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The Lights that FailedEuropean International History 1919-1933$

Zara Steiner

Print publication date: 2005

Print ISBN-13: 9780198221142

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198221142.001.0001

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(p.834) Appendix C Chronology of International Events, 1918–1933

(p.834) Appendix C Chronology of International Events, 1918–1933

The Lights that Failed
Oxford University Press


5 Jan.

Lloyd George speech on Allied peace aims

8 Jan.

Wilson's ‘Fourteen Points’

1 Mar.

Treaty between Finland and Soviet Russia

6 Mar.

Soviet—German Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

British troops land at Murmansk

5 Apr.

Japanese occupy Vladivostock

7 May

Treaty of Bucharest between Romania and the Central Powers

10 July

Constitution as Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic adopted

29 Sept.

German Army High Command calls for armistice Armistice between Bulgaria and the Allied powers

4 Oct.

Germany requests armistice

28 Oct.

Germany: mutiny of the High Seas Fleet at Kiel

30 Oct.

Armistice of Mudros: Turkish unconditional surrender

3 Nov.

Austria-Hungary agrees armistice

5 Nov.

‘Lansing Note’ released

Independent Polish state proclaimed

9 Nov.

Proclamation of the German republic

Romania re-enters war on side of Allied powers

11 Nov.

German armistice

12 Nov.

Austrian republic proclaimed

4 Nov.

Czechoslovak republic proclaimed

6 Nov.

Hungarian republic proclaimed

4 Dec.

Formation of Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes

13 Dec.

President Wilson arrives in France

18 Dec.

French-led Allied forces land at Odessa


4 Jan.

‘Red Army’ captures Riga

18 Jan.

Paris Peace Conference opens

8 Feb.

Lloyd George returns to Britain (until 14 March)

15 Feb.

Wilson returns to USA (until 14 March)

19 Feb.

Attempted assassination of Clemenceau

2–6 Mar.

First Congress of the Communist International (Third International; Comintern founded), Moscow

21 Mar.–1 Aug.

Soviet republic created in Hungary (Bela Kun)

24 Mar.

Council of Four begins deliberations

25 Mar.

Lloyd George's ‘Fontainebleau memorandum’

28 Mar.

Hungary invades Slovakia

29 Mar.

China leaves peace conference

10 Apr.

Romania invades Hungary

24 Apr.

Italy leaves peace conference

7 May

Versailles Treaty presented to Germany

15 May

Greek forces occupy Smyrna

6 June

Finland declares war on Soviet Russia

21 June

German fleet scuttled at Scapa Flow

28 June

Treaty of Versailles signed Polish minorities treaty signed

4 Aug.–13 Nov.

Romanian forces occupy Budapest

11 Aug.

Germany: Weimar constitution comes into force

10 Sept.

Treaty of St-Germain-en-Laye with Austria

Czechoslovak and Serb-Croat-Slovene Kingdom minorities treaties signed

12 Sept.

D'Annunzio seizes Fiume

27 Sept.

British troops withdrawn from Archangel

12 Oct.

British evacuate Murmansk

19 Nov.

US Senate fails to ratify Treaty of Versailles

27 Nov.

Treaty of Neuilly with Bulgaria

9 Dec.

Romanian minorities treaty signed



8–16 Jan.

Paris conference: Britain, France, Italy (discuss Fiume, trade with Russia)

10 Jan.

Treaty of Versailles comes into force

15–22 Jan.

Helsingfors conference: Poland, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania discuss common policy towards Soviet Russia

15 Jan.

Allies formally demand surrender of ex-kaiser (Dutch refusal received 27 January)

16 Jan.

League of Nations: first meeting of the Council, Paris

18 Jan.

French government takes control of Saar mines

21 Jan.

Paris peace conference officially closes: last meeting of Supreme Council and formal empowerment of the Conference of Ambassadors

2 Feb.

Soviet—Estonian peace treaty of Tartu (Dorpat)

9 Feb.

Allied troops enter Danzig

10 Feb.

Voting in first plebiscite zone in Schlesvig (result in favour of Denmark)

12–23 Feb.

London conference in London: Britain, France, Italy, Greece (discuss Near East, Fiume)

15 Feb.

Allies take over Memel

2 Mar.

Armistice between Romania and Soviet Russia

14 Mar.

Voting in second plebiscite zone in Schlesvig (result in favour of Germany)

16 Mar.

Allies occupy Constantinople

19 Mar.

Second and final US Senate rejection of the Treaty of Versailles

6 Apr.–17 May

French occupation of Frankfurt and Darmstadt

19–26 Apr.

