54

37

42

52

54

32

34

29

27

10

[N =]

[247]

[227]

[61]

[110]

[79]

[132]

[50]

[103]

[180]

[211]

[93]

[76]

[117]

[29]

Missing observations = 125.

(p.747)

Table 1 (13) Correspondence with Zoroastrians ‘abroad’ (%)

London

UK

Hong Kong

Karachi

Chicago

California

Houston

New York

USA

Toronto

Canada

Melbourne

Sydney

Kenya

Regularly

61

63

60

51

67

68

67

71

70

67

63

59

57

69

Sometimes

27

28

26

38

22

26

22

20

21

20

31

31

29

28

Rarely/never

12

9

12

12

11

6

11

9

9

13

6

10

14

3

[N =]

[246]

[230]

[65]

[112]

[87]

[145]

[55]

[108]

[184]

[222]

[98]

[78]

[118]

[32]

Missing observations = 60.

Table 1 (14) Contact with Zoroastrians ‘here’ (%)

London

UK

Hong Kong

Karachi

Chicago

California

Houston

New York

USA

Toronto

Canada

Melbourne

Sydney

Kenya

Regularly

67

63

77

83

70

83

72

71

62

76

80

73

86

83

Sometimes

27

29

17

15

26

15

17

23

32

19

10

23

12

17

Rarely/never

6

8

6

2

3

2

11

6

6

5

10

4

2

0

[N =]

[246]

[228]

[65]

[112]

[86]

[147]

[54]

[109]

[178]

[220]

[100]

[78]

[120]

[29]

Missing observations = 68.

Table 1 (15) Read Zoroastrian literature

London

UK

Hong Kong

Karachi

Chicago

California

Houston

New York

USA

Toronto

Canada

Melbourne

Sydney

Kenya

Yes

27%

21

50

56

42%

60%

26%

39%

48%

52%

51%

36%

62%

42%

No

73

79

50

44

58

40

74

61

52

48

49

64

38

58

[N =]

[244]

[230]

[64]

[107]

[82]

[148]

[53]

[107]

[184]

[219]

[100]

[78]

[120]

[29]

Missing observations = 75.

(p.748)

Table 1 (16) Pray (%)

London

UK

Hong Kong

Karachi

Chicago

California

Houston

New York

USA

Toronto

Canada

Melbourne

Sydney

Kenya

Daily

72

72

73

86

65

73

75

72

69

77

70

83

80

86

Rarely/never

28

28

27

14

35

27

25

28

31

23

30

17

20

14

[N =]

[236]

[210]

[60]

[108]

[85]

[138]

[52]

[106]

[173]

[208]

[91]

[75]

[118]

[28]

Missing observations = 152.

Table 1 (17) Attend Zoroastrian centre for religious functions (%)

London

UK

Hong Kong

Karachi

Chicago

California

Houston

New York

USA

Toronto

Canada

Melbourne

Sydney

Kenya

Regularly

31

14

60

27

42

56

33

38

37

39

32

60

56

76

Sometimes

48

45

33

51

43

30

23

44

40

44

24

35

42

14

Rarely/never

19

22

5

17

12

7

21

16

10

15

11

4

2

10

No centre

2

19

2

5

4

8

23

3

13

2

33

0

0

0

[N =]

[232]

[205]

[58]

[78]

[82]

[137]

[43]

[96]

[153]

[203]

[81]

[48]

[104]

[21]

Missing observations = 299.

Table 1 (18) Eat Indian/Iranian Food (%)

London

UK

Hong Kong

Karachi

Chicago

California

Houston

New York

USA

Toronto

Canada

Melbourne

Sydney

Kenya

Often

83

80

80

80

88

88

89

90

79

85

85

85

93

97

[N =]

[247]

[231]

[65]

[107]

[87]

[146]

[54]

[108]

[186]

[224]

[100]

[79]

[121]

[29]

Missing observations = 56.

(p.749)

Table 1 (19) Wear Indian/Iranian Dress (%)

London

UK

Hong Kong

Karachi

Chicago

California

Houston

New York

USA

Toronto

Canada

Melbourne

Sydney

Kenya

Often

18

14

27

48

12

41

12

16

15

13

11

20

23

54

Sometimes

21

19

22

21

17

15

25

24

21

20

19

29

26

19

Communal occasions

25

26

24

13

31

17

27

31

24

27

26

19

32

19

Rarely/never

36

41

27

18

40

27

36

29

40

40

44

32

19

8

[N =]

[231]

[212]

[59]

[99]

[82]

[125]

[51]

[103]

[181]

[207]

[96]

[72]

[117]

[26]

Missing observations = 179 (the question was less appropriate for Iranian Zoroastrians).

Table 1 (20) How respondents described themselves (%)

London

UK

Hong Kong

Karachi

Chicago

California

Houston

New York

USA

Toronto

Canada

Melbourne

Sydney

Kenya

Orthodox

16

14

16

9

9

23

15

12

14

19

18

29

12

24

Liberal

72

74

71

85

76

65

78

77

66

65

63

66

72

62

Non-practising

12

12

14

6

15

12

7

11

20

16

19

5

16

14

[N=]

[179]

[167]

[44]

[87]

[66]

[101]

[41]

[73]

[118]

[151]

[75]

[58]

[86]

[29]

Missing observations = 565. There were various ‘other’ terms which have been omitted in this table.

(p.750)

Table 1 (21) Respondents’ funeral wishes (%)

London

UK

Hong Kong

Karachi

Chicago

California

Houston

New York

USA

Toronto

Canada

Melbourne

Sydney

Kenya

Tower of Silence

26

24

40

63

5

33

26

8

22

16

18

40

22

27

Cremation

62

68

44

32

78

60

63

85

65

74

67

42

73

32

Burial

12

8

16

5

17

7

11

7

13

10

15

18

5

41

[N =]

[N = 173][169]

[45]

[103]

[60]

[108]

[43]

[77]

[128]

[172]

[82]

[60]

[99]

[22]

Missing observations = 497. ‘Don’t mind’ answers not included in this table.

Table 1 (22) Respondents’ attitude to intermarriage (%)

London

UK

Hong Kong

Karachi

Chicago

California

Houston

New York

USA

Toronto

Canada

Melbourne

Sydney

Kenya

Approve

67

74

72

40

79

54

56

84

76

74

86

64

81

61

Disapprove

33

26

28

60

21

46

44

16

24

26

14

36

19

39

[N =]

[245]

[220]

[61]

[99]

[85]

[142]

[52]

[110]

[174]

[215]

[97]

[72]

[116]

[31]

Missing observations = 121.

Table 1 (23) Should priests bless intermarriages? (%)

London

UK

Hong Kong

Karachi

Chicago

California

Houston

New York

USA

Toronto

Canada

Melbourne

Sydney

Kenya

Yes

43

38

56

40

65

64

38

70

56

58

52

39

48

27

Don’t Know

21

38

11

16

11

12

13

15

18

20

19

29

26

26

No

36

39

33

44

25

24

49

15

26

22

29

32

26

47

[N =]

[242]

[229]

[63]

[109]

[85]

[143]

[55]

[106]

[179]

[219]

[94]

[76]

[120]

[30]

Missing observations = 90.

