(p.279) Appendix C. Chronology
(p.279) Appendix C. Chronology
1536–7 (Ireland) ‘Reformation Parliament’ (Dublin). Act 28 Hen. VIII, c. 5 recognizing king as Supreme Head of Church in Ireland. Act 28 Hen. VII, c. 6 forbidding appeals to Rome. Act 28 Hen. VIII, c. 13 against the authority of the bishop of Rome.
1541 (Ireland) Act 33 Hen. VIII, c. 1 declaring Henry of England to be king of Ireland.
1545 (Europe) General Council of catholic church opens at Trent.
1553 (Britain) Accession of Mary to throne.
1555 (Europe) Peace of Augsburg in Germany. Bull of Paul IV making Ireland a kingdom.
1557 (Ireland) Parliament in Dublin. Repeal of statutes against see of Rome.
1558 (Britain) Accession of Elizabeth.
1560 (Ireland) Parliament in Dublin. Act of Supremacy (2. Eliz., c. 1), Act of Uniformity (2 Eliz., c. 2).
1560 (Europe) David Wolfe, SJ appointed nuncio to Ireland.
1570 (Europe) Papal bull, ‘Regnans in excelsis’ excommunicates Elizabeth.
1573 (Ireland) David Wolfe leaves Ireland.
1577 (Europe) Pope Gregory XIII provides James FitzMaurice with a brief in support of his expedition to Ireland.
1579 (Ireland) FitzMaurice and papal legate, Nicholas Sanders, land on Dinglepeninsula.
1580 (Ireland) Papal force lands at Smerwick but are defeated and killed.
1580 (Europe) Pope grants city of Limerick to Sir John of Desmond.
1582 (Europe) Gregorian reformation of the calendar.
1584 (Ireland) Easter celebrated according to Gregorian calendar by O’Neill, O’Donnell, and Maguire.
1588 (Britain) Defeat of the Spanish Armada.
1592 (Ireland) Charter of Trinity College Dublin.
1592 (Europe) Philip II approves the Irish college of St Patrick at Salamanca. Birth of Rinuccini in Rome.
1594 (Europe) College of St Patrick at Douai founded.
1595 (Europe) Kingship of Ireland offered to Archduke Albert, Spanish governor of the Netherlands, by Ulster lords.
1598 (Ireland) Tyrone’s victory over queen’s forces at the battle of the Yellow Ford.
1598 (Europe) Treaty of Vervins between France and Spain. Death of Philip II.
1600 (Europe) Plenary indulgence granted to supporters of Tyrone’s rebellion by Clement VIII but those who support the queen are not excommunicated.
1601 (Ireland) Arrival of Spanish fleet in Kinsale. Ulster confederates defeated in subsequent battle.
1601 (Europe) Ludovico Mansoni, SJ appointed nuncio in Ireland by Clement VIII.
(p.280) 1603 (Ireland) Treaty of Mellifont ends Nine Years’ War.
1603 (Britain) Death of Elizabeth and accession of James VI and I.
1607 (Ireland) Flight of the Earls.
1608 (Ireland) Suppression of Cahir O’Doherty rebellion in Ireland. Survey of six counties in Ulster opens the way to the Ulster plantation.
1611 (Europe) An teagasg criodaidhe, the first catholic devotional work to be printed in Irish, is produced in Antwerp.
1618 (Europe) Defenestration of Prague ignites Thirty Years War. David Rothe, first of the new residential bishops, appointed to the see of Ossory.
1622 (Europe) Recatholicization begins in Habsburg Bohemia. Foundation of Propaganda Fide in Rome.
1623 (Europe) Maffeo Barberini elected Pope Urban VIII.
1625 (Britain) Accession of Charles I. Anglo-Spanish war begins.
1625 (Europe) Rinuccini appointed archbishop of Fermo.
1626 (Ireland) King offers ‘graces’ to his subjects in Ireland in return for subsidies.