San Remo conference: Britain, France, Italy, Belgium, Japan, Greece (discuss Near East, mandates, German disarmament)

25 Apr.

Polish offensive against Soviet Russia

5 May

Supreme Council assigns ‘A’ mandates: Syria to France; Mesopotamia and Palestine to Britain

15–17 May

Hythe conference: Britain, France (discuss reparations)

4 June

Peace Treaty of Trianon with Hungary

11 June

Soviet Red Army takes Kiev

19–20 June

Hythe conference: Britain, France, Greece (discuss Near East)

21–2 June

Boulogne conference: Britain, France, Italy, Belgium, Japan, Greece (discuss disarmament, reparations)

2–3 July

Brussels conference: Britain, France, Italy, Belgium, Japan (discuss reparations)

5–16 July

Spa conference: Britain, France, Italy, Belgium, Japan, Poland, and Germany (discuss reparations, disarmament, Near East, Russo-Polish war)

6 July

Soviet Russian offensive against Poland begins

11 July

Plebiscites in Allenstein and Marienwerder (in favour of union with Germany)

12 July

Soviet Russian-Lithuanian peace treaty

16 July

Spa Protocol on reparations

8 Aug.

Hythe conference: Britain, France (discuss Russo-Polish war)

10 Aug.

Treaty of Sevres with Sultanate Turkey Greek and Armenian minorities treaties signed

11 Aug.

Soviet Russian-Latvian peace treaty of Riga

14–16 Aug.

Poles defeat Soviet Russians at Warsaw

14 Aug.

Czech-Yugoslav alliance

1–8 Sept.

Baku Congress of the Peoples of the East

7 Sept.

Franco-Belgian military convention

20 Sept.

Council assigns Eupen and Malmedy to Belgium

24 Sept.–8 Oct.

International Financial Conference, Brussels: 39 states attend

9 Oct.

Poland seizes Vilna

12 Oct.

Soviet Russian-Polish armistice

14 Oct.

Soviet Russian-Finnish peace treaty of Tartu (Dorpat)

27 Oct.

League of Nations headquarters established in Geneva

28 Oct.

Bessarabian accord—French recognition of Romanian sovereignty

12 Nov.

Italo-Yugoslav Treaty of Rapallo

15 Nov.–18 Dec.

League of Nations: first meeting of the Assembly in Geneva

15 Nov.

Danzig formally becomes a ‘Free City’

2 Dec.

Treaty of Aleksandropol between Turkey and Armenia

10 Dec.

Nobel Peace Prizes awarded to Wilson (1919) and Bourgeois (1920)

15 Dec.

Austria admitted to League of Nations

16 Dec.

Statute of the Permanent Court of International Justice opened for signature at Geneva

Bulgaria admitted to League of Nations

(p.836) (p.837)


24–30 Jan.

Paris conference: Britain, France, Italy, Belgium, Japan (discuss reparations, disarmament, Austrian reconstruction, Near East)

26 Jan.

Independence of Estonia and Latvia recognized by Allied powers

19 Feb.

Franco-Polish treaty of mutual assistance

21 Feb.–14 Mar.

London conference: Britain, France, Italy, Belgium, Japan, Greece and Turkey, Germany (discuss Near East, reparations)

26 Feb.

Soviet Russian—Persian treaty

28 Feb.

Soviet Russian—Afghanistan treaty

1 Mar.

Montenegro joins the Serb-Croat-Slovene Kingdom

3 Mar.

Polish-Romanian defensive alliance against Russia

8 Mar.–30 Sept.

Allied troops occupy Duisburt, Ruhrort, and Dusseldorf

8–16 Mar.

Soviet Russia: Congress of the Communist Party adopts New Economic Policy

16 Mar.

Anglo-Soviet trade agreement

Soviet Russian-Turkish treaty

18 Mar.

Polish—Soviet Treaty of Riga

20 Mar.

Upper Silesian plebiscite

27 Mar.

Failed Habsburg coup in Hungary

23–4 Apr.

Lympne conference: Britain, France (discuss reparations)

23 Apr.

Czechoslovak-Romanian alliance

27 Apr.

Reparations Commission fixes total German debts at 132 billion gold marks

29 Apr.–5 May

London conference: Britain, France, Italy, Belgium, Japan, and Germany (discuss reparations)

5 May

London schedule of reparations payments and Allied ultimatum to Germany

11 May

German government accepts ‘London Schedule’

7 June

Romanian-Yugoslav alliance

19 June

Paris conference: Britain, France, Italy (discuss Near East)

16–19 July

League of Nations: first session of Temporary Mixed Commission (disarmament)

8–13 Aug.