(p.751)

Table 1 (24) Should the offspring of intermarriages be allowed to have a naujote performed? (%)

London

UK

Hong Kong

Karachi

Chicago

California

Houston

New York

USA

Toronto

Canada

Melbourne

Sydney

Kenya

Only if father Z’ian

18

18

21

32

6

9

5

5

6

12

12

25

10

47

If either parent Z’ian

60

62

69

54

91

66

60

82

77

78

80

61

81

44

No

13

11

7

11

1

16

4

2

8

4

4

8

3

6

Don’t know

9

9

3

4

2

9

5

5

6

6

4

7

6

3

[N =]

[245]

[229]

[62]

[112]

[86]

[147]

[55]

[109]

[181]

[218]

[99]

[76]

[121]

[32]

Missing observations = 68.

Table 1 (25) Should non-Zoroastrian spouses be allowed to have a naujote? (%)

London

UK

Hong Kong

Karachi

Chicago

California

Houston

New York

USA

Toronto

Canada

Melbourne

Sydney

Kenya

Yes

63

60

65

64

79

71

58

84

72

63

61

61

76

39

[N =]

[227]

[211]

[57]

[104]

[81]

[132]

[52]

[97]

[171]

[189]

[87]

[67]

[109]

[28]

Missing observations = 228.

(p.752)

Table 1 (26) Should non-Zoroastrians be allowed in the prayer room ‘here’? (%)

London

UK

Hong Kong

Karachi

Chicago

California

Houston

New York

USA

Toronto

Canada

Melbourne

Sydney

Kenya

Yes

30

33

30

19

69

45

24

51

43

33

42

45

40

52

Yes on certain

45

46

47

44

19

34

56

44

44

48

55

32

46

33

conditions

Never

25

21

14

37

12

21

20

5

13

18

3

23

14

15

[N =]

[227]

[209]

[60]

[84]

[83]

[126]

[50]

[97]

[165]

[201]

[94]

[62]

[102]

[27]

Missing observations = 253.

Table 1 (27) Affirm a belief in: (%)

London

UK

Hong Kong

Karachi

Chicago

California

Houston

New York

USA

Toronto

Canada

Melbourne

Sydney

Kenya

Immortal soul

64

60

61

75

64

63

54

62

63

66

68

64

69

58

[N =]

[188]

[185]

[54]

[73]

[75]

[112]

[35]

[87]

[147]

[160]

[74]

[61]

[100]

[19]

Missing observations = 470

Reincarnation

35

43

45

44

25

36

48

29

24

51

49

40

52

65

[N =]

[159]

[180]

[53]

[66]

[73]

[109]

[31]

[72]

[131]

[159]

[73]

[57]

[95]

[23]

Missing observations = 559

Resurrection

11

11

6

25

8

13

0

8

8

18

13

21

6

0

[N =]

[136]

[151]

[47]

[49]

[66]

[93]

[20]

[64]

[119]

[118]

[60]

[48]

[71]

[11]

Missing observations = 787

Heaven and Hell

45

47

33

70

55

46

49

52

47

51

31

47

38

78

[N =]

[163]

[167]

[45]

[73]

[73]

[108]

[33]

[75]

[135]

[131]

[67]

[55]

[87]

[27]

Missing observations = 601.

(p.753)

Table 1 (28) Prayers for the dead (%)

London

UK

Hong Kong

Karachi

Chicago

California

Houston

New York

USA

Toronto

Canada

Melbourne

Sydney

Kenya

Absolutely necessary

43

32

44

40

18

32

38

25

30

28

36

42

34

61

Benefit the dead

17

19

11

23

14

25

20

11

12

25

22

20

38

19

Benefit the living

16

15

19

4

25

21

7

22

23

12

17

12

14

7

Benefit dead and living

7

10

6

16

19

4

9

20

12

14

5

0

0

0

Don’t know

9

16

13

9

19

14

18

16

16

16

6

17

9

13

Other

5

3

5

8

4

2

2

0

4

3

2

4

0

0

Meaningless

3

6

3

1

1

2

6

3

2

2

2

1

5

0

[N =]

[249]

[227]

[64]

[113]

[84]

[139]

[55]

[108]

[181]

[218]

[98]

[77]

[120]

[31]

Missing observations = 76.

Table 1 (29) Authority in disputes (%)

London

UK

Hong Kong

Karachi

Chicago

California

Houston

New York

USA

Toronto

Canada

Melbourne

Sydney

Kenya

Priests in India

8

5

20

0

9

13

8

1

8

8

10

8

3

6

BPP

4

5

3

4

0

4

13

2

6

3

2

7

3

13

Priests in Iran

0

1

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

0

Iranian Anjuman

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

3

0

0

Local leaders

7

9

12

19

11

9

6

11

9

12

8

7

4

3

Specially convened meetings

23

28

15

18

23

21

15

31

22

32

23

17

20

36

Individual conscience

33

32

22

33

37

23

32

25

32

17

34

30

42

42

‘Other’

25

20

27

26

20

27

26

28

22

28

23

27

27

0

[N =]

[235]

[214]

[60]

[107]

[80]

[138]

[53]

[103]

[179]

[210]

[91]

[74]

[117]

[31]

Missing observations = 148.

(p.754)

Table 1 (30) Consider beliefs changed ‘here’ (%)

London

UK

Hong Kong

Karachi

Chicago

California

Houston

New York

USA

Toronto

Canada

Melbourne

Sydney

Kenya

Quite a lot

17

21

9

NA

18

15

14

24

26

20

24

6

16

NA

Changed little

34

30

41

NA

38

28

21

40

39

37

25

36

24

NA

Not at all

49

49

50

NA

44

57

65

36

35

43

51

58

60

NA

[N =]

[209]

[203]

[58]

NA

[84]

[135]

[52]

[103]

[175]

[202]

[96]

[72]

[110]

NA

Missing observations = 253.

Table 1 (31) Consider practices changed ‘here’ (%)

London

UK

Hong Kong

Karachi

Chicago

California

Houston New York

USA

Toronto

Canada

Melbourne

Sydney

Kenya

Quite a lot

30

37

15

NA

34

26

17

39

39

32

33

18

23

NA

Changed little

36

32

40

NA

33

28

50

39

34

40

30

41

42

NA

Not at all

34

31

45

NA

34

46

33

22

27

28

37

41

36

NA

[N =]

[188]

[191]

[53]

NA

[77]

[123]

[46]

[104]

[167]

[193]

[93]

[63]

[101]

NA

Missing observations = 358.

