This chapter summarizes the preceding discussions. There are two different important themes discussed in this book. One is about the structure under which historians have to place the concept of alternating phases of mainstream and alternative agriculture. Second would be the lessons which farmers and policymakers may draw from repetitious experiences, four times to be exact. Between the two, the second is more important because it could have practical consequences. Specialization in periods of mainstream agriculture and diversification in phases of alternative agriculture are the key words which differentiate the major phases of agricultural development.
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