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Urban Liberalism in Imperial GermanyFrankfurt Am Main, 1866–1914$

Jan Palmowski

Print publication date: 1999

Print ISBN-13: 9780198207504

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198207504.001.0001

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(p.338) Appendix II

(p.338) Appendix II

Source:
Urban Liberalism in Imperial Germany
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

The main sources for this table are the reports in the Frankfurter Zeitung of each council election result. The difficulty is that the party of the individual councillor is only stated a few times. More often, party strengths are given for each party coalition, which does not allow for a discrimination between, say, the Democrats and the Progressive Liberals. Unfortunately, the most common practice for the newspaper was to reveal the success of party lists, which is a nice rhetorical way of hiding the real results of the election as they included members of all parties. In this way, for example, the Democrats could claim victory for ‘their’ list during almost each election in the fourth electoral district, even though the candidates were almost always National Liberals. Once the ice of the newspaper's rhetoric has been cut, it is possible to determine the party composition of the city council with reasonable accuracy from 1881 onwards. The party strengths given here differ slightly from the Frankfurter Zeitung's own statements in that the paper was fond of counting as its own candidates who had run as independents but whom it considered to be on the left of the political spectrum. It should be noted that for the figures given for the party composition of the council from 1875 to 1879 there is a small margin of error. This is essentially because the Frankfurter Zeitung could not make up its mind whether to include a handful of councillors as Democrats or not. For example, in the 1877 council the paper reported that the Democrats had 33 seats, whereas the National Liberals and the Progressive Liberals together could muster only 21 seats. In 1878, however, the newspaper was involved in a bizarre row with the National Liberal newspaper Neue Frankfurter Presse, as it tried to defend the Democrats over ‘allegations’ that they had had the majority in the city council throughout most of the 1870s. The Frankfurter Zeitung tried to show that from 1876 to 1878 it had never possessed a majority in the council, and denied that individual councillors such as Eduard Fay or Christian Sauerwein were Democrats (which they clearly were). For the period 1875 to 1881, therefore, the party composition is an approximation of party strength, as the party allegiance of up to four members of each council could not be determined with absolute certainty.

The party allegiance of individual members has been been compiled from party membership lists (which were of little help), petition signatures, signatures under election manifestos, appearances in election meetings, and listings in the Frankfurter Zeitung. The most important sources are:

(p.339) E. Dannenberg (ed.), Haupt-Register zu den Mittheilungen aus den Protokollen der Stadtverordneten-Versammlung der Stadt Frankfurt a.M. für die Jahrgänge 1867 bis incl. 1900 nebst einem Verzeichniß der Mitglieder des Magistrats und der Stadtverordneten- Versammlung seit dem Jahre 1867 (Frankfurt, 1902).

Patricia Tratnik, ‘Mitglieder der Frankfurter Stadtverordnetenversammlung 1867 bis 1933’ (Frankfurt, 1984), typescript in IfSG.

Geschichte der Frankfurter Zeitung 1856–1906 (Frankfurt, 1906), 566.

Frankfurter Zeitung, 5 Dec. 1876 (Morgenblatt), 22 Nov. 1878 (Abendblatt), 24 Nov. 1878 (Morgenblatt), 29 Nov. 1878 (Morgenblatt), 29 Sept. 1879 (Morgenblatt), 28 Nov. 1882 (Morgenblatt), 5 Dec. 1882 (Morgenblatt), 28 Nov. 1884 (Morgenblatt), 5 Dec. 1884 (Morgenblatt), 26 Nov. 1886 (2. Morgenblatt), 3 Dec. 1886 (2. Morgenblatt), 29 Nov. 1888 (2. Morgenblatt), 25 Nov. 1890 (2. Morgenblatt), 1 Dec. 1892 (Abendblatt), 23 Nov. 1894 (2. Morgenblatt), 27 Nov. 1894 (Abendblatt), 13 Nov. 1896 (3. Morgenblatt), 20 Nov. 1896 (3. Morgenblatt), 18 Nov. 1898 (3. Morgenblatt), 25 Nov. 1898 (3. Morgenblatt).

The party composition from 1900 is well-known and is given in Patricia Tratnick's study as well as in John Rolling, ‘Liberals’, 180. Rolling also notes the council's composition by party group for 1898, but his figures for that year contradict those given by the Kleine Presse (whose figures are adopted here). Kleine Presse, 24 Nov. 1900.