Table 1 (32) Parsi/Iranian Zoroastrian Relations ‘here’ (%)

London

UK

Hong Kong

Karachi

Chicago

California

Houston

New York

USA

Toronto

Canada

Melbourne

Sydney

Kenya

Excellent/good

37

37

NA

71

35

24

31

15

38

36

43

47

41

NA

Reasonable/mixed

34

37

NA

25

45

39

45

45

36

33

17

11

45

NA

Poor/bad

14

9

NA

1

16

32

8

25

16

19

12

13

9

NA

[N =]

[221]

[197]

NA

[98]

[81]

[137]

[49]

[100]

[173]

[137]

[89]

[75]

[114]

NA

Missing observations = 196.

(p.755)

Table 1 (33) Internal Parsi relations ‘here’ (%)

London

UK

Hong Kong

Karachi

Chicago

California

Houston

New York

USA

Toronto

Canada

Melbourne

Sydney

Kenya

Excellent/good

62

61

76

83

70

40

70

66

69

56

69

56

76

47

Reasonable/ mixed

25

26

21

13

17

37

20

27

22

31

24

36

17

30

Poor/bad

8

4

0

2

8

8

6

8

9

7

6

8

3

13

[N=]

[229]

[206]

[64]

[99]

[81]

[124]

[50]

[101]

[173]

[209]

[95]

[70]

[113]

[30]

Missing observations = 196.

Table 1 (34) Relations between old and new immigrants ‘here’ (%)

London

UK

Hong Kong

Karachi

Chicago

California

Houston

New York

USA

Toronto

Canada

Melbourne

Sydney

Kenya

Excellent/good

42

37

60

NA

57

47

40

59

57

48

65

51

61

NA

Reasonable/ mixed

32

32

35

NA

26

36

25

27

24

34

21

38

32

NA

Poor/bad

9

7

2

NA

9

5

18

4

5

7

9

8

3

NA

[N =]

[201]

[189]

[49]

NA

[78]

[112]

[40]

[93]

[162]

[194]

[89]

[66]

[112]

NA

Missing observations = 382. The question is not applicable for Karachi or Kenya because there has been minimal inward migration of Zoroastrians in these two communities. There had at the time of the survey been some inward migration in Britain, but relatively little. The figures for both London and UK should therefore be treated with some caution.

(p.756)

Table 1 (35) Relations with Non-Zoroastrians ‘here’ (%)

London

UK

Hong Kong

Karachi

Chicago

California

Houston

New York

USA

Toronto

Canada

Melbourne

Sydney

Kenya

Excellent/good

54

61

74

71

70

62

53

68

71

68

60

74

73

74

Reasonable/ mixed

37

27

20

27

22

28

34

19

23

22

30

17

20

19

Don’t know

7

10

3

2

3

6

4

12

4

5

7

6

5

7

Poor/bad

2

2

3

0

5

4

9

1

2

5

3

3

2

0

[N =]

[244]

[228]

[65]

[109]

[86]

[143]

[53]

[104]

[181]

[218]

[99]

[78]

[115]

[31]

Missing observations = 86.

Table 1 (36) Faced discrimination? (%)

London

UK

Hong Kong

Karachi

Chicago

California

Houston

New York

USA

Toronto

Canada

Melbourne

Sydney

Kenya

Yes

42

37

27

16

30

37

35

37

37

49

44

30

28

20

No

58

63

73

84

70

63

65

63

63

51

55

70

72

80

[N =]

[243]

[222]

[63]

[98]

[84]

[137]

[54]

[104]

[186]

[218]

[99]

[76]

[116]

[30]

Missing observations = 110.

Table 1 (37) Faced discrimination at work? (%)

London

UK

Hong Kong

Karachi

Chicago

California

Houston

New York

USA

Toronto

Canada

Melbourne

Sydney

Kenya

Frequently

38

33

NA

NA

45 (?)

26

26 (?)

31 (?)

18

23

25

11 (?)

22 (?)

NA

[N =]

[78]

[66]

[9]

[8]

[22]

[46]

[19]

[36]

[66]

[106]

[40]

[18]

[27]

[4]

Missing observations = 1295, since this table looks only at the 628 who said they faced discrimination. Some of the [N =] are so low that they have been marked ‘Not Appropriate’ (NA). Others are also so low that question marks have been placed after the percentage figure to emphasize that the figure is questionable. The sample is more reliable only for London, UK, California, USA, Toronto and perhaps Canada.

(p.757) Note 1: Faced discrimination in housing

The sample size under this heading is so small that a formal table would be inappropriate. In Britain 54 respondents said that they had faced discrimination in housing, of whom 30 said they had faced it frequently. In the UK 44 respondents said that they faced discrimination in housing, but only 22 said it was frequent. In California 40 individuals said they had experienced such discrimination, but only 4 said that they had faced it frequently. In New York 36 respondents said that they had faced such discrimination but only 11 said frequently. In Sydney 27 respondents had faced such discrimination in housing, but only 6 frequently. In total 437 individuals said that they had faced discrimination in housing, of whom 78 were in London and 66 in the UK.

Note 2: Faced discrimination in education

Globally 420 respondents said that they had faced discrimination in education, of whom 44 were in London and 43 in the rest of UK. Thirty-eight respondents from California, 61 in USA, 102 in Toronto and 36 from the rest of Canada said that they had faced such discrimination. The other places surveyed had much smaller figures, for example only 7 in Karachi, 9 in Melbourne and 2 of the small Kenya sample.

Note 3: Faced discrimination on grounds of colour

A total of 546 respondents said that they had faced discrimination on grounds of colour; 86 were from London and 77 from the rest of the UK. Sixty-two respondents from USA, 104 from Toronto and 44 from Canada said that they had faced colour prejudice. In Britain 55 said that they had experienced this frequently. The nearest comparable figures were Toronto (27 individuals); the other groups said it occurred sometimes or only occasionally.

(p.758)

Table 2: Male/Female Beliefs and Practices

Question

Male (%)

Female (%)

Religious practices

Prayer

[N = 961]

[N = 851]

Pray daily

66

74

Sometimes pray

15

16

Rarely pray

18

10

Wear sudre and kusti

[N = 955]

[N = 844]

Always wear sudre and kusti

71

64

Sometimes wear s/k

9

11

Rarely wear s/k

20

25

Z’ian traditions *

[N = 941]

[N = 836]

Practise none of Z’ian traditions

8

7

Practise All of Z’ian traditions

28

31

Funerals *

[N = 957]

[N = 847]

Want dokhma funeral

20

18

Cremation

46

49

Burial

8

8

Attend Z’ian centre for religious functions regularly

82

82 [N = 366 and 350]

Intermarriage *

[N = 950]

[N = 846]

Accept intermarriage

67

68

Object to intermarriage

29

28

Don’t know

4

3

Allow non-Zoros in western prayer room

38

34

Allow non-Zoros with strict conditions

41

42

Never allow entry

17

19

Religious beliefs

Believe in: *

Immortal soul

62

67 [N = 754 and 628]

Reincarnation

34

47 [N = 687 and 602]

Resurrection

10

14 [N = 600 and 459]

Heaven and hell

45

51 [N = 692 and 554]

Prayers for dead essential

82

86 [N = 945 and 835]

Religious authority in ‘old country’

13

12 [N = 920 and 787]

Religious beliefs changed a lot ‘here’

