Aspects of the Twelfth Century, I
Moral pragmatism, whether of bishops, English queens, or even occasionally popes, was the ethical counterpart of that royal ‘strength in the things that had to be done’ that had determined the course of Spanish history throughout the 12th century, that practical strenuitas which had created the kingdom of Portugal. As in the case of marriage law so also in respect of other aspects of the ideology loosely described as ‘Gregorian’, Spain's 12th-century kings and bishops picked and, according to their own lights, chose. Far from ‘eagerly accepting the reforming legislation of his age’, Diego Gelmirez was largely indifferent to such matters as papal primacy, clerical reform, and the defence of ecclesiastical liberty.
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