Spain and the Wider World
‘Modernization and Europeanization’ — the two concepts held together by invisible feudal rivets signify the appropriation of medieval history by contemporary propagandists. They recall the opinion expressed by Constance of Burgundy, Alfonso VI's queen, apropos of the liturgical issue, that before her time papal doctrine had rarely crossed the Pyrenees. But Constance's typically Burgundian observation was not so much mistaken as confused about the direction in which the current had been flowing. It was Europe that was taken by surprise by Spain, not Spain by Europe.
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