Paris conference: Britain, France, Italy, Belgium, Japan (discuss Upper Silesia, Near East, disarmament)

22 Aug.

League of Nations: Nansen appointed high commissioner for refugees

24 Aug.

US peace treaty with Austria

25 Aug.

US peace treaty with Germany

29 Aug.

US peace treaty with Hungary

7 Oct.

Wiesbaden agreements between Loucheur and Rathenau regarding deliveries in kind

12 Oct.

League Council partitions Upper Silesia between Germany and Poland

13 Oct.

Treaty of Kars between Russia, Turkey, and the Bolshevik governments of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia

20 Oct.

Peace of Ankara between France and Turkey

5 Nov.

Soviet Russia-Mongolia treaty

12 Nov.–6 Feb.

Washington Naval Conference: USA, Britain, Japan, France, Italy

12 Nov.

Independence of Albania recognized by Allied powers

6 Dec.

Anglo-Irish peace agreement

18–22 Dec.

London conference: Britain, France (discuss reparations, security, reconstruction)

21 Dec.

Turco-Soviet Treaty of Friendship



6–13 Jan.

Cannes conference: Britain, France, Italy, Belgium, Japan, and Germany (discuss reparations, Anglo-French pact, agenda for general conference on European reconstruction)

6 Feb.

Washington treaties signed: Five Power treaty on naval limitation; Nine Power treaty on China; supplementary Four Power Pacific treaty

15 Feb.

Opening of the Permanent Court of International Justice at the Hague

25 Feb.

Boulogne conference: Britain, France (discuss conditions for Genoa conference)

12 Mar.

Communist republics of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan combine to form the Transcaucasian Soviet Republic

15 Mar.

Soviet—German military agreement

22–6 Mar.

Paris conference: Britain, France, Italy (discuss Near East)

10 Apr.—19 May

Genoa conference: 29 European states (European reconstruction, relations with Soviet Russia)

16 Apr.

Soviet—German Treaty of Rapallo

22 May

Italo-Russian trade agreement

26 May

Lenin suffers his first stroke

24 June

Germany: Rathenau murdered

26 June—20 July

Experts’ Conference at the Hague (discuss relations with Russia)

30 June

Lithuania recognized by Allied powers

1 Aug.

Balfour note on war debts

7–14 Aug.

Allied powers conference in London: Britain, France, Italy, Belgium (discuss reparations)

10 Sept.

British—Soviet Russian trade agreement

18 Sept.

League of Nations: Hungary admitted as member of League French and Italian governments order withdrawal of troops from Chanak

4 Oct.

League of Nations: Geneva protocols for financial reconstruction of Austria adopted

8–9 Oct.

Conference at Reval: Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Poland (discuss Russian non-aggression proposal)

11 Oct.

Mudanya armistice between Allied powers and Ankara government ends Chanak crisis

19 Oct.

Britain: dissolution of Lloyd George coalition

23 Oct.

Britain: Conservative government formed by Bonar Law

25 Oct.

Japanese evacuate Vladivostok

28 Oct.

Italy: ‘march on Rome’ by Mussolini's fascists

30 Oct.

Italy: Mussolini appointed prime minister

22 Nov.

Germany: Cuno (non-party) cabinet formed

17 Nov.

Britain: Conservatives win general election; Bonar Law remains prime minister

20 Nov.—4 Feb.

Lausanne conference on peace with Turkey (first part)

2–12 Dec.

Moscow conference on disarmament: Soviet Union, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Poland, Lithuania

9–11 Dec.

Allied powers conference in London: Britain, France, Italy, Belgium (discuss reparations)

10 Dec.

Formation of the USSR

26 Dec.

Reparations Commission declares Germany in timber default

30 Dec.

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics constituted by Treaty of Federation signed in Moscow (Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Transcaucasian Federation)

(p.839) (p.840)


1 Jan.

USSR officially established.

2–4 Jan.

Allied powers conference in Paris: Britain, France, Italy, Belgium (discuss reparations)

9 Jan.

Reparations Commission declares Germany in coal default

10 Jan.

Lithuanians invade Memel territory

11 Jan.

French and Belgian troops begin occupation of the Ruhr

30 Jan.

Greek-Turkish convention on exchange of populations

4 Feb.

Lausanne conference breaks down as Turkish delegation rejects draft peace terms

16 Feb.

Conference of Ambassadors assigns Memel to Lithuania

14 Mar.

Allies recognize Vilna and East Galicia as Polish

16 Mar.

German government issues ordnance in support of ‘passive resistance’

23 Apr.–24 July

Lausanne conference on peace with Turkey (second part)

22 May

Britain: Baldwin succeeds Bonar Law as Conservative prime minister

9 June

Coup d’ etat in Bulgaria (overthrow of premier Stamboliiski)

18 June

Anglo-American war debt agreement

24 July

Treaty of Lausanne between Allied powers and Turkey

3 Aug.

USA: Coolidge (Republican) becomes president following death of Harding

13 Aug.

Germany: Stresemann (DVP), first ‘Great Coalition’ cabinet formed

31 Aug.

Italy occupies Corfu

3–29 Sept.

