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Professors of the LawBarristers and English Legal Culture in the Eighteenth

David Lemmings

Print publication date: 2000

Print ISBN-13: 9780198207214

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198207214.001.0001

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(p.330) Appendix A Methodology and Biographical Notes for Barrister Samples, 1719–1721 and 1769–1771

(p.330) Appendix A Methodology and Biographical Notes for Barrister Samples, 1719–1721 and 1769–1771

Professors of the Law
Oxford University Press

Using the printed benchers’ orders for Gray’s Inn, the Inner Temple, and Lincoln’s Inn, together with the manuscript Orders of Parliament for the Middle Temple, these fifty-case biographical samples were selected (using tables of random numbers) from those called in the triennia 1719–21 (121 cases in all) and 1769–71 (104 cases).1 They were also stratified by inns of court; that is, a ‘quota’ of cases was selected from each inn to match the proportion its barristers represented in the whole population for each triennium. The resultant barrister samples were then tested by calculating the mean ‘continuance’ (years elapsed since admission to the inn) for each and then comparing the results with the same measures for the two triennial populations. In both cases the sample mean continuance was well within the ‘safe’ range of plus or minus two standard deviations from the population mean. This suggests that the samples may be used with confidence to derive accurate estimates for the characteristics of the whole populations.2

The samples were then checked in a broad variety of standard genealogical sources, biographical dictionaries, and local histories to create thumbnail biographies. Wherever possible the following list provides notes of basic life and career details. The abbreviated references to sources normally exclude the inns’ published records, which can be assumed to be the sources of data about inns of court admissions and calls to the bar given here and throughout this book. Similarly, basic information derived from the biographical dictionaries compiled for Oxford and Cambridge (Al. Ox., Al. Cant.) are not normally referenced, unless they are the principal source. The sources of information about court appearances in 1720, 1740, 1770, and 1790 are given in Chapter 3.

Additional abbreviations

  • acc.-gen.


  • att.


  • b.


  • BExch

    baron of the Exchequer

  • bro.

    brother (of)

  • bt.


  • CB

    chief baron

  • CJ

    chief justice

  • clk.


  • county

  • commr.


  • cr.


  • d.

    died, death

  • da.

    daughter (of)

  • dep.


  • eld.


  • Exch


  • Gram.

    Grammar (school)

  • h.

    heir (of)

  • illeg


  • Ire.


  • j.


  • JCP

    justice of Common Pleas

  • LCJ

    lord chief justice

  • LdCh

    lord chancellor

  • lieut.


  • mar.


  • MCh

    master in Chancery

  • mig.


  • MR

    master of the rolls

  • n.i.

    no issue

  • n.s.i.

    no surviving issue

  • parl.

    Parliament, parliamentary

  • Pr.


  • rec.


  • s.

    son (of), 1 = first, 2 = second, etc.

  • sec.


  • serjt.


  • sol.


  • STD

    Doctor of Sacred Theology

  • suc.


  • wid.


1719–1721 Sample

ALSTON, William (c.1695–1749), of Bramford, Suffolk, esq.: a. GI 21 Oct. 1714 (s. & h. Samuel A., of Bramford, Suff., esq.), c. 16 June 1719. Mar. Elizabeth, eldest da. & coheir Batholomew Beale, esq., of Bildeston, Suff.; 3 s.; left lands in Suffolk (L. Creswell, Stemmata Alstonia (1905); PRO, PROB 11/773).

ANSON, Thomas (?1695–1773), of Shugborough Hall, Staffs.: a. IT 21 Apr. 1708 (s. & h. William A., of Shugborough Manor, Staffs., esq.), c. 14 June 1719; bencher, 1746; St. John’s, Oxon., 1711. Unmar. MP, Lichfield, 1747–70. Scholar and traveller (founder member of Society of Dilettanti); eld. bro. George, Admiral Lord Anson, whose estate he inherited (BL, Add. MSS, 15,955, 32,939, 35,359, 35,589, 35,597, 35,606, 35,636, 35,638; HofC 1715–1754; HofC 1754–1790; VCH Staffs. v; Still, (p.332) ‘Shugborough: the End of a Village’, 87–8, 100–3; GM (1773); Wilmot, Memoirs of the Life of Sir John Eardley Wilmot, Knt. 199; PRO, PROB 11/986).

