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Orthodoxy and the Courts in Late Antiquity$

Caroline Humfress

Print publication date: 2007

Print ISBN-13: 9780198208419

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2008

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198208419.001.0001

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(p.273) Appendix I. Advocates in the Eastern Empire (Fourth to Sixth Century)

(p.273) Appendix I. Advocates in the Eastern Empire (Fourth to Sixth Century)

Source:
Orthodoxy and the Courts in Late Antiquity
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Abureius, 388–92 (PLRE I, 5)

Rhetor/advocate, Arabia. Wrote a panegyric on Bonus (Lib. Ep. 1035).

Acacius, 357–65 (PLRE I, 6: no. 6)

Rhetor/advocate, at Antioch and in Palestine.

Acacius, 361–5 (PLRE I, 6: no. 7)

Rhetor/advocate, studied in Athens and lived in Cilicia.

Acontius, 365 (PLRE I, 11)

Rhetor/advocate (Lib. Ep. 226), became provincial governor (Lib. Ep. 1495).

Adamantius, 356 (PLRE I, 12: no. 1)

Advocate, according to Lib. Ep. 488 he was able but idle.

Adamantius, 360/390 (PLRE I, 12: no. 2)

Teacher of rhetoric, received Greg. Naz. Ep. 235.

Adelphius, late 4th cent. (PLRE I, 13: no. 2)

Advocate (scholastikos), had property at Vanota (Greg. Nyss. Ep. 20).

Aetius, 362 (PLRE I, 26: no. 2)

Advocate at Ancyra, but educated at Antioch (Lib. Ep. 733, 769).

Agathias, mid/late 6th cent.

Studied law, practised as an advocate at Constantinople, wrote histories (Agathias, Histories, pr. and 3. 1. 4).

Agroecius, 361

Advocate at court of Domitius Modestus comes Orientis, originally from Armenia and now being sought by the city council (Lib. Ep. 293).

Alcimus, 356 (PLRE I, 38)

Teacher of rhetoric at Nicomedia (Lib. Ep. 397), he moved to Rome leaving (St) Basil in charge of his school (Lib. Ep. 501).

Alexander, 364–5 (PLRE I, 41: no. 9)

Rhetor, advocate, and agens in rebus (Lib. Ep. 1193, 1197, 1199, 1505).

Fl. Arcadius Alexander, 487 (PLRE II, 58)

Advocate (scholastikos), who then possibly became governor of Arabia in 487.

(p.274) Alexander, 538

Advocate at the court of the PPO (Justinian, Novel 82. 1 pr).

Alladius, 4th cent. (PLRE I, 45)

Advocate (scholastikos) in Egypt.

Ammonius, 4th cent.

Advocate (P.Oxy. LIV. 3758, ll. 39–77 and 156–80 (325) and P.Oxy. LIV. 3764 (326)).

Ammon, early/mid‐4th cent.

Scholasticus/advocate (see P. Ammon).

Fl. Ampelius, mid‐5th cent.

‘Most eloquent scholasticus and pater civitatis’ (Roueché, Aphrodisias, nos. 42–4).

Amphilochius, before 361 (PLRE I, 57: no. 2)

Advocate (Lib. Ep. 670), then teacher of rhetoric. Father of Amphilochius, bishop of Iconium and uncle of Gregory Nazianzus.

Amphilochius, late 4th cent.

Advocate, gave it up for a life of Christian contemplation (Basil, Letter 150). Became bishop of Iconium in 373.

Anastasios, 6th cent.

Advocate (ekdikos) of the city of Oxyrhynchus, who drafted a repudiation of a betrothal on behalf of a certain John, father of Euphemia (P.Oxy. 129).

Anatolius, 538

Vir spectabilis, mentioned as a retired advocate in Justinian's Novel 82. 1 pr.

Andragathius, 360 (PLRE I, 62)

Advocate of PP Orientis, before whom he proved his rhetorical skill. (Lib. Ep. 222–3).

Anticles, 362 (PLRE I, 70)

Rhetor/advocate from Cilicia, commended by Libanius to Celsus, praeses Ciliciae in 362.

Antonius, mid/late 5th cent. (PLRE II, 107: no. 3)

Rhetor and advocate. He entered public life to help his sister in a lawsuit, but acquired a name for excessive zeal.

Appio, 538

Vir spectabilis, advocate of the fisc and assessor (Justinian, Novel 82. 1. 1).