League of Nations: fourth meeting of the Assembly, Geneva

13 Sept.

Spain: military dictatorship imposed by Primo de Rivera

22 Sept.

League of Nations: Council submits Corfu dispute to Committee of Jurists

27 Sept.

Ruhr: ‘Passive resistance’ called off by German presidential decree

28 Sept.

League of Nations: Ethiopia admitted to League

29 Sept.

League of Nations: Assembly adopts the draft Treaty of Mutual Assistance

6 Oct.

Germany: Stresemann second cabinet formed

21–6 Oct.

Rhineland separatists seize public buildings in Aachen, Coblenz, Bonn, Wiesbaden, Mainz

29 Oct.

Turkey: proclamation of the republic; Atatiirk (Mustapha Kemal) elected first president

8–11 Nov.

Germany: abortive Nazi (Hitler and Ludendorff) ‘beer hall’ putsch in Munich

15 Nov.

Germany: Rentenmark introduced to end inflation

30 Nov.

Germany: Marx (Center) first cabinet formed Experts’ Committee on reparations established by Reparations Commission (Dawes appointed chairman on 21 December)

6 Dec.

Britain: general election, with Conservative losses and a Labour minority

16 Dec.

Greece: large majority for republicans (Venizelists) in general election

20 Dec.

League Council adopts scheme for financial reconstruction of Hungary



14 Jan.

Reparations: first meeting of the Dawes Committee

21 Jan.

Death of Lenin

22 Jan.

Britain: Ramsay MacDonald forms Labour government

24 Jan.

Franco-Czechoslovak treaty of alliance signed in Paris

27 Jan.

‘Adriatic treaty’ between Italy and Serb-Croat-Slovene Kingdom signed in Rome

1 Feb.

Britain gives diplomatic recognition to Soviet Union

7 Feb.

Italy gives diplomatic recognition to Soviet Union

14–25 Feb.

League of Nations: Conference of Naval Experts on the extension of the Washington naval treaty, in Rome

25 Mar.

Greece proclaimed a republic (confirmed by plebiscite on 13 April)

9 Apr.

Reparations: presentation of Dawes Committee report on Geman reparations payments (‘Dawes plan’)

16 Apr.

German government accepts Dawes plan

25 Apr.

Acceptances of Dawes plan received by Reparations Commission from Britain, France, Belgium

4 May

Germany: Reichstag elections with gains for nationalist and leftist parties

11 May

France: elections to Chamber. Victory for ‘Cartel des gauches’

17 May

Memel statute adopted

31 May

Soviet-Chinese diplomatic relations established

3 June

Germany: Marx (Center) second cabinet formed

10 June

France: Millerand resigns as president

13 June

France: Doumergue elected president by parliament

15 June

France: formation of Herriot ministry

20–2 June

Herriot—MacDonald meetings at Chequers

5 July

League of Nations: British Labour government rejects draft Treaty of Mutual Assistance

Italy and Czechoslovakia sign pact of cordial collaboration in Rome

16 July—16 Aug.

London conference on reparations

16 Aug.

Final protocol of the London conference signed: Dawes plan adopted

18 Aug.

Evacuation of Allied troops from Ruhr begins (completed on 18 November)

29 Aug.

Germany: Dawes legislation approved by Reichstag

1 Sept—2 Oct.

League of Nations: fifth meeting of the Assembly, Geneva

13 Sept.

Parker Gilbert appointed agent-general for reparations

20 Sept.

League of Nations: Britain submits Mosul question for League determination

2 Oct.

League of Nations: ‘Geneva Protocol for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes’ adopted by Assembly

8 Oct.

Britain: Labour government defeated and elections called

25 Oct.

Britain: publication of Zinoviev letter

28 Oct.

France gives diplomatic recognition to Soviet Union

29 Oct.

Britain: Conservatives win large majority in general election

31 Oct.

Dawes plan comes into force

4 Nov.

USA: Coolidge (Republican) elected president

6 Nov.

Britain: Conservative government formed under Baldwin

7 Dec.

Germany: Reichstag elections, with losses by extremist parties



5 Jan.

Allies postpone evacuation of first Rhineland zone (Cologne), due on 10 January

15 Jan.

Germany: Luther (non-party) first cabinet formed

21 Jan.

Japanese de jure recognition of Soviet Union

18 Feb.

Final report of the Inter-Allied Military Control Commission

28 Feb.

Germany: death of Reich-President Ebert

12 Mar.

British government formally rejects the Geneva Protocol

17 Apr.

France: formation of Painleve ministry

23 Apr.

Czechoslovak—Polish treaty for conciliation and arbitration

26 Apr.

Germany: election of Hindenburg as Reich-President

28 Apr.

Britain returns to gold standard

4 May—17 June

League of Nations: Conference for the Control of the International Trade in Arms, Munitions and Implements of War, Geneva: 44 states attending

18 July

Germany: publication of Mein Kampf

5–16 Oct.