Distribution of seats in the Frankfurt City Council, 1877–1913

1877

1879

1881

1883

1885

1887

1889

1891

1893

1895

1897

1899

1901

1903

1905

1907

1909

1911

1913

Democrats

32

30

29

28

27

29

28

28

27

26

27

23

23

23

23

24

17

34

32

Progressive Liberal Association

10

8

11

14

14

13

14

14

12

15

14

13

11

12

12

13

12

National Liberal Association

11

12

12

11

13

12

13

13

14

19

19

23

20

20

11

13

10

12

12

SPD

1

1

3

6

15

22

23

Mittelstand

1

6

8

15

8

8

3

3

Centre Party

2

1

Others

1

7

5

4

3

3

2

2

4

1

1

1

1

2

TOTAL NUMBER OF SEATS

54

57

57

57

57

57

57

57

57

61

61

61

64

64

64

64

64

71

71

(p.340)

The Prussian State Elections in Frankfurt am Maina

Candidates elected successfullyb

Unsuccessful candidates

1867

Schiele (PL), Ebner (PL)c

Scharff (C)

Kugler (PL)

1869

Weiß (D)d

Kugler (PL)

Passavant (NL)

1870

Kugler (PL)

Richter (PL)e

Vogtherr (PL)

Weiß (D)

1872

Flinsch (PL)f

Prior (D)

Schrader (PL)g

Marti (D)

1873

Schrader (PL)

Lasker (NL)

Virchow (PL)

1876

Schrader (PL)

Holthoff (D)

Lasker (NL)

1878

Lucius (NL)h

Götz-Rigand (PL)

1879

Labes (PL)

Lasker (NL)

Traeger (PL)

Janssen (Z)

1882

Flinsch (PL)

Metzler (NL)

Stern (D)

1885

Flinsch (PL)

May (D)

Metzler (NL)

1888

Metzler (NL)

Flinsch (PL)

Hergenhahn (NL)

1891

Grimm (NL)i

Funck (PL)

1892

Funck (PL)j

Grimm (NL)

1893

von Rath (NL)

Horckheimer (PL)k

Oswalt (NL)

1898

Funck (PL)

Oswalt (NL)l

Sänger (D)

von Rath (NL)

1901

Oeser (D)m

von Rath (NL)

1903

Funck (PL)

Quarck (SPD)

Oeser (D)

Hüttmann (SPD)

1908

Funck (PL)

Quarck (SPD)

Ladenburg (NL)

Flesch (D)

Hüttmann (SPD)

Hamecher (Z)

1913

Flesch (D)

Quarck (SPD)

Varrentrapp (NL)

Oeser (D)

Hüttmann (SPD)

Kleinschmidt (NL)

(a) T. Kühne, Handbuch der Wahlen zum Preußischen Abgeordnetenhaus 1867–1918. Wahlergebnisse, Wahlbündnisse und Wahlkandidaten (Düsseldorf, 1994), 672–5. Years printed in bold denote general state elections.

(b) PL = Progressive Liberals. NL = National Liberals. D = Democrats. C = Conservatives. SPD = Social Democrats. Z = Centre Party.

(c) Schiele refused to accept his election, Ebner was elected instead.

(d) Weiß replaced Kugler.

(e) Eugen Richter was nominated by the Democrats in the hope to split the official local Progressive Liberal ticket.

(f) Flinsch replaced Vogtherr.

(g) Schrader replaced Kugler.

(h) Lucius replaced Schrader.

(i) Grimm replaced Hergenhahn.

(j) Funck replaced Grimm.

(k) Horckheimer was the common candidate for the Democrats and the Progressive Liberals.

(l) After the elections of electors produced an overwhelming victory for the supporters of the left -liberal candidates, the National Liberals recommended that their electors stay away from the actual polls.

(m) Oeser replaced Sänger.

(p.341) (p.342)

National General Elections in Germany, 1871–1914 (in %)

1871

1874

1877

1878

1881

1884

1887

1890

1893

1898

1903

1907

1912

German People's Party

0.5

0.4

0.8

1.1

2.0

1.7

1.2

2.0

2.2

1.4

1.0

1.2

National Liberal Party

30.1

29.7

27.2

23.1

14.7

17.6

22.3

16.3

13.0

12.5

13.8

14.5

13.6

German Progressive Party

8.8

8.6

7.7

6.7

12.7

17.6

12.9

16.0

8.7

7.2

5.7

6.5

12.3

Liberal Association

8.4

3.4

2.5

2.6

3.2

Social Democratic Party

3.2

6.8

9.1

7.6

6.1

9.7

10.1

19.7

23.3

27.2

31.6

28.9

34.8

Centre Party

18.6

27.9

24.8

23.1

23.2

22.7

20.1

18.6

19.1

18.8

19.7

19.4

16.4

Anti-Semites

0.2

0.7

3.4

3.7

2.6

2.2

2.5

Conservatives

14.1

6.9

9.7

13.0

16.3

15.2

15.2

12.4

13.5

11.1

10.0

9.4

9.2

Free Conservatives

8.9

7.2

7.9

13.6

7.4

6.9

9.8

6.7

5.7

4.4

3.5

4.2

3.0

Others

15.8

12.4

12.6

11.8

9.1

8.7

8.3

7.6

7.7

11.2

9.5

10.4

8.2

TOTAL

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Source: Ritter, Wahlgeschichtliches Arbeitsbuch, 38–42.