Apringius, 355–64 (PLRE I, 86)

Advocate. Summoned to Antioch in 355 to start his career (Lib. Ep. 422, which specifies that his father was also an advocate). Later studied law at Beirut.

Aquilinus, early/mid‐5th cent. (PLRE II, 125: no. 2)

(p.275) Advocate at Constantinople with (the historian) Sozomen (Sozomen, HE 2. 3. 10–11).

Arsenius, early/mid‐5th cent. (PLRE I, 110: no. 2)

Advocate at Antioch and fellow student of Libanius (Lib. Ep. 37, 541, 1224, 1233, 1474).

Arsenius, d. 364 (PLRE I, 111: no. 3)

Advocate at Antioch, after having been a pupil of Libanius (Lib. Ep. 1260).

Asclepius, d. 511 (PLRE II, 163: no. 5)

Advocate, probably at Antioch. He amassed a fortune by his practice in the lawcourts.

Asterius, mid/late 4th cent.

Advocate at Constantinople? Bishop of Amasea, Pontus (see Chapter 6).

Athanasius, late 5th/early 6th cent.

Brother of a certain Paralios, studied the laws of the politieia (civil law) in Phoenicia, then became a monk at Alexandria (Zacharias Scholastikos, Life of Severus, ed. and tr. Marc‐Antoine Kugener, Patrologia Orientalis, 2 (Paris, 1907), 14–15).

Auxentius, 357 (PLRE I, 142: no. 3)

Rhetor and advocate (Lib. Ep. 595, 596).

Auxentius, early/mid‐5th cent. (PLRE II, 204: no. 3)

Defensor (ekdikos) and therefore advocate. Received Ep. 2. 309 of Nilus the Monk.

Besarion, 303 (PLRE I, 161)

Advocate (scholastikos) at Thebes (O.Tait II. 2086).

Fl. Bonus, late 4th cent. (PLRE I, 164)

Advocate (Lib. Ep. 1035).

Cardemeas (?), 507 (PLRE II, 260)

Advocate (scholastikos), possibly at Antinoopolis in the Thebaid (P.Lond. III. 253 n. 992 = Mitteis, Chrest. n. 365).

Calliopius, 388 (PLRE I, 175: no. 3, and Kaster,

Guardians of the Word, 131)

Teacher of grammar before practising as an advocate (Lib. Ep. 18), then became magister epistularum of the East.

Carterius, 379/380 (PLRE I, 182: no. 3)

Advocate (defensor), judge (cognitor), consularis of Syria (Symm. Ep. 9. 31).

Cimon, Arabius, mid/late 4th cent. (PLRE I, 92)

Advocate, served at the court of consularis Syriae (Lib. Or. 28. 9, of 384; 54. 7–15, of 388). He was the son of Libanius, who wanted him to become a rhetorician, but he enrolled himself among the advocates (sundikoi) instead (Lib. Ep. 959).

(p.276) Chrysogonus, 364 (PLRE I, 205: no. 2)

Rhetor and advocate in Phoenice. He first studied rhetoric under Libanius, then went to Antioch to study medicine but was not accepted on the course; he was then swindled out of his property by his guardians. Libanius appealed to two governors of Phoenice to enrol him as rhetor and advocate (Lib. Ep. 1208 and 1280).

Constantine, 533/534

Advocate at court of PPO. Member of commission that produced Justinian's Digest (Const. Tanta 9) and member of commission that produced the second edition of Justinian's Codex (Const. Cordi 2).

Cyris, 4th cent. (PLRE I, 238)

Advocate (scholastikos) at Hermopolis in the Thebaid (P.Flor. I. 71. 653 and 87. 8).

Demetrios, 390

Part of a team of three advocates, in a civil process before the praeses of Thebais (P.Lips., no. 38).

Diodorus, late 5th/early 6th cent. (PLRE II, 359: no. 3)

Advocate at Caesarea.

Diognetus, 388 (PLRE I, 257)

Former pupil of Libanius (Lib. Ep. 358); Libanius wrote his letters of recommendation for the post of advocate in Constantinople (Lib. Ep. 847, 857, 858).

Dionysius, 363 (PLRE I, 258: no. 6)

Pupil of Libanius (Lib. Ep. 1168, 1204). Served as advocate under the governor of Isauria (Lib. Ep. 837), but shortly after retired to look after his family estates. Two years later he came out of retirement and conducted a successful defence (Lib. Ep. 1501).