Locarno conference: Treaty of Locarno initialled on 16 October

12 Oct.

Soviet-German commercial treaty

16 Oct.

French mutual guarantee treaties with Poland and Czechoslovakia

19–29 Oct.

Greek-Bulgarian frontier incident

27 Nov.

Germany: Reichstag approves Locarno treaties

28 Nov.

France: formation of Briand ministry

1 Dec.

Treaty of Locarno signed in London Evacuation of first Rhineland zone (Cologne) begins (completed 31 January 1926)

10 Dec.

Dawes and Chamberlain awarded Nobel Peace Prize

14 Dec.

League Council delivers judgement on Greek-Bulgarian frontier dispute

17 Dec.

Turco-Soviet Pact of Non-Aggression and Neutrality



20 Jan.

Germany: Luther (non-party) second cabinet formed

10 Feb.

Germany applies for admission to League of Nations

8–17 Mar.

League of Nations: special session of Assembly on admission of Germany

9 Mar.

France: Briand reforms ministry

17 Mar.

League of Nations: Brazil blocks German entry to League

26 Mar.

Polish-Romanian guarantee treaty signed at Bucharest

24 Apr.

German-Soviet Treaty of Neutrality and Friendship (‘Berlin treaty’)

29 Apr.

French-American provisional war-debt agreement (Berenger-Mellon)

3–12 May

Britain: General Strike

12–15 May

Poland: Marshal Pifeudski carries out coup ds’ etat

16 May

Germany: Marx (Center) third cabinet formed

18–26 May

League of Nations: first session of Preparatory Commission for the World Disarmament Conference, Geneva

10 June

Franco-Romanian friendship and arbitration treaty signed in Paris

14 June

League of Nations: Brazil withdraws from the League

24 June

France: Briand again reforms ministry

30 June

League of Nations control withdrawn from Austria and Hungary

12 July

French-British war-debt agreement (Caillaux-Churchill)

23 July

France: formation of Poincare ministry

3 Aug.

France: Chamber votes on fiscal stabilization measures demanded by Poincare

17 Aug.

Greece and Serb-Croat-Slovene Kingdom (Yugoslavia) treaty of Friendship signed in Athens

31 Aug.

Soviet-Afghan Pact of Neutrality and Non-Aggression

8 Sept.

League of Nations: Germany admitted to the Assembly and becomes a permanent member of the Council

11 Sept.

League of Nations: Spain withdraws from the League

16 Sept.

Italo-Romanian friendship treaty signed in Rome

17 Sept.

Briand and Stresemann hold discussions at Thoiry

22–7 Sept.

League of Nations: second session of Preparatory Commission for the World Disarmament Conference, Geneva

28 Sept.

Lithuanian-Soviet Agreement on Non-Aggression and Neutrality

30 Sept.

International Steel Agreement between France, Germany, Belgium, Luxembourg

3–6 Oct.

First Pan-European Congress, Vienna

6 Oct.

Germany: General von Seeckt dismissed as chief of army com-

27 Nov.

Italo-Albanian treaty of friendship signed in Tirana

10 Dec.

Stresemann and Briand awarded Nobel Peace Prize



29 Jan.

Germany: Marx (Center) fourth cabinet formed

31 Jan.

Inter-Allied Military Control Commission withdrawn from Germany

21 Mar.–26 Apr.

League of Nations: third session of Preparatory Commission for the World Disarmament Conference, Geneva

5 Apr.

Italo-Hungarian friendship treaty

4–23 May

League of Nations: World Economic Conference, Geneva: 50 states attending

13–15 May

Little Entente: conference of foreign ministers at Joachimstal

27 May

Britain breaks off relations with Soviet Union after ARCOS raid

20 June—4 Aug.

Geneva Naval Conference: USA, Britain, Japan

17 Aug.

Franco-German commercial treaty

28 Sept.

USSR-Lithuanian treaty of non-aggression signed in Moscow

1 Oct.

Soviet-Persian non-aggression pact

11 Nov.

France and Serb-Croat-Slovene Kingdom sign treaty of understanding in Paris

22 Nov.

Italian-Albanian treaty signed at Tirana

30 Nov.–3 Dec.

League of Nations: fourth session of Preparatory Commission for the World Disarmament Conference, Geneva

1–2 Dec.