19

16 [N = 913 and 790]

Religious practices changed a lot ‘here’

28

29 [N = 869 and 727]

Assert citizenship in terms of:

[N = 949]

[N = 839]

Country of birth

23

28

Country of residence

34

27

Zoroastrian citizenship

47

52

(NB some people ticked more than one option)

Secular culture

Indian or Iranian Food

[N = 960]

[N = 850]

Often eat

82

86

Sometimes eat

12

10

Rarely eat

5

4

Indian or Iranian dress

[N = 862]

[N = 813]

Often wear

14

27

Sometimes wear

12

31

Only at communal functions

27

23

Rarely wear

47

19

Consider worth preserving:

Traditional music

38

40 [N = 830 and 735]

Traditional dress

31

47 [N = 833 and 746]

The religion

89

91 [N = 899 and 799]

Traditional art

48

46 [N = 845 and 738]

Traditional language

64

71 [N = 864 and 769]

Where the answer was a straight ‘yes/no’ the ‘no's have been excluded, as have diverse range of ‘others’ involving small numbers. The latter are denoted by (*) .

() I am aware that the word ‘culture’ is a contested word. I did not want use a term such as ‘parsi-panu’ because I wanted a term that could apply to Iranians. The discussion is not about ‘ethnicity’ and so I used ‘culture’ as the nearest term for what I wanted.

(p.759) (p.760)

Table 3: Previous Country of Residence

Religious practices

Pray daily

75

76

46

68

59

[N = 963–148–125–165–177]

Always wear sudre and kusti

74

74

21

72

53

[N = 952–148–125–166–177]

Attend religious functions regularly

39

33

40

24

41

[N = 819–130–119–147–147]

Observe ‘Zoroastrian traditions’:

All

28

29

24

38

24

[N = 945–147–124–163–172]

Pateti, No Ruz, gahambars

12

14

31

6

16

[N = 945–147–124–163–172]

Pateti, No Ruz

23

24

32

18

19

[N = 945–147–124–163–172]

None

9

8

2

1

13

[N = 945–147–124–163–172]

Want dokhma funeral

22

16

9

9

15

[N = 955–149–125–163–178]

Accept intermarriage

71

60

60

62

77

[N = 955–145–124–163–178]

Object to intermarriage

26

36

39

33

20

[N = 955–145–124–163–178]

Allow non-Zoros in western prayer room

36

37

58

28

38

[N = 885–138–115–158–169]

Religious beliefs

Believe in:

Immortal soul

68

74

58

56

55

[N = 724–113–100–122–143]

Reincarnation

44

47

29

40

35

[N = 695–94–80–124–132]

Resurrection

13

20

8

7

7

[N = 560–70–75–101–114]

Heaven and hell

48

66

36

54

30

[N = 644–95–86–125–122]

Prayers for dead:

Essential

35

40

28

44

20

[N = 944–148–123–162–174]

Benefit the dead

22

20

14

18

24

[N = 944–148–123–162–174]

Benefit the living

15

8

31

12

20

[N = 944–148–123–162–174]

Religious authority in ‘old country’

14

12

9

11

11

[N = 917–138–116–154–168]

Religious beliefs changed quite a lot ‘here’

19

12

9

25

19

[N = 932–134–120–163–168]

Religious practices changed quite a lot ‘here’

31

30

22

32

25

[N = 875–126–109–155–158]

Secular culture

Assert citizenship in terms of:

Country of birth

24

13

43

9

25

[N = 949–145–125–161–179]

Country of residence

32

41

12

44

36

[N = 949–145–125–161–179]

Zoroastrianness

48

48

58

57

44

[N = 949–145–125–161–179]

Often eat Indian or Iranian food

85

78

87

92

81

[N = 963–148–125–166–180]

Often wear Indian or Iranian dress

17

19

52

18

12

[N = 916–136–94–153–167]

Consider worth preserving:

Traditional food

76

73

62

74

83

[N = 870–145–122–148–166]

Traditional music

36

38

62

45

42

[N = 810–140–122–142–152]

Traditional dress

40

35

23

46

40

[N = 827–139–120–141–153]

Traditional art

43

46

65

55

49

[N = 825–138–122–141–160]

Traditional language

66

67

88

74

59

[N = 858–144–120–147–162]

The religion

91

94

87

89

85

[N = 898–146–124–151–170]

Community relations good between:

Iranians and Parsis

40

48

31

28

32

[N = 867–130–121–142–157]

Between Parsis

67

69

39

62

61

[N = 903–134–93–157–168]

Old and new immigrants

55

55

44

39

49

[N = 823–116–94–142–152]

Faced discrimination

35

33

43

46

41

[N = 933–142–120–159–172]

(p.761) (p.762)

Table 4: Rural and Urban Origins of Migrants

Question

Bombay (%)

Gujarat (%)

[N =]

Religious practices

Pray daily

76

80

[N = 769 and 61]

Always wear sudre and kusti

73

92

[N = 758 and 60]

Attend religious functions often

39

56

[N = 649 and 57]

Want dokhma funeral

22

31

[N = 760 and 62]

Object to intermarriage

24

50

[N = 764 and 61]

Exclude non-Zoros from western prayer room

16

22

[N = 708 and 54]

Religious beliefs

Believe in:

Immortal soul

64

85

[N = 578 and 52]

Reincarnation

43

49

[N = 567 and 45]

Resurrection

14

8

[N = 462 and 32]

Heaven and hell

46

60

[N = 528 and 42]

Prayers for dead essential

33

60

[N = 755 and 62]

Prayers for dead help living

15

11

[N = 755 and 62]

Religious authority lies in ‘old country’

8

19

[N = 731 and 62]

Secular culture

Express citizenship in terms of

Country of birth

25

27

[N = 758 and 59]

Country of residence

31

29

[N = 758 and 59]

Eat Indian or Iranian food often

85

95

[N = 768 and 62]

Wear Indian or Iranian dress often

16

37

[N = 728 and 60]

Consider Parsi relations good

66

79

[N = 717 and 60]

(p.763)

Table 5: Languages in Which Respondents Read

Question

Gujarati (%)

Persian (%)

English only (%)

[N =]

Religious practices

Pray daily

85

41

63

[N = 586–96–698]

Always wear sudre and kusti

85

17

61

[N = 578–92–695]

Observe all Z’ian traditions

37

21

22

[N = 579–94–678]

Observe only Pateti/No Ruz

17

32

29

[N = 579–94–678]

Observe Pateti, No Ruz and Gahambar

11

31

13

[N = 579–94–678]

Want dokhma funeral

23

2

15

[N = 584–93–692]

Want cremation

47

41

51

[N = 584–93–692]

Want burial

8

32

7

[N = 584–93–692]

Accept intermarriage

57

59

78

[N = 579–94–694]

Allow non-Zoros in prayer

32

61

38

[N = 543–87–654]

room here

Religious beliefs

Believe in:

Immortal soul

68

56

61

[N = 423–76–556]

Reincarnation

50

32

35

[N = 386–62–534]