1628 (Ireland) (May) Charles issues 51 ‘graces’ in return for the promise of a subsidy of £40,000 per annum for three years. (Oct.) Parliament to confirm ‘graces’ aborted.
1628 (Europe) Rinuccini holds his first provincial synod in Fermo.
1629 (Europe) Edict of Restitution in Germany.
1629 (Britain) Anglo-French treaty of peace.
1630 (Britain) English peace with Spain.
1630 (Ireland) John O’Moloney, the last episcopal appointment for 11 years, nominated for see of Killaloe.
1633 (Ireland) Wentworth arrives as Lord Deputy.
1634 (Ireland) Beginning of Charles’s first Irish parliament which fails to confirm the ‘graces’.
1636 (Ireland) Wentworth successfully intimidates a jury in Galway which ultimately finds in favour of the king’s title to land in Galway.
1638 (Britain) National Covenant in Scotland.
1639 (Ireland) ‘Black oath’ required of Scots in Ulster.
1639 (Britain) First ‘Bishops’ War’.
1640 (Ireland) (Mar.) First session of Charles’s second Irish parliament.
1640 (Britain) ‘Short Parliament’ in England. (Aug.) second ‘Bishops’ War’ begins. (Nov.) ‘Long Parliament’ meets in England.
1640 (Europe) Rebellion of Catalonia and secession of Portugal from Castile.
1641 (Ireland) (Oct.) Outbreak of rebellion in Ulster. (Nov.) Irish parliament assembles but is prorogued after one day. (Dec.) At Knockcrofty Old English of Pale join Ulster rebels.
1641 (Britain) (Jan.) Strafford (Wentworth) impeached by English Parliament (executed in May).
1641 (Europe) Resumption of episcopal appointments to Ireland.
1642 (Ireland) Clergy of province of Armagh meet at Kells. (Apr.) Arrival of Scottish army in Ulster. (May) Synod of catholic clergy at Kilkenny where they are joined by influential catholic laity. (July) Owen Roe O’Neill arrives back in Ireland. (Sept.) Return of Preston to Ireland. (Oct.) Beginning of first confederate assembly at Kilkenny.
(p.281) 1642 (Britain) (Mar.) ‘Adventurers’ Act’ of English parliament offering forfeited Irish land in return for monetary contributions. (Aug.) Outbreak of first English Civil War.
1642 (Europe) Beginning of War of Castro consumes nearly all available papalfinance for next two years.
1643 (Ireland) (Mar.) Preston defeated at New Ross. (Apr.) Ormond receives royal commission to parley with confederates. (May) Second confederate assembly begins. (June) O’Neill defeated at Clones. (July) Scarampi reaches Kilkenny. (Sept.) Against Scarampi’s advice confederates purchase a one-year truce with royalist forces. (Oct.) Confederates request that Scarampi be appointed nuncio. (Nov.) Third confederate assembly meets and nominates delegates to go to England to treat with Charles. Ormond appointed lord lieutenant.
1643 (Britain) (Sept.) Parliamentary alliance with Scots.
1643 (Europe) (Apr.) Scarampi appointed as papal minister to Ireland. (Nov.) Swedish victory at Breitenfeld. (Dec.) Death of Richelieu. Succeeded by Mazarin as chief minister of French crown.
1644 (Ireland) (June) Charles remits negotiations with confederates to Ormond in Ireland. An Irish force raised by Antrim with confederate assistance sails for Scotland. (July) Inchiquin defects to parliament in Munster. Fourth confederate assembly begins. (July–Sept.) Indecisive confederate campaign in Ulster. (Dec.) Richard Bellings sent to the continent to seek aid.
1644 (Britain) (July) Royalist defeat at Marston Moor in England.
1644 (Europe) Olivares dismissed in Spain. French victory over Spanish at Rocroi. Opening of peace negotiations in Germany. Death of Urban. Coronation of Pamfili as Innocent X. Publication of Il Cappuccino Scozzese. Decision made to send Rinuccini to Ireland.