League of Nations: first session of Committee on Arbitration and Security

10 Dec.

Polish-Lithuanian state of war ends


20 Feb.–7 Mar.

League of Nations: second session of Committee on Arbitration and Security, Geneva

15–24 Mar.

League of Nations: fifth session of Preparatory Commission for the World Disarmament Conference, Geneva

29 Apr.

France: elections to Chamber

20 May

Germany: Reichstag elections, with gains by left and losses by middle-ground parties

7 June

France: Poincare reforms his ministry

24–5 June

France: official stabilization of the franc

27 June—4 July

League of Nations: third session of Committee on Arbitration and Security, Geneva

28 June

British proposals presented to French for an ‘armaments compromise’

28 June

Germany: Miiller (SPD) second cabinet formed (‘Great coalition’)

2 Aug.

Friendship treaty between Italy and Ethiopia signed at Addis Ababa

27 Aug.

Signing of Kellogg—Briand pact outlawing war (‘Paris Peace Pact’)

1 Sept.

Albania proclaimed a kingdom, President Zogu becoming King Zog

16 Sept.

Geneva agreement regarding reparations and Rhineland evacuation

26 Sept.

League of Nations: Assembly adopts the General Act

1 Oct.

First Soviet Five Year Plan

7 Nov.

USA: Hoover (Republican) wins presidential elections



10 Jan.

Reparation Commission formally appoints experts nominated by Belgium, France, Britain, Italy and Japan (also Germany and USA)

9 Feb.

‘Litvinov Protocol’: non-aggression pacts linking USSR, Romania, Poland, Latvia, and Estonia (27 Feb., Turkey; 3 Apr., Persia; 5 Apr., Lithuania)

11 Feb.

Lateran Accords between Italy and the Holy See. Reparations: Committee of Experts (‘Young Committee’) holds first formal meeting, Paris (until 7 June)

24 Mar.

Italy: parliamentary election (single list) produces plebiscitary acceptance of fascist regime

15 Apr.–6 May

League of Nations: sixth session (first part) of Preparatory Commission for the World Disarmament Conference, Geneva

29 May

Britain: general election with large gains for Labour

5 June

Britain: Ramsay MacDonald forms Labour government

7 June

Reparations: Young Committee report signed by experts

27 June

Germany: Reichstag votes funds for construction of ‘Cruiser A’ (pocket battleship).

20 July

France: Chamber approves ratification of war-debt agreements with USA and Britain

31 July

France: Briand takes on premiership of Poincare ministry

5–31 Aug.

Hague conference on reparations and Rhineland evacuation

30 Aug.

Hague conference: agreement reached on Rhineland evacuation

31 Aug.

Hague conference: final protocol signed recording acceptance in principle of Young plan

2‣25 Sept.

League of Nations: tenth meeting of the Assembly, Geneva

5 Sept.

Briand speech to Assembly introducing idea of European federal union

14 Sept.

Withdrawal of British troops from Rhineland begins (completed on 13 December)

19 Sept.

Britain and France sign the ‘Optional Clause’ of the statute of the Permanent Court of International Justice

1 Oct.

Britain re-establishes diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union

3 Oct.

Death of Stresemann

Diplomatic relations restored between Britain and Soviet Union

Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, renamed ‘Yugoslavia’

29 Oct.

New York stock exchange crash

7 Nov.

France: formation of Tardieu ministry

13 Nov.

Bank for International Settlements established

30 Nov.

Evacuation of second (Coblenz) zone of Rhineland by French and Belgian troops completed

10 Dec.

Kellogg awarded Nobel Peace Prize

21 Dec.

USSR: Stalin's fiftieth birthday celebrations; beginning of ‘personality cult’

22 Dec.

Germany: failure of nationalist plebiscite to reject Young plan

28 Dec.

France: Chamber votes credits for beginning construction of frontier fortifications (‘Maginot line’)



3–20 Jan.

Second Hague conference on the Young plan

21 Jan.–22 Apr.

London Naval Conference: USA, Britain, Japan, France, Italy

17 Feb.–24 Mar.

Preliminary Conference for Concerted Economic Action, Geneva (‘tariff truce conference’): 26 European and 3 non-European states

5 Mar.

France: Tardieu forms new ministry

7 Mar.

Germany: Schacht resigns as President of Reichsbank; succeeded by Luther

12 Mar.

Germany: Reichstag ratifies Young plan

29 Mar.

France: Chamber approves Hague accords

30 Mar.

Germany: Briining (Center) cabinet formed

22 Apr.

London Naval Treaty signed

28 Apr.–9 May

League of Nations: fourth session of Committee on Arbitration and Security, Geneva

17 May

Reparations: Young plan comes into force French memorandum on proposed European federal union (‘Briand plan’)

17 June

USA: Hoover signs Smoot—Hawley tariff bill

26 June—3 July

USSR: ‘Five Year Plan in Four Years’ approved

30 June

Allied occupation of Rhineland ended: Inter-Allied High Commission leaves Wiesbaden and last French troops leave third zone (Mainz)

18 July

Germany: Reichstag dissolved by President Hindenburg

14 Sept.

Germany: Reichstag elections; Brüning government remains in office, but large gains for National Socialists and Communists

23 Sept.

League of Nations: meeting of European states on Briand plan creates Commission of Enquiry for European Union (CEEU)

5–12 Oct.