Flavius Dionysius, 335 (PLRE I, 259: no. 11)

Advocate (Lib. Or. 1. 36). Then governor of Phoenice, appointed consularis Syriae and was in charge of the ecclesiastical Council of Tyre in 335.

Domninus, 364–5 (PLRE I, 265: no. 2)

Advocate before 364 (Lib. Or. 56. 11 and Ep. 952), then governor of Phoenice and senator of Constantinople before 390.

Domnio, 388 (PLRE I, 266: no. 2)

Advocatus fisci before 388 (Lib. Ep. 861), then vicarius Asiae in 388.

Elias, early/mid‐5th cent. (PLRE II, 390: no. 2)

Advocate (scholastikos), received Theodoret of Cyrrhus, Ep. 10.

Eudaemon, mid‐4th cent. (PLRE I, 289: no. 3 and Kaster, Guardians of the Word, 279: no. 55)

(p.277) Advocate, trained in rhetoric and practising at Elusa in Palestine in 357 (Lib. Ep. 315). He was also a sophist and a poet, and in 360 Libanius requested an official stipend for him (Ep. 132). Author of grammatical treatises.

Eunapius, 367/368 (PLRE I, 295: no. 1)

Phyrgian rhetor, represented Lydians before Julian, who gave him a difficult legal case, which he won.

Eunomus, 357–60 (PLRE I, 29: no. 2)

Rhetor and advocate at Elusa in Palestine (Lib. Ep. 315 and 164).

Eusebius, 361

Advocate at court of Domitius Modestus, comes Orientis, originally from Armenia and now being sought by city council (Lib. Ep. 293).

Eusebius of Dorylaeum, early/mid‐5th cent.

Advocate at Constantinople c.426–30, bishop of Dorylaeum (see Chapter 6).

Eustochius, 360–5 (PLRE I, 313)

Advocate (Lib. Ep. 240, 789, 1525), from Palestine, retired by 390 (Lib. Ep. 915).

Euthali(u)s, late 4th/5th cent. (PLRE I, 314: no. 1)

Advocate (scholastikos) at Apamea.

Euthymius, 390 (PLRE I, 315)

Advocate (sundikos, Lib. Ep. 974–5) and then vicarius Asiae in 396.

Eutolmius, 533

Advocate at court of PPO. Member of commission that produced Justinian's Digest (Const. Tanta 9).

Eutropius, 389 (PLRE I, 318: no. 3)

Attended rhetorical school, then studied law and became an advocate, then became assessor to the PP Orientis, and was appointed consular of Syria in 389. Libanius wrote his Oration 4 against him.

Evagrius, late 5th/early 6th cent. (PLRE II, 402–3)

Advocate.

Evagrius scholasticus, mid/late 6th cent.

Studied law at Constantinople in the late 550s, pursued a legal career at Antioch: ‘Like his cousin and fellow lawyer John of Epiphania, he came to be attached to the service of Gregory, Patriarch of Antioch (570–92) and it is quite possible that he had always worked within the patriarchate as a legal advisor’ (M. Whitby, The Ecclesiastical History of Evagrius Scholasticus (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2000), p. xiv).

Evagrius, late 5th/early 6th cent.

Wanted to become a monk, but his father forced him to go to Beirut to study law, after which he ‘shone in Constantinople, in the Stoa, amongst the (p.278) advocates’ (Zacharias Scholastikos, Life of Severus, ed. and tr. Marc‐Antoine Kugener, Patrologia Orientalis, 2 (Paris, 1907), 55–6).

Evangelius, early/mid‐6th cent.

Lawyer at Caesarea.

Flavianus, 538

Advocate of the fisc (Justinian, Novel, 82. 1 pr.).

Gaianus (PLRE I, 378–9: no. 6)

Advocate, assessor to an Antiochene official pre‐362, governor of Phoenicia between 362 and 363.

Gaudentius, 357–62 (PLRE I, 385: no. 2)

Advocate (sunegoros) in Arabia.

Glaucus, 4th cent. (PLRE I, 397)

Advocate (scholastikos) probably from Hermopolis in the Thebaid (P.Lips. I. 100, col. iv. 2).

Gregory of Nyssa, mid‐4th cent.

Teacher of rhetoric, then bishop of Nyssa (see Chapter 6).