1645 (Ireland) (Mar.) Preston, with money from Scarampi, takes Duncannon. (May) Fifth confederate assembly begins. (June) Glamorgan arrives in Ireland. (Aug.–Sept.) Confederate offensive in Munster peters out. Secret treaty prepared between Glamorgan and confederates. (Oct.) Rinuccini arrives in Kenmare. (Nov.) He reaches Kilkenny. (Dec.) Glamorgan imprisoned in Dublin.
1645 (Britain) (June) Royalist defeat at Naseby in England.
1645 (Europe) Outbreak of Turko-Venetian war. Republic appeals to pope for financial assistance. (Mar.) Emperor’s forces routed at Jankov. Rinuccini leaves Rome. (May) Rinuccini arrives in Paris. (July) Rinuccini ordered to delay in Paris to negotiate with the French court. (Sept.) The nuncio reaches La Rochelle. Antonio Barberini flees to France. (Nov.) Draft of ‘Papal Peace’ signed between Kenelm Digby and Pope Innocent in Rome. (Dec.) Fabio Chigi at Münster prepares a draft protest against any prejudice to the catholic religion in any proposed treaty, taking as a model Cardinal Augusta’s declarationconcerning the Peace of Augsburg (1555).
1646 (Ireland) (Jan.) Glamorgan released. (Feb.) Sixth General Assembly convenes. Bargain reached between Rinuccini and confederate peace party. (Mar.) Peace party secretly violate the bargain by concluding peace. (Apr.) Peace party borrow money from Rinuccini which is sent to Ormond. (June) O’Neill wins major victory at Benburb. (July) Confederate success in Connacht. Rinuccini (p.282) supervises the successful siege of Bunratty. Digby arrives in Ireland and convinces Ormond to allow the publication of peace. (Aug.) Supreme council proclaims peace. Legatine synod repudiates it. Massari leaves for Rome to solicit aid from pope. (Sept.) Clergy overthrow government. Rinuccini becomes president of new council. Decision made to attack Dublin. (Sept.–Dec.) Failure of Dublin campaign.
1646 (Britain) (May) Charles surrenders himself to the Scots. Forbids peace in Ireland.
1646 (Europe) (Jan.) Taddeo and Francesco Barberini also flee to France. Collapse of papal peace. Letter informing Rinuccini of this lost in transit. (June) French plans for Britain and Ireland co-ordinated. Digby given 10,000 pistols to support the peace. (Oct.) French take Dunkirk. (Nov.) Massari arrives in Rome.(Dec.) Decision made to send more aid to Ireland.
1647 (Ireland) (Jan.) Seventh confederate assembly. Rinuccini resigns presidency. (Feb.) Peace rejected. Ormond opens negotiations with parliament. (Mar.) New French agents arrive. Plot with Digby to lead confederate troops to France developed. (Apr.) Confederates offer Ormond renewed truce. (May) Inchiquin takes Dungarvan and Cappoquin. Decision taken to divert O’Neill to Connacht. (June) Mutiny of Munster army. (June–July) Transfer of Dublin to parliament. (Aug.) Leinster confederate army routed at Dungan’s Hill. Regiments of Munster army commit themselves to the plot to desert to France. (Sept.) Inchiquin takes Cashel. (Nov.) Eighth General Assembly convenes. Decision taken to send envoys to France and Rome. Inchiquin routs Munster army. (Dec.) New Supreme Council nominated which includes several bitter enemies of the nuncio.
1647 (Britain) (Jan.) King handed over to parliament. (June) Rapid politicization of the army. King is seized and parliament confronted successfully concerning the eleven members. (Dec.) Charles signs ‘Engagement’ with the Scots.
1647 (Europe) (Jan.–Apr.) Additional papal subsidies delayed in Rome. (May) Massari leaves Rome. Is delayed for almost a year in France. (June) Rinuccini’s criticisms of O’ Neill dampen papal enthusiasm for Ireland still further. (July) Rinuccini ordered not to involve himself too deeply in opposition to peace. Neapolitan revolt. (Oct.) Spanish bankruptcy.