First Balkan conference in Athens: Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Yugoslavia, Romania, Turkey

6 Nov.–9 Dec.

League of Nations: sixth session (second part) of Preparatory Commission for the World Disarmament Conference, Geneva (draft disarmament convention adopted)

17–28 Nov.

League of Nations: Second Conference for Concerted Economic Action, Geneva (first session)

18 Dec.

France: Steeg forms ministry



19–24 Jan.

League of Nations: 62nd session of League Council, Geneva, summons the World Disarmament Conference for 2 February 1932

30 Jan.

France: Laval forms ministry

1 Mar.

‘Bases of Agreement’ reached on Franco-Italian naval disarmament

16–18 Mar.

League of Nations: Second Conference for Concerted Economic Action, Geneva (second session)

20 Mar.

Germany: Reichstag approves appropriations for ‘Cruiser B’ (pocket battleship)

21 Mar.

Austro-German customs union proposal announced (concluded on 19 March)

14 Apr.

Spain: fall of monarchy and proclamation of the republic

6 May

Soviet—Lithuanian treaty of 1926 renewed for five-year period

11 May

Failure of Austrian Kreditanstalt

13 May

France: Doumer defeats Briand in presidential election

19 May

Germany: pocket battleship Deutschland (‘cruiser A’) launched

21 May

League of Nations: Britain and France accede to the General Act

5–9 June

Bruning and Curtius visit Britain for conversations at Chequers

6 June

Germany: Briining government issues reparations ‘manifesto’

15 June

Soviet—Polish Treaty of Friendship and Commerce

20 June

‘Hoover moratorium’ on all intergovernmental debts for one year

23 June

Germany and Britain accept Hoover proposal

24 June

Soviet—Afghan Treaty of Neutrality and Non-Aggression Soviet-German Treaty of Friendship and Neutrality renewed for three years.

25 June

Banks of England, France, the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, and the BIS grant Reichsbank credit of $100 million

1 July

German banking crisis resumes (with foreign withdrawals peaking on 6 July)

13 July

Germany: collapse of Darmstadter und Nationalbank (‘Danat’ bank)

Britain: Macmillan report on finance and industry published

20–3 July

London Financial Conference

31 July

Britain: May report on national expenditure published

8–18 Aug.

International Bankers Committee convened in Basle to study German economic situation: ‘Standstill agreement’ initialled on 19 August

10 Aug.

French-Soviet non-aggression pact initialled

26 Aug.

Britain: National Government formed

2–19 Sept.

Financial crisis in London

3 Sept.

Austria and Germany withdraw their proposed customs union

15 Sept.

Royal Navy sailors at Invergordon ‘mutiny’ against pay cuts

18 Sept.

‘Mukden incident’: Japan begins military operations in Manchuria

21 Sept.

Britain: decision announced to abandon gold standard China appeals to League Council, under Article 11 of the Covenant

27 Sept.

General Convention to Improve the Means of Preventing War opened for signature

9 Oct.

Germany: Bruaning forms new cabinet, taking over foreign affairs ministry himself

27 Oct.

Britain: National Government wins large majority in general elections

29 Oct.

Japanese forces attack Shanghai

31 Oct.

Soviet-Turkish treaty renewed for five-year period

16 Nov.–10 Dec.

League of Nations: 65th session of Council resumes, in Paris, for meetings on Manchurian crisis

19 Nov.

German government asks Bank of International Settlement to convene Young plan advisory committee

3 Dec.

Statute of Westminster passed

10 Dec.

League of Nations: Council unanimously adopts resolution on a Committee of Inquiry for Manchurian crisis (Lytton Commission)

11 Dec.

Britain: Statute of Westminster grants full self-government to Dominions



7 Jan.

USA: Stimson note on non-recognition of changes in China

14 Jan.

France: Laval reforms ministry, removing Briand from Quai d'Orsay

18 Jan.

Original date set for Reparations Conference at Lausanne (postponed until 16 June)

21 Jan.

Soviet—Finnish non-aggression pact

22 Jan.

USSR: Second Five Year Plan

25 Jan.

Soviet—Polish non-aggression pact

28 Jan.

Sino-Japanese clash at Shanghai

30 Jan.—4 Feb.

XVII Congress of the Communist Party of the USSR (second Five Year Plan)

2 Feb.

League of Nations: World Disarmament Conference opens in Geneva, with 59 states attending

3 Feb.

Soviet—Lithuanian non-aggression pact (three-year period)

4 Feb.

Soviet—Estonian non-aggression pact (three-year period)

5 Feb.

World Disarmament Conference: ‘Tardieu plan’ presented by France

Soviet-Latvian non-aggression pact

8–24 Feb.