BOWYER, Thomas (c.1695–1754): a. IT 28 Nov. 1712 (2 s. John B., late of Turnhurst, Staffs., gent), c. 14 June 1719; Lincoln, Oxon., 1711. Described as ‘a decayed barrister’, 1752–3, and allowed 10s. p.w. by IT (CITR, v).

BRAND, Joseph (c.1692–1766), of IT: a. MT 17 May 1715 (s. & h. Joseph B., of Coddenham Hall, Boxford, Suff., esq., dec.); a. IT 18 June 1716, c. IT 14 June 1719, bencher, 1746, treasurer, 1758–9; Wadham, Oxon., 1708. ?Practising barrister (GM (1766)).

BRANTHWAITE, Miles (c.1695–1751), of Norwich: a. GI 29 Nov. 1714 (2 s. Arthur B., of Hethel, Norfolk, esq.), c. 16 June 1719, bencher, 1742; school, Norwich; Caius, Cantab., 1713. Mar. Rebecca, da. and coheir Thomas Newton, esq., mayor of Norwich. Norwich lawyer and high steward to Bishop of Norwich by 1745 (Blomefield and Parkin, Norfolk, v; ‘Norfolk Lawyers’, in Norfolk Arch., xxxiii (1960); BL, Add. MSS 31,142).

BURRELL, John: a MT 25 Oct. 1707 (s. & h. Peter B., of Durham, gent.), c. 24 Nov. 1721; Clare, Cantab., 1705 and mig. to St. John’s, Cantab., 1707 (Al. Cant.).

CAPPER, Francis (d. 1764), of LI and Bushey, Herts.: a. IT 17 June 1706 (s. & h. Richard C., of LI, Middx., gent.), c. 25 June 1721; a. LI, 1722, bencher, 1743, treasurer, 1753; Trinity Hall, Cantab., 1718. Mar., left lands in Herts. and Middx., and money bequests to 3 s., 2 da. Commr. of hackney coaches, 1722–58. Leading Chancery practiser and chamber counsel, legal adviser to Chandos family, 1740s and 1750s (Appendix C below; IT Lib., Mitford MSS 33–8; PRO, PROB 11/896; Misc. Gen. et Her., 4th ser., ii. 76; Clutterbuck, Herts., i; VCH Herts. ii; Bucks. CRO, MSS D63/82; Greater London RO, MS Acc. 262, 784, 839; BL, Add. MSS 6,709, f. 150; Guildhall Lib., London MS 18,744/2, 33; Horace Walpole’s Correspondence, xiii).

CLITHEROW, James (c.1694–1752), of Boston House, nr. Brentford, Middx.: a. LI 4 June 1713 (s. & h. Christopher C., of Boston, Middx., esq.), c. 16 Nov. 1721; Queen’s, Oxon., 1711. Mar. Phillipa, eld. da. & coheir Leonard Gale, of Crabbet, Sussex, esq., left 2 s. and 7 da. Son James ed. Blackstone’s reports (D. Lysons, Environs of Lond. (1795), ii; GM (1752); T. Faulkner, History and Antiquities of Brentford, Ealing and Chiswick (1845)).

COOKE, Thomas (d. c.1742), of Leigh, Glos.: a. MT 24 June 1713 (s. & h. Stephen C., of Leigh, Glos., esq.), c. 8 May 1719. Substantial Glos. landowner (VCH Glos., viii, xi; Trans. Bristol and Glos. Arch. Soc., vi. 156–8).

DAVALL, Peter (1696–1763), of MT: a. IT 12 Feb. 1712 (s. & h. Peter D., of St. Paul’s, Covent Garden, Lond., gent.), a. MT 17 July 1716, c. MT 27 May 1720, bencher, 1749, treasurer, 1759–60; a. LI 22 Oct. 1735. Unmar.; MCh 1759, acc. gen. of Chancery, 1759–60; translator, amateur mathematician and FRS (Foss, Judges, viii; GM, 1763; PRO, PROB 11/883; BL, Add. MSS, 4,304, 4,323, 4,444, 4,475, 6,209, 35,596).