National General Elections in Germany, 1871–1914 (in 1,000 votes;)

1871

1874

1877

1878

1881

1884

1887

1890

1893

1898

1903

1907

1912

German People's Party

19

22

45

66

103

96

89

148

167

109

91

139

National Liberal Party

1,171

1,543

1,470

1331

747

997

1,678

1,178

997

971

1,313

1,637

1,663

German Progressive Party

342

448

418

385

649

997

973

1,160

666

558

543

736

1,497

Liberal Association

429

258

196

243

359

Social Democratic Party

124

352

493

437

429

312

550

763

1,427

1,787

2,107

3,259

4,250

Centre Party

724

1,446

1,341

1328

1,183

1,283

1,516

1,342

1,469

1,445

1,875

2,180

1,997

Anti-Semites

12

48

264

284

245

249

300

Conservatives

549

360

526

749

831

861

1,147

895

1,038

859

948

1,060

1,126

Free Conservaties

346

376

427

786

379

388

736

482

438

344

333

472

367

Others

613

643

682

679

464

491

627

549

590

869

903

1,172

1,1007

(p.343)

National General Elections in Frankfurt a.M., 1871–1914 (in %)

1871

1874

1877

1878

1881

1884

1887

1890

1893

1898

1903

1907

1912

German People's Party

43.20

41.51

32.08

35.61

46.20

33.62

27.93

20.47

22.75

18.46

28.85

42.31

National Liberal Party

2.61

36.03

30.31

23.83

8.58

16.41

37.91

23.65

23.57

12.41

8.61

German Progressive Party

8.77

2.28

9.72

13.11

8.15

30.77

National Social Party

8.36

1.74

Social Democratic Party

6.31

19.56

22.48

21.19

27.83

36.30

34.08

42.29

43.68

50.82

49.39

47.08

48.23

Centre Party

3.22

5.34

5.14

6.31

6.16

5.33

5.24

6.07

8.69

7.18

7.71

Anti-Semites

4.69

3.94

11.03

8.25

Conservatives

35.86

1.06

10.96

7.30

Others

0.03

0.63

0.07

0.07

0.14

0.21

0.08

0.11

0.07

0.04

0.02

0.03

0.01

TOTAL

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

National General Elections in Frankfurt a.M., 1871–1914 (in number of votes cast)

1871

1874

1877

1878

1881

1884

1887

1890

1893

1898

1903

1907

1912

German People's Party

3,060

5,016

4,920

6,858

7,810

7,378

7,081

6,126

7,020

7,543

17,692

31,306

National Liberal Party

185

4,353

4,648

4,589

1,450

3,601

9,609

7,078

7,274

5,068

5,280

German Progressive Party

621

275

1,491

2,524

2,438

12,123

National Social Party

3,295

1,298

Social Democratic Party

447

2,363

3,448

4,080

4,704

7,965

8,640

12,653

13,482

20,019

20,178

28,869

35,686

Centre Party

228

819

989

1,006

1,352

1,594

1,617

2,391

3,551

4,405

5,708

Anti-Semites

1,448

1,551

4,506

5,056

Conservatives

2,540

204

1,852

1,602

Others

2

76

11

14

23

46

20

34

22

14

8

17

8

TOTAL

7,083

12,083

15,337

19,258

16,905

21,944

25,350

29,923

30,853

39,393

40,854

61,319

73,997

Electoral Participation (in%)

35.2

60

56.2

66

54.6

64.4

70.4

72.8

64.2

65.9

55.9

79.6

83.8

Conservatives: 1871: Freikonservative, 1878: Deutschkonservative, 1881: Konservative

Source: ‘Ergebnisse der Wahlen in Frankfurt am Main 1871–1933’, ed. Statistisches Amt und Wahlamt Frankfurt (Frankfurt). See also Specht and Schwabe, Reichstagswahlen, 157, 45.

(p.344)

Run-off Elections in Frankfurt a.M., 1871–1914

1871

1874

1877

1878

1881

1884

1887

1890

1893

1898

1903

1907

1912

German People's

3,758

7,158

10,329

12,489

9,146

10,777

21,796

33,695

35,686

National Liberal Party

5,685

7,339

5,556

12,687

10,567

11,266

Social Democratic Party

8,602

12,116

12,876

18,088

17,180

23,581

30,778

39,233

Conservatives

3,679