World Disarmament Conference Open.

20 Feb.

France: Tardieu forms his third ministry

3–11 Mar.

League of Nations: Special Session of Assembly on Sino-Japan-ese crisis

7 Mar.

Death of Briand

9 Mar.

Japanese creation of puppet state of Manchukuo

11 Mar.

League adopts principle of non-recognition of Manchukuo

13 Mar.

Germany: Hindenburg leads in presidential elections, but strong showing by Hitler forces a second ballot

23 Mar.

Britain: Cabinet abandons ‘ten-year rule’ on defence planning

3 Apr.

Armistice in Shanghai

10 Apr.

Germany: Hindenburg wins on second ballot of presidential election

13 Apr.

Germany: Briining government imposes decree banning Nazi SA

24 Apr.

Germany: state elections (Prussia, Bavaria, Wurttemberg) with large gains by Nazis

26 Apr.

World Disarmament Conference: General Commission suspends sittings, to allow technical commissions to work and ‘private conversations’ to take place

World Disarmament Conference: MacDonald, Stimson, and Briming meet at Bessinge

7 May

France: President Doumer assassinated

8 May

France: elections for Chamber, with swing to parties of left

10–12 May

Germany: Reichstag re-convenes; Groener forced to resign, but Briming wins vote of confidence on 12 May

20 May

France: Lebrun elected by parliament as new president, Austria: Dolfuss government installed

1 June

Germany: von Papen cabinet formed, with Schleicher as defence minister

3 June

France: Herriot forms ministry

16 June—9 July

Lausanne Conference on German reparations

16 June

Germany: von Papen government lifts ban on Nazi SA

22 June

World Disarmament Conference: ‘Hoover plan’ presented to General Commission

13 July

Anglo-French declaration on political consultation

20 July

Germany: von Papen deposes Prussian state government

21 July—20 Aug.

Imperial Economic Conference, Ottawa

23 July

World Disarmament Conference: General Commission passes ‘Benes resolution’ then adjourns; Germany and USSR alone vote against resolution

25 July

Soviet—Polish non-aggression pact

31 July

Germany: Reichstag elections: Nazis become largest party

7 Sept.

World Disarmament Conference: German government withdraws from disarmament conference until principle of ‘equality’ recognized

12 Sept.

Germany: von Papen dissolves Reichstag after suffering humiliating defeat (512 votes to 42) in vote of no-confidence

21–6 Sept.

World Disarmament Conference: Bureau of conference resumes meetings, without Germany

1 Oct.

League of Nations: Lytton report on Manchuria published

4 Nov.

World Disarmament Conference: Paul-Boncour presents French ‘constructive plan’ to Bureau

6 Nov.

Germany: Reichstag elections, with Nazis losing seats but remaining largest party

17 Nov.

Germany: von Papen resigns as chancellor

29 Nov.

Franco-Soviet non-aggression pact

3 Dec.

Germany: von Schleicher cabinet formed

11 Dec.

World Disarmament Conference: British, French, Italian, US, and German delegates agree on ‘five-power formula’ for Germany's return to disarmament conference

15 Dec.

Expiry of Hoover moratorium French default on war debt payment to USA

18 Dec.

France: Paul-Boncour forms ministry

31 Dec.

USSR: Announcement of completion of the first Five Year Plan in four years and three months.

(p.849) (p.850)


12 Jan.

Japanese cross Chinese frontier into Jehol province

23–31 Jan.

World Disarmament Conference: Bureau resumes meetings, with Germany attending

28 Jan.

Germany: Resignation of Schleicher as chancellor

30 Jan.

Germany: Hitler appointed chancellor

31 Jan.

France: Daladier forms ministry

1 Feb.

Germany: Reichstag dissolved for new elections

2 Feb.

World Disarmament Conference: General Commission reconvenes, after adjournment since 23 July 1932

16 Feb.

Little Entente Pact of Organization

24 Feb.

League adopts Lytton report

27 Mar.

Japan: Japan leaves League

5 May

Soviet—German treaties renewed

31 May

Sino-Japanese truce of Tangku

12 June—25 July

World Economic Conference, London

15 July

Four Power Pact signed at Rome

14 Oct.

Germany leaves League and Disarmament Conference

17 Nov.

US recognition of the USSR