DODSWORTH, Henry: a. GI 10 Feb. 1721 (2 s. John D., of Thornton Watlass, Yorks., esq., dec.), c. 15 Feb. 1721 [sic], invited to bench, 1743 (GIPB, ii. 242).

DOWNES, John, ?of Barbados: a. MT 5 Dec. 1713 (s. & h. of Jonathan D., of St. Thomas, Barbados, esq., dec.), c. 29 May 1719. May have been ‘counsellor, of America’ (Al. Cant., sub Downes, Jonathan).

DRAPER, Richard (c. 1694–1756), of St. Pancras, London: a. GI 11 May 1714 (s. & h. Thomas D., of London, mercer, dec.), c. 27 Nov. 1721; a. LI 1735; St. John’s, (p.333) Oxon., 1710; serjt., 1736, king’s serjt., 1749–56. Leading counsel in CP, 1740 (App. C below; Baker, Serjts.; BL, Add. MSS, 6,694, 6,709, 21,507; Lysons, Environs of London, iii).

DUBOIS, Charles (c.1695–1772), of Dorchester, Dorset: a. MT 24 Dec. 1712 (2 s. John D., of London, merchant, dec.); a. IT 18 May 1720, c. 25 June 1721. Not the botanist and treasurer of the East India Company. Unmar., left land in several counties (DNB; PRO, PROB 11/980).

DUMMER, Edmund, of Swathling, Hants. (d. 1720?): a. MT 29 Apr. 1696 (s. & h. Edmund D., of Swathling, Hants., gent.), c. 8 May 1719; a. LI 19 Jan. 1709 (VCH Hants., iii).

FAREWELL, George (c.1693–1750): a. IT 7 Jan. 1713 (s. & h. George F., of Brenley, Kent, esq.), c. 14 June 1719; Corpus, Cantab., 1711. Made two motions in KB (pleas), 1720. Published collection of humorous poems and letters, 1733 (‘Pilgrim Plowden’, Farrago (1733); Arch. Cantiana, xxii; Hasted, Kent, iii).

FINCH, Hon. John (c.1692–1763): a. IT 23 Oct. 1711 (3 s. Rt. Hon. Daniel, Earl of Nottingham), c. 5 Feb. 1719; bencher, 1727, treasurer, 1738–9; school, Eton, 1706–7; Christ Church, Oxon., 1708. MP, Higham Ferrers, 1724–41, Rutland Co., 1741–7; mar. Elizabeth Younger, actress, 1 da.; KC & SG to Pr. of Wales, 1727 (HofC 1715–1754; Sainty, KCs; GM (1763); PRO, PROB 11/884).

GILPIN, Richard (c.1692–c.1753), of Scaleby Castle, Cumb.: a. MT 14 May 1713 (s. & h. William G., of Scaleby Castle, Cumb., esq.), c. 8 May 1719; mar. 1729, Mary, da. & coheir Enoch Hudson, of Brunton, Northumb.; rec. of Carlisle. Active in defence of Carlisle, 1745, as JP and dep. lieut. Cumb.; sold Scaleby, 1741 (Trans. Cumb. and Westmld. Arch. and Antiq. Soc., new ser., xxvi, xxviii, liii, lxvi, lxxxi).

HALL, Joseph (b. 1693): a. IT 20 Nov. 1714 (s. & h. John H., of Lambourne, Essex, clk., dec.), a. MT 23 Apr. 1721, c. MT 19 May 1721; school, Merchant Taylors; Sidney, Cantab., Apr. 1712, mig. St. Catharine’s, Nov. 1712, BA, 1715–16. Not to be confused with John Hall c. IT, 1715, Lincoln, Oxon., 1715, and clk. in Chancery, d. Durham, 1732 (Al. Cant; Al.Ox.).

HASSELL, Thomas: a. MT 26 Nov. 1712 (2 s. Samuel H. of Barbados, merchant), c. 27 May 1720; ?Trinity Hall, Cantab., 1713 (