Heliodorus, mid‐4th cent. (PLRE I, 411: no. 2)

Advocate (Lib. Or. 62. 46–9). Libanius alleges that he was originally a ‘retailer of fish sauce’ who was called to the bar of the proconsul of Achaea at Corinth. He ended up a rich man with vast estates in Macedonia, Aetolia, and Acarnania through the bequest of half of the property of a woman whose claims he had successfully defended.

Helpidius, 357–61 (PLRE I, 414: no. 3)

Rhetor and advocate. Educated in Athens (Lib. Ep. 546), then became a teacher of rhetoric in Palestine (Lib. Ep. 546 and 312). In 361 he went to Constantinople in order to seek a place as an advocate (Lib. Ep. 299–301).

Heraclidius, mid/late 4th cent.

Attempted to leave the practice of advocacy for a life of Christian contemplation but the magistrates sought him out ‘like a deserter’ (Basil, Ep. 150).

Heraclius, 391 (PLRE I, 419: no. 7)

Advocate in Antioch, 384–8 (Lib. Or. 28. 9. 13 and 54. 13. 76). Governor of Armenia in 391.

Hermias, 504

Scholastikos and defensor of Oxyrhynchus (P.Oxy. XVI. 1882 and 1883).

Herminus, late 4th/early 5th cent.

Defence advocate in a criminal case (P. Lips. 40).

Hermolaus, 360 (PLRE I, 426)

Advocate in Antioch in 360. He practised advocacy whilst attending Libanius' classes (Lib. Ep. 203).

(p.279) Herodes, 395

Part of a team of three advocates in a civil process, before the praeses of Thebais (P. Lips., no. 38).

Hesychius, ?4th/5th cent. (PLRE I, 429: no. 3)

Advocate at the court of the PPO.

Flavius Asclepiades Hesychius, c.391 (PLRE I, 429: no. 4)

Advocate at Antioch in 384 (Lib. Or. 28. 9), became an assessor (Lib. Ep. 854). He was appointed provincial governor and then praeses Thebaidos in 390–1.

Fl. Ant(onius) Hierocles, mid‐4th cent. (PLRE I, 431: no. 3)

Advocate, who made money out of his profession but spent it whilst governor of Arabia and consularis Syriae in 348. He also taught as professor of rhetoric (Lib. Ep. 517).

Hilarius, c.360 (PLRE I, 434: no. 4)

Advocate.

Horion, c.325–50

Advocate, worked on a case on behalf of Sambathion of the village of Karanis (P. Col. VII. 174).

Hyperechius, 366 (PLRE I, 449)

Advocate (sunegoros) under the governor of Galatia.

Ioannes, late 5th cent.

Ecclesiae scholasticus at Amida (see Chapter 6).

Iohannes, 534

Advocate at court of PPO. Member of commission to produce the second edition of Justinian's Codex (Const. Cordi 2).

Flavius Isaac, 464

Scholastikos and defensor of Cynopolis (P.Oxy, VI. 902).

Ischyrion, 325

Defence advocate in P.Oxy. LIV. 3758.

Isidorus, 4th cent. (PLRE I, 465: no. 2)

Advocate (scholastikos) at Hermopolis in the Thebaid.

Jacobus, 533

Advocate at court of PPO. Member of commission that produced Justinian's Digest (Const. Tanta 9).

Johannes, 533

Advocate at court of PPO. Member of commission that produced Justinian's Digest (Const. Tanta 9).

Flavius Julianus, 336

Advocate in the Oxyrhynchite nome (P.Oxy. VI. 901).

(p.280) Klearchos, mid/late 4th cent.

Advocate, then governor.

Laurentius, early/mid‐5th cent. (PLRE II, 658: no. 3)

Advocatus fisci.

Laurentius, 475/476 (PLRE II, 658: no. 5)

A leading advocate at Constantinople, appointed as PP Orientis in 475/6.

Leonides, 533

Advocate at court of PPO. Member of commission that produced Justinian's Digest (Const. Tanta 9).

Leontius, 533

Advocate at court of PPO. Member of commission that produced Justinian's Digest (Const. Tanta 9).

Macarius, 481 (PLRE II, 696: no. 3)

Advocate (sunegoros) in the forum of the Thebaid (P.Princ. II. 82).

Macarius, mid‐6th cent.

Advocate, a former pupil of Procopius of Gaza (Procopius, Ep. 153 and 97).

Marcarius, 583

Advocate (scholastikos), involved in a dispute between a mother and son (P.Mon. 6).

Macedonius, 363 (PLRE I, 526: no. 2)

Advocate who on retirement became defensor of Tarsus.