Resurrection

13

11

9

[N = 294–57–453]

Heaven and hell

57

35

43

[N = 370–68–506]

Prayers for dead essential

88

79

78

[N = 581–89–686]

Religious authority in old country

17

7

8

[N = 554–84–658]

Religious beliefs changed little here

80

79

72

[N = 561–93–647]

Religious practices changed little here

69

72

60

[N = 528–85–610]

Secular culture

Citizenship expressed in terms of:

Country of birth

23

45

22

[N = 578–93–688]

Country of residence

32

10

36

[N = 578–93–688]

Zoroastrian-ness

58

54

48

[N = 578–93–688]

Consider worth preserving:

Traditional food

66

59

80

[N = 537–90–635]

Traditional music

35

67

34

[N = 513–90–586]

Traditional art

40

66

49

[N = 511–91–605]

Traditional dress

40

23

38

[N = 518–89–592]

The religion

93

87

88

[N = 549–92–650]

Traditional language

65

89

61

[N = 532–89–624]

Consider faced discrimination

37

45

33

[N = 557–87–681]

(p.764)

Table 6: Country of Primary Education

Question

Non-western country (%)

Western country (%)

[N =]

Religious practices

Pray daily

72

44

[N = 1,588 and 130]

Always wear sudre and kusti

70

47

[N = 1,577 and 131]

Observe Z’ian traditions:

None

11

7

[N = 1,583 and 133]

All

24

30

[N = 1,583 and 133]

Attend religious functions regularly

39

30

[N = 1,355 and 109]

Want dokhma funeral

20

18

[N = 1,552 and 130]

Object to intermarriage

31

13

[N = 1,572 and 132]

Allow non-Zoros in western prayer rooms

37

31

[N = 1,461 and 121]

Religious beliefs

Believe in:

Immortal soul

66

54

[N = 1,204 and 113]

Reincarnation

42

22

[N = 1,124 and 107]

Resurrection

12

9

[N = 1,124 and 107]

Heaven and hell

50

34

[N = 907 and 103]

Prayers for dead:

Essential

35

23

[N = 1,566 and 125]

Benefit dead

21

10

[N = 1,566 and 125]

Benefit living

15

24

[N = 1,566 and 125]

Secular culture

Eat Indian or Iranian food often

86

70

[N = 1,583 and 133]

Wear Indian or Iranian dress often

21

2

[N = 1,471 and 123]

Consider worth preserving:

The religion

91

76

[N = 1500 and 120]

Traditional food

73

88

[N = 1,454 and 121]

Traditional music

39

44

[N = 1,379 and 109]

Traditional dress

39

42

[N = 1,387 and 113]

Traditional art

46

67

[N = 1,388 and 116]

Traditional language

68

67

[N = 1,434 and 119]

Community relations good between:

Iranians and Parsis

41

21

[N = 1,418 and 120]

Between Parsis

66

53

[N = 1,458 and 121]

Between new and old immigrants

53

36

[N = 1,290 and 114]

(p.765)

Table 7: Attended Religious Classes in Childhood (%)

Question

Did attend (%)

Did not attend (%)

[N =]

Religious practices

Pray daily

73

68

[N = 731 and 1068]

Always wear sudre and kusti

69

66

[N = 724 and 1062]

Observe all Z’ian traditions

33

26

[N = 726 and 1063]

Attend religious functions regularly

84

80

[N = 320 and 386]

Want dokhma funeral

22

18

[N = 727 and 1060]

Accept intermarriage

62

72

[N = 719 and 1063]

Object to intermarriage

35

25

[N = 719 and 1063]

Exclude non-Zoros from

18

17

[N = 672 and 986]

western prayer rooms

Religious beliefs

Believe in:

Immortal soul

67

63

[N = 551 and 820]

Reincarnation

42

39

[N = 522 and 759]

Heaven and hell

52

45

[N = 504 and 736]

Prayers for dead essential

88

80

[N = 716 and 1046]

Religious authority in ‘old country’

14

11

[N = 694 and 1,001]

Secular culture

Assert citizenship in terms of:

Country of birth

27

25

[N = 716 and 1,057]

Country of residence

31

32

[N = 716 and 1,057]

Zoroastrian-ness

53

48

[N = 716 and 1,057]

Consider worth preserving:

The religion

91

89

[N = 687 and 994]

Traditional language

70

66

[N = 671 and 944]

Traditional food

69

77

[N = 672 and 966]

Traditional music

39

39

[N = 640 and 906]

Traditional dress

38

39

[N = 645 and 915]

Traditional art

46

48

[N = 646 and 921]

(p.766)

Table 8: Level at which Education Completed

Question

School (%)

Postgraduate study (%)

[N =]

Religious practices

Pray daily

73

66

[N = 339 and 532]

Always wear sudre and kusti

73

66

[N = 334 and 533]

Observe all Z’ian traditions

39

21

[N = 331 and 525]

Attend religious functions regularly

44

38

[N = 279 and 468]

Want dokhma funeral

22

18

[N = 330 and 537]

Accept intermarriage

58

70

[N = 331 and 530]

Exclude non-Zoros from

22

12

[N = 309 and 501]

western prayer rooms

Religious beliefs

Believe in:

Immortal soul

59

63

[N = 240 and 443]

Reincarnation

45

29

[N = 246 and 400]

Resurrection

12

11

[N = 178 and 366]

Heaven and hell

51

46

[N = 220 and 412]

Prayers for dead essential

44

28

[N = 329 and 525]

Prayers benefit dead

22

16

[N = 329 and 525]

Prayers benefit living

9

22

[N = 329 and 525]

Religious authority in old country

16

11

[N = 305 and 512]

Religious beliefs changed a lot here

12

23

[N = 314 and 514]

Religious practices changed a lot here

23

34

[N = 282 and 498]

Secular culture

Often eat Indian or Iranian food

84

82

[N = 335 and 537]

Often wear Indian or Iranian dress

31

14

[N = 301 and 504]

Consider worth preserving:

Traditional food

67

79

[N = 292 and 513]

Traditional music

61

42

[N = 275 and 492]

Traditional art

46

52

[N = 278 and 497]

The religion

89

89

[N = 302 and 521]

Traditional language

69

69

[N = 290 and 507]

(p.767)

Table 9: Type of Education

Question

Arts (%)

Sciences (%)

[N =]

Religious practices

Pray daily

74

63

[N = 557 and 506]

Always wear sudre and kusti

65

66

[N = 552 and 501]

Observe all Z’ian traditions

29

23

[N = 552 and 501]

Attend religious functions regularly

37

36

[N = 467 and 436]

Want dokhma funeral

20

17

[N = 552 and 504]

Object to intermarriage

30

29

[N = 552 and 498]

Exclude non-Zoros from

19

14

[N = 516 and 462]

prayer rooms here

Religious beliefs

Believe in:

Immortal soul

69

62

[N = 415 and 404]

Reincarnation

50

30

[N = 386 and 359]

Resurrection

12

11

[N = 291 and 316]

Heaven and hell

54

45

[N = 345 and 336]