1648 (Ireland) (Feb.) Confederate envoys set out for Rome and Paris. Colonel Barry, Ormond’s emissary, arrives in Ireland. (Mar.) Massari returns to Ireland. (Apr.) Rinuccini reluctantly leaves Waterford for Kilkenny. (May) Rinuccini flees Kilkenny. Inchiquin truce concluded. Rinuccini excommunicates those who support it. (June) Rinuccini decides to convoke a national synod in August. Council prevents it assembling. (Aug.) Rinuccini refuses attempt of archbishop of Tuam to organize a reconciliation. Is besieged in Galway. (Sept.) Last confederate assembly meets in Kilkenny. Ormond lands in Cork. (Nov.) Plunkett and Ferns return to Ireland. Promote peace with Ormond.
1648 (Britain) (May–Aug.) Second Civil War in England. (Dec.) Pride’s purge in England.
1648 (Europe) Turkish siege of Candia begun which increases the urgency of Venetian appeals to the pope for aid. (Mar.) Ormond arrives in Paris and begins to plot with confederate envoys. (Apr.) Plunkett and Ferns arrive in (p.283) Rome. (July–Nov.) Rebellion in Fermo which is savagely repressed by papal forces. Fronde begins in France. (Aug.) Non-committal papal response to envoys. No subsidies are given. Envoys leave Rome. (Oct.) Peace of Westphalia.
1649 (Ireland) (Jan.) Second Ormond peace concluded. Rinuccini hears of the rebellion in Fermo. (Feb.) Rinuccini leaves Ireland. (Aug.) Ormond defeated at battle of Rathmines. Cromwell lands in Ireland. (Sept.) Cromwell takes Drogheda with great slaughter. (Oct.) Cromwell takes Wexford. Owen Roe O’Neill comes to an agreement with Ormond. (Nov.) Death of O’Neill. (Dec.) Synod of catholic bishops issue declaration for religion and king against Cromwell.
1649 (Britain) (Jan.) Trial and execution of the king. (Mar.) Cromwell accepts command for Ireland.
1649 (Europe) (Apr.) Massari meets Mazarin who makes insinuations concerning Rinuccini’s pro-Spanish affiliation. (May) Rinuccini ordered to leave France and return to Italy. He is also informed that absolution from his excommunication will be left in his hands. (Aug.) Rinuccini reaches Turin. (Dec.) He reports on the nunciature.
1650 (Ireland) (Mar.) Kilkenny surrenders to Cromwell. (May) Cromwell leaves Ireland, Ireton assumes command of English forces. (June) Ulster army routed. (Aug.) Waterford surrenders to Ireton. Catholic bishops repudiate Ormond. (Sept.) Catholic bishops excommunicate supporters of Ormond. (Dec.) Ormond appoints Clanricard as his deputy and leaves Ireland.
1650 (Britain) (June) Charles II takes Covenants. Beginning of Third Civil War in Britain. (Aug.) Charles II repudiates the ‘bloody Irish rebels’.
1650 (Europe) (Aug.) Rinuccini re-installed in Fermo.
1651 (Ireland) (June) Limerick besieged. (Oct.) Surrender of Limerick. (Nov.) Death of Ireton.
1651 (Britain) (Jan.) Charles II’s coronation in Scotland. First exile of Mazarin. (Sept.) Cromwell defeats Charles II.
1651 (Europe) (Jan.) Papal protest against the Peace of Westphalia. Publication of the Della Dignita in Rome. First exile of Mazarin.
1652 (Ireland) (Apr.) Surrender of Galway. (May) Leinster army surrenders. (July) Fleetwood appointed commander-in-chief in Ireland. (Aug.) Act for the settling of Ireland.
1653 (Ireland) (Jan.) Edict expelling all catholic priests from Ireland. (Mar.) Parliament votes that Ireland will be represented with 30 seats in the new British assembly of 460 seats.
1653 (Europe) Death of Rinuccini in Fermo.