Vindaonius Magnus, 375–6 (PLRE I, 536)

Advocate in Phoenice in 364. In 373 he was comes sacrarum largitionum and by 375 praefectus urbis Constantinopolitanae.

Maximus, 378 (PLRE I, 585: no. 25)

Advocate (scholastikos) of noble birth (Basil, Ep. 277).

Megethius, 363 (PLRE I, 592: no. 2)

Advocate in Antioch in 363 (Lib. Ep. 1361).

Menas, 534

Advocate at court of PPO. Member of commission that produced Justinian's Digest (Const. Tanta 9). Member of commission to produce the second edition of Justinian's Codex (Const. Cordi 2). Possibly the same Menas mentioned in Justinian, Novel 82. 1 pr as an advocate at the court of the PPO in 538.

Miccalus 360

Advocate (or possibly assessor) under Priscianus, governor of Euphratensis and governor of Thrace in 362.

Naucratius, mid/late 4th cent. (PLRE I, 618)

Advocate, brother of Basil and Gregory of Nyssa, retired to become a monk (see Chapter 6).

(p.281) Nemesios, 386/7 (PLRE I, 622)

Advocate (Greg. Naz. Carm. hist. 2. 7. 1–4), then governor of Cappadocia Secunda.

Nilammon, 390

Part of a team of three advocates in a civil process before the praeses of Thebais (P.Lips., no. 38).

Optimus, late 4th cent.

Advocate, bishop of Agdamia (Phyrgia) and Antioch (see Chapter 6).

Orion, mid‐6th cent.

Advocate, a former pupil of Procopius of Gaza who studied law in Constantinople (Procopius, Ep. 144 and 155).

Paeanius, 364 (PLRE I, 657)

Advocate practising in Palestine (Lib. Ep. 1306).

Palladius, 360 (PLRE I, 659: no. 5)

Advocate (sunegoros) under the praeses Euphratensis (Lib. Ep. 179).

Parnassius, early/mid‐5th cent. (PLRE II, 832: no. 1)

Advocate (sunegoros).

Patalas, 363 (PLRE I, 669)

Advocate (scholastikos) at Jovian's court at Antioch.

Plato, 533

Advocate at court of PPO. Member of commission that produced Justinian's Digest (Const. Tanta 9).

Plenis, 338 (PLRE I, 706)

Advocate (scholastikos) in the Thebaid.

Poemenius, 325

Advocate and drafter of will in P.Oxy. LIV. 3758, ll. 181–213 and advocate for prosecution in P.Oxy. LIV. 3759.

Pylaemenes, 402/413 (PLRE II, 931)

Advocate (sunegoros) at Constantinople.

Priscianus, 364 (PLRE I, 727: no. 1)

Advocate at Beirut and Antioch before 360, governor of Euphratensis 360–1, of Cilicia 363–4, and of Palestina Prima, 364.

Procopius, early/mid‐6th cent.

Received legal training, and then from 527 acted as assessor to the general Belisarius (A. Cameron, Procopius and the Sixth Century (Berkeley, Calif.: University of Berkeley Press, 1985), 8).

Prosdocius, 533

Advocate at court of PPO. Member of commission that produced Justinian's Digest (Const. Tanta 9).

(p.282) Rufinus, early 6th cent.

Ecclesiae scholasticus of Ephraem, patriarch of Antioch.

Sabinus, 356

Advocate at the court of the Eastern Prefect, Strategius Musonianus, in 356, then governor of Syria in 358–9 (Lib. Ep. 545, 339).

Sarapion, 451/457 (PLRE II, 977: no. 2) Advocate (scholasticos). He was ‘the first of the advocates at Alexandria’ in the time of the patriarch Proterius. A monophysite, he was arrested for his religious beliefs and sent to the Emperor Marcian at Constantinople; he was freed and permitted to enrol among the advocates (scholastici) at Constantinople, where he again rose to first position.

Saturninus, 365 (PLRE I, 805: no. 5)

A successful advocate, appointed to office by PPO Secundus Salutius (Lib. Ep. 1489–90).

Serapion of Thmuis, mid‐4th cent.

Scholasticus, bishop of Thmuis (see Chapter 6).

Sergius, 517 (PLRE II, 994–5: no. 7)

Advocate (rhetor), practised in the court of the Praetorian Prefect. In 517 he was appointed PP Orientis.