Prayers for dead essential

36

28

[N = 543 and 496]

Benefit dead

22

19

[N = 543 and 496]

Benefit the living

14

20

[N = 543 and 496]

Religious authority in old country

13

10

[N = 528 and 488]

Religious beliefs changed a lot here

15

18

[N = 514 and 482]

Religious practices changed a lot here

25

29

[N = 468 and 461]

Secular culture

Define citizenship in terms of:

Country of birth

28

26

[N = 549 and 494]

Country of residence

30

33

[N = 549 and 494]

Consider worth preserving:

Traditional food

73

75

[N = 513 and 456]

Traditional music

38

38

[N = 476 and 456]

Traditional dress

46

30

[N = 490 and 454]

Traditional art

49

45

[N = 486 and 461]

The religion

92

89

[N = 534 and 482]

Traditional language

68

64

[N = 504 and 467]

(p.768)

Table 10: Type of Career

Question

Business person (%)

Professional (%)

[N =]

Religious practices

Pray daily

74

68

[N = 362 and 573]

Always wear sudre and kusti

75

63

[N = 355 and 569]

Regularly attend religious functions

39

36

[N = 305 and 484]

Want dokhma funeral

22

19

[N = 381 and 574]

Object to intermarriage

21

16

[N = 359 and 568]

Exclude non-Zoros from western prayer rooms

21

16

[N = 333 and 525]

Religious beliefs

Believe in:

Immortal soul

66

62

[N = 286 asnd 445]

Reincarnation

48

39

[N = 264 and 415]

Heaven and hell

49

42

[N = 263 and 389]

Prayers for dead necessary

37

31

[N = 354 and 566]

Benefit dead

21

19

[N = 354 and 566]

Benefit living

12

19

[N = 354 and 566]

Religious authority in old country

15

8

[N = 343 and 546]

Religious beliefs changed little here

78

81

[N = 335 and 543]

Religious practices changed little here

69

63

[N = 324 and 513]

Secular culture

Affirm citizenship in terms of:

Country of birth

28

23

[N = 356 and 572]

Country of residence

31

34

[N = 356 and 572]

Zoroastrian-ness

45

71

[N = 356 and 572]

Often eat Indian or Iranian food

85

84

[N = 358 and 575]

Consider worth preserving:

Traditional food

74

76

[N = 329 and 535]

Traditional music

35

44

[N = 308 and 497]

Traditional art

45

50

[N = 308 and 507]

Traditional dress

37

42

[N = 356 and 572]

(p.769)

Table 11: Decade of Arrival

Question

Pre-1950s (%)

1950s (%)

1960s (%)

1970s (%)

1980s

[N =]

Religious practices

Pray daily

78

72

68

68

75

[N = 67–112–437–669–338]

Always wear sudre and kusti

81

61

71

63

71

[N = 62–112–436–662–338]

Observe Z’ian traditions :

All

25

21

30

28

30

[N = 67–111–438–668–338]

Pateti, No Ruz, gahambars

20

15

11

16

9

[N = 67–111–438–668–338]

None

14

7

6

7

12

[N = 67–111–438–668–338]

Attend religious functions often

33

33

39

36

45

[N = 54–100–392–577–280]

Want dokhma funeral

25

13

15

14

26

[N = 67–112–434–664–337]

Object to intermarriage

38

22

24

27

36

[N = 67–112–434–661–336]

Exclude non-Zoros from western prayer rooms

22

9

17

15

20

[N = 53–107–410–628–305]

Religious beliefs

Believe in:

Immortal soul

66

67

63

63

68

[N = 50–84–328–522–254]

Reincarnation

43

50

41

38

47

[N = 44–76–326–469–241]

Resurrection

17

12

14

9

11

[N = 35–65–266–393–188]

Heaven and hell

50

45

51

47

45

[N = 38–73–297–470–229]

Prayers for dead essential

46

35

34

33

33

[N = 65–110–433–651–331]

Religious authority in old country

19

9

13

11

12

[N = 63–107–414–628–319]

Religious beliefs changed a lot here

20

18

25

18

8

[N = 61–108–430–645–323]

Religious practices changed a lot here

25

42

36

31

17

[N = 53–98–404–607–304]

Secular culture

Assert citizenship in terms of:

Country of birth

31

14

18

19

39

[N = 68–112–433–659–331]

Country of residence

33

36

39

32

25

[N = 68–112–433–659–331]

Zoroastrian-ness

34

37

48

52

53

[N = 68–112–433–659–331]

Eat Indian or Iranian food often

66

69

85

87

88

[N = 68–111–439–668–339]

Wear Indian or Iranian dress often

33

18

14

20

22

[N = 54–102–417–622–311]

Consider worth preserving:

Traditional dress

44

32

37

39

39

[N = 55–108–408–595–245]

Traditional food

73

68

77

74

74

[N = 55–105–419–619–286]

Traditional music

41

40

37

40

43

[N = 54–107–403–586–247]

Traditional art

47

48

46

48

47

[N = 53–105–412–588–260]

The religion

86

94

88

90

91

[N = 56–108–417–622–323]

Traditional language

73

60

64

70

73

[N = 55–109–414–604–208]

Community relations good between:

Iranian Z’ians and Parsis

58

46

37

33

39

[N = 55–95–396–601–302]

Parsis

71

63

64

64

58

[N = 63–98–412–613–300]

Old and new immigrants

56

52

50

51

52

[N = 50–87–378–554–287]

(p.770) (p.771) (p.772)

Table 12: Age Groups

Question

Under 20s (%)

20s (%)

30s (%)

40s (%)

50s (%)

60s (%)

70+ (%)

[N =]

Religious practices

Pray daily

53

56

66

72

73

83

90

[N = 100–242–407–445–322–160–98]

Always wear sudre and kusti

59

51

65

70

71

80

86

[N = 101–241–406–444–318–157–95]

Zoroastrian traditions observed:

None

12

9

7

7

8

8

6

[N = 93–233–398–443–321–158–93]

Pateti, No Ruz, gahambars

17

16

13

10

17

15

14

[N = 93–233–398–443–321–158–93]

All

28

31

24

30

28

36

39

[N = 93–233–398–443–321–158–93]

Attend religious functions often

30

32

34

42

38

47

40

[N = 79–203–346–390–283–130–83]

Want dokhma funeral

23

26

20

18

17

18

24

[N = 98–240–407–445–323–159–96]

Accept intermarriage

75

72

71

62

69

66

58

[N = 100–240–405–442–318–157–96]

Exclude non-Zoros from western prayer rooms

20

19

15

20

15

16

16

[N = 92–227–385–410–300–141–83]

Religious beliefs

Believe in:

Immortal soul

56

68

63

61

61

78

75

[N = 90–197–314–331–245–115–64]

Reincarnation

22

31

41

43

45

48

54

[N = 83–181–299–319–225–101–56]

Resurrection

10

12

10

12

9

14

32

[N = 78–162–257–263–177–63–41]

Heaven and hell

46

40

48

48

44

57

49

[N = 85–181–292–315–207–91–49]

Prayers for dead:

Essential

22

30

30

37

33

44

45

[N = 97–234–401–443–317–155–93]

Benefit the dead

19

16

24

20

21

21

15

[N = 97–234–401–443–317–155–93]

Benefit living

20

15

18

15

15

12

12

[N = 97–234–401–443–317–155–93]

Religious authority in old country

13

10

11

14

10

13

17

[N = 89–229–390–422–304–149–87]

Beliefs changed a lot here

10

19

17

22

16

14

10

[N = 87–221–388–428–305–150–86]

Practices changed a lot here

11

25

34

33

27

24

22

[N = 84–212–378–405–280–127–76]

Secular culture

Assert citizenship in terms of:

County of birth

36

31

29

26

19

25

17

[N = 99–240–396–444–320–155–95]

Country of residence

24

28

31

34

31

32

25

[N = 99–240–396–444–320–155–95]

Zoroastrian-ness

52

51

54

54

44

42

39

[N = 99–240–396–444–320–155–95]

Often eat Indian or Iranian food

76

79

88

86

82

83

85

[N = 100–245–408–443–319–160–97]

Often wear Indian or Iranian dress

5

10

18

17

25

34

45

[N = 88–222–381–425–293–141–88]

Consider worth preserving:

Traditional food

85

82

78

75

69

64

46

[N = 92–220–381–413–294–144–78]

Traditional music

29

41

39

40

42

37

34

[N = 80–204–364–395–277–134–79]

Traditional dress

34

41

38

43

36

36

40

[N = 82–210–363–404–284–133–80]

Traditional art

50

55

48

46

50

40

35

[N = 84–211–363–400–279–136–80]

The religion

76

86

93

89

92

93

90

[N = 89–225–394–425–299–149–82]

Traditional language

67

70

73

68

64

62

51

[N = 88–218–380–409–285–141–79]

Community relations good between:

Iranians and Parsis

34

30

37

31

46

54

60

[N = 94–215–372–412–279–136–77]

Parsis

56

56

63

63

68

72

71

[N = 91–223–380–418–291–139–82]

New and old migrants

39

41

52

49

56

55

66

[N = 83–198–347384–256–115–59]

The [N =] for respondents over the age of 70 is low compared with the sample size for people in their forties. They were retained as a separate group of respondents in their sixties because the differences between the two age groups are interesting, but caution is necessary in the use of that column.

(p.773) (p.774)

Table 13: Family Relations

Questions

Single (%)

Married (%)

Separated/divorced (%)

Widowed (%)

[N =]

Religious practices

Pray daily

61

72

65

92

[N = 401–1274–48–83]

Always wear sudre and kusti

58

70

53

88

[N = 404–1259–48–82]

Observe Z’ian traditions :

All

27

30

26

38

[N = 386–1258–46–80]

None

10

7

40

3

[N = 386–1258–46–80]

Attend religious functions often

27

40

30

46

[N = 333–1103–38–67]

Want dokhma funeral

23

18

19

18

[N = 400–1268–47–83]

Accept intermarriage

74

66

76

60

[N = 401–1260–47–83]

Exclude non-Zoros from western prayer rooms

18

17

16

19

[N = 375–1179–44–69]

Describe self as:

Orthodox

10

12

9

20

[N = 378–1231–46–80]

Liberal

47

54

48

55

[N = 378–1231–46–80]

Non-practising

15

8

19

9

[N = 378–1231–46–80]

Religious beliefs

Believe in:

Immortal soul

65

63

55

78

[N = 332–952–35–58]

Reincarnation

32

42

50

57

[N = 294–904–33–51]

Resurrection

12

11

13

28

[N = 263–729–28–32]

Heaven and hell

48

48

41

55

[N = 299–865–32–42]

Prayers for the dead:

Absolutely necessary

30

35

31

52

[N = 393–1251–47–82]

Benefit dead

19

21

15

15

[N = 393–1251–47–82]

Benefit living

18

16

10

11

[N = 393–1251–47–82]

Religious authority in old country

9

13

5

11

[N = 375–1210–44–73]

Beliefs changed a lot here

16

18

18

19

[N = 372–1209–46–73]

Practices changed a lot here

25

29

25

41

[N = 353–1140–41–61]

Secular culture

Assert citizenship in terms of:

Country of birth

31

25

14

27

[N = 401–1256–47–79]

Country of residence

29

33

29

19

[N = 401–1256–47–79]

Zoroastrian-ness

47

52

40

31

[N = 401–1256–47–79]

Worth preserving:

Traditional food

77

74

71

54

[N = 371–1168–40–72]

Traditional music

35

41

35

34

[N = 346–1102–41–70]

Traditional dress

37

40

41

31

[N = 363–1111–41–68]

Traditional art

51

47

39

29

[N = 354–1113–41–69]

The religion

82

92

94

93

[N = 371–1145–41–69]

Traditional languages

68

68

64

59

[N = 371–1145–42–69]

Community relations good between:

Parsis and Iranians

32

39

32

65

[N = 369–1142–39–63]

Parsis

55

67

44

74

[N = 370–1173–45–65]

New and old migrants

44

53

36

62

[N = 328–1043–40–56]

(p.775) (p.776)

Table 14: Type of Family

Questions

Nuclear (%)

Extended (%)

No Family (%)

[N =]

Religious practices

Pray daily

74

67

82

[N = 430–1122–242]

Always wear sudre and kusti

69

66

69

[N = 425–1114–242]

Observe Z’ian traditions :

All

31

30

21

[N = 430–1112–242]

Pateti, No Ruz, gahambars

12

14

16

[N = 430–1112–242]

None

16

4

8

[N = 430–1112–242]

Attend religious functions often

45

34

38

[N = 350–969–217]

Want dokhma funeral

21

17

25

[N = 425–1123–240]

Object to intermarriage

26

30

30

[N = 428–1112–240]

Allow non-Zoros in western prayer room

39

36

34

[N = 396–1043–223]

Religious beliefs

Believe in:

Immortal soul

66

64

63

[N = 329–845–199]

Reincarnation

43

37

41

[N = 312–788–181]

Resurrection

15

11

10

[N = 247–652–154]

Heaven and hell

45

49

49

[N = 285–778–175]

Prayers for dead essential

36

35

27

[N = 419–1107–236]

Beliefs changed a lot here

15

18

17

[N = 415–1037–237]

Practices changed a lot here

24

29

31

[N = 381–986–216]

Secular culture

Define citizenship in terms of:

Country of birth

22

26

28

[N = 422–1111–240]

Country of residence

37

31

25

[N = 422–1111–240]

Zoroastrian-ness

49

51

45

[N = 422–1111–240]

Eat Indian or Iranian food often

84

84

86

[N = 428–1120–243]

Wear Indian or Iranian dress often

20

20

17

[N = 401–1025–233]

Consider worth preserving:

Traditional food

85

69

75

[N = 344–1069–232]

Traditional music

49

37

37

[N = 267–1062–227]