Severinus, 398–9 (PLRE I, 830: no. 3)

Advocate, comes rei privatae of Theodosius 388–90,

comes sacrarum largitionum of Theodosius 391, and praefectus urbis Constantinopolitanae 398–9.

Severus, 393/4 (PLRE I, 834: no. 14)

Advocate, he had been a pupil of Libanius but was withdrawn in his second year for misconduct (Lib. Or. 57. 3–6). By 393 he was governor of Syria.

Severus of Antioch, late 5th/early 6th cent.

Studied rhetoric at Constantinople with his two brothers, after the death of his father; began with the sophist John and then was taught by a certain Sopater, ‘famed in the art of the rhetoric’. Apparently applied himself ‘assidiously to the study of the precepts of the ancient rhetors and forced himself to imitate their style’ (Zacharias Scholastikos, Life of Severus, ed. and tr. Marc‐Antoine Kugener, Patrologia Orientalis, 2 (Paris, 1907), 11–12). Studied law at Beirut c.486, then bishop of Antioch, involved in controversy over Chalcedonian Christology (Evagrius, HE 3. 33).

Silvanus, 359 (PLRE I, 841: no. 3)

Studied law at Beirut and then became advocate of the comes Orientis in 359 (Lib. Ep. 87).

Silvanus, 363 (PLRE I, 841: no. 4)

Advocate (causarum defensor) at Nisibis in 363 (Amm. Marc. 25. 9. 4).

(p.283) Sisinnius, d. 427

Orator at Constantinople, ‘Novatian’ bishop (see Chapter 6).

Sozomenus, early/mid‐5th cent. (PLRE II, 1023–4: no. 2)

Advocate (scholastikos) at Constantinople c.440, historian (Sozomen, HE 2. 3. 10–11).

Stephanus, 538

Advocate at the court of the PPO (Justinian, Novel 82. 1 pr.). Possibly also one of the commissioners for Justinian's Digest (Const. Tanta 9).

Symbulus, 365 (PLRE I, 863)

Advocate in 365 (Lib. Ep. 1481).

Theon, 325

Advocate in the Thebaid (P.Oxy. LIV. 3758, ll. 39–77 and 98–131).

Theodosius, 349 (PLRE I, 902: no. 1)

Advocate (advocatus) in the court of Fl. Strategius at Hermopolis in the Thebaid.

Theodorus, 364–5 (PLRE I, 897: no. 11)

Advocate at Antioch from 358. He had studied law at Beirut and then rhetoric at Antioch. Acted as an assessor then became vicarius of Asia (363–6), provincial governor (364–5).

Aur. Theodorus, 398 (PLRE II, 1097: no. 6)

Grammarian and advocate at Hermopolis (P.Lips. 56).

Theodore of Mopsuestia, late 4th cent.

Advocate, monk, and bishop of Mopsuestia, Cilicia (see Chapter 6).

Theodorus of Cyzicus, 538

Advocate at the court of the PPO (Justinian, Novel 82. 1 pr.).

Timotheus, 533

Advocate at court of PPO. Member of commission that produced Justinian's Digest (Const. Tanta 9).

Victor, 538

Advocate at the court of the PPO (Justinian, Novel 82. 1 pr.).

Zacharias Scholastikos, late 5th/early 6th cent.

Studied grammar and rhetoric at Alexandria and then law at Beirut.

Zacharias advised Severus to compare the discourses of the sophist Libanius, whom he admired as an equal of the ancient rhetors, to those of the bishops Basil and Gregory (Zacharias Scholastikos, Life of Severus, ed. and tr. Marc‐Antoine Kugener, Patrologia Orientalis, 2 (Paris, 1907), 10–13). Wrote a Life of Severus of Antioch.

Zeno, early/mid‐6th cent.

Professional rhetor (advocate) at Constantinople, renowned for both his legal skill and eloquence. Anthemius, the architect responsible for the building of (p.284) Hagia Sofia after Nika riot of 532, apparently played a trick on him (Agathias, Histories 5. 6. 7–8).

Zenodotus, 507 (PLRE II, 1198)

Advocate (scholastikos) in the Thebaid (P.Lond. III. 253 n.922 = Mitteis, Chrest. n. 365).

Zosimus, mid‐6th cent.

Advocate, a former pupil of Procopius of Gaza (Procopius, Ep. 153).

Anonymous, early/mid‐4th cent.

Advocate. Father of Apringius, above (Lib. Ep. 422).