Traditional dress

52

36

31

[N = 285–1058–227]

Traditional art

60

45

42

[N = 283–1062–230]

The religion

93

88

92

[N = 380–1077–230]

Traditional language

76

65

64

[N = 330–1062–231]

Believe faced discrimination

34

37

38

[N = 419–1072–238]

(p.777)

Table 15: With(out) Children

Questions

With children (%)

No children (%)

[N =]

Religious practices

Pray daily

72

66

[N = 1226–696]

Always wear sudre and kusti

71

62

[N = 1213–596]

Observe all Z’ian traditions

30

25

[N = 1207–579]

Attend religious functions regularly

41

37

[N = 1071–483]

Want dokhma funeral

17

18

[N = 1221–593]

Accept intermarriage

63

78

[N = 1209–597]

Exclude non-Zoros from western prayer rooms

18

12

[N = 1130–552]

Religious beliefs

Believe in:

Immortal soul

65

60

[N = 921–469]

Reincarnation

43

39

[N = 869–428]

Resurrection

12

11

[N = 694–371]

Heaven and hell

48

46

[N = 824–429]

Prayers for dead essential

38

27

[N = 1204–585]

Prayers benefit dead

23

19

[N = 1204–585]

Prayers benefit living

15

20

[N = 1204–585]

Religious authority in old country

13

9

[N = 1158–558]

Religious beliefs changed a lot here

19

14

[N = 1160–553]

Religious practices changed quite a lot here

32

27

[N = 1086–520]

Secular culture

Citizenship asserted in terms of:

Country of birth

24

27

[N = 1209–589]

Country of residence

33

29

[N = 1209–589]

Zoroastrian-ness

53

37

[N = 1209–589]

Often eat Indian or Iranian food

88

80

[N = 1223–596]

Often wear Indian or Iranian dress

21

23

[N = 1149–534]

Consider worth preserving:

Traditional food

73

72

[N = 1129–535]

Traditional music

40

38

[N = 1077–495]

Traditional art

46

47

[N = 1082–510]

The religion

92

88

[N = 1155–552]

Traditional language

68

58

[N = 1107–534]

(p.778)

Table 16: Intermarriage

Questions

In-marrieds (%)

Out-marrieds (%)

[N =]

Religious practices

Pray daily

75

55

[N = 1193–200]

Always wear sudre and kusti

75

47

[N = 1179–198]

Observe Z’ian traditions:

All

32

14

[N = 1181–192]

None

5

17

[N = 1181–192]

Attend religious functions often

42

28

[N = 1170–198]

Want dokhma funeral

20

8

[N = 1186–202]

Religious beliefs

Believe in:

Immortal soul

65

61

[N = 877–158]

Reincarnation

43

45

[N = 831–150]

Resurrection

12

10

[N = 653–131]

Heaven and hell

50

41

[N = 789–144]

Prayers for dead:

Essential

38

21

[N = 1170–198]

Prayers benefit dead

21

15

[N = 1170–198]

Prayers benefit living

13

27

[N = 1170–198]

Religious authority in old country

15

7

[N = 1127–194]

Religious beliefs changed here quite a lot

16

28

[N = 1120–198]

Religious practices changed here quite a lot

27

47

[N = 1046–187]

Secular culture

Assert citizenship in terms of:

Country of birth

25

19

[N = 1171–201]

Country of residence

31

41

[N = 1171–201]

Zoroastrian-ness

52

40

[N = 1171–201]

Often eat Indian or Iranian food

90

67

[N = 1190–199]

Often wear Indian or Iranian dress

24

11

[N = 1113–184]

Consider worth preserving:

Traditional food

72

81

[N = 1087–186]

Traditional music

41

39

[N = 1034–175]

Traditional dress

40

34

[N = 1040–176]

Traditional art

45

55

[N = 1040–179]

The religion

92

89

[N = 1119–192]

Traditional language

67

65

[N = 1067–184]

(p.779)

Table 17: Who Prays?

Questions

Pray regularly (%)

Rarely/never pray (%)

[N =]

Length of time been in diaspora:

10 years

85

15

[N = 513]

11–20 years

85

15

[N = 520]

21–30 years

84

16

[N = 188]

30+ years

83

17

[N = 93]

Less than a year

96

4

[N = 26]*

Men

80

20

[N = 796]

Women

90

10

[N = 700]

Age groups:

Under 20

67

33

[N = 79]

20–29

77

23

[N = 176]

30–39

83

17

[N = 326]

40–49

87

13

[N = 371]

50–59

87

13

[N = 272]

60–69

92

8

[N = 144]

7+

93

7

[N = 95]

Marital status:

Single

76

24

[N = 323]

Married

87

13

[N = 1052]

Separated/divorced

77

23

[N = 43]*

Widowed

97

3

[N = 78]

Married to:

A Zoroastrian

90

10

[N = 997]

Non-Zoroastrian

71

29

[N = 156]

Type of family:

Nuclear

88

12

[N = 365]

Extended

83

17

[N = 907]

No family

85

15

[N = 208]

Language read in:

Gujarati

94

6

[N = 531]

Persian

70

30

[N = 56]*

English only

77

23

[N = 564]

Educational level completed:

Schooling only

89

11

[N = 375]

Degree level

85

15

[N = 676]

Postgraduate study

80

20

[N = 442]

Type of education:

Arts

88

12

[N = 466]

Science

79

21

[N = 399]

Religious classes in childhood?

Yes

90

10

[N = 535]

No

81

19

[N = 888]

Correspond with Z’ians :

Regularly

90

10

[N = 971]

Rarely/never

66

34

[N = 133]

Contact with Z’ians :

Regularly

88

12

[N = 1100]

Rarely/never

80

20

[N = 311]

(*) Note low [N =]; these figures should be used with caution.

(p.780)

Table 18: Attendance at a Zoroastrian Centre for Religious Functions

Questions

Regularly (%)

Infrequently (%)

[N =]

Religious practices

Pray daily

80

48

[N = 583–207]

Always wear sudre and kusti

76

49

[N = 581–206]

Observe Zoroastrian traditions:

None

5

8

[N = 583–206]

All

47

17

[N = 583–206]

Want dokhma funeral

24

11

[N = 581–205]

Accept intermarriage

56

84

[N = 579–208]

Object to intermarriage

40

14

[N = 579–208]

Don’t know

4

2

[N = 579–208]

Exclude non-Zoros from

20

8

[N = 535–195]

western prayer rooms

Religious beliefs

Believe in:

Immortal soul

72

46

[N = 453–156]

Reincarnation

44

36

[N = 436–148]

Resurrection

13

8

[N = 350–130]

Heaven and hell

52

33

[N = 418–144]

Prayers for dead:

Essential

42

19

[N = 570–206]

Prayers benefit dead

21

14

[N = 570–206]

Prayers benefit living

12

24

[N = 570–206]

Religious authority in old country

19

22

[N = 559–186]

Religious beliefs changed little here

77

68

[N = 565–189]

Religious practices changed little here

71

50

[N = 520–187]

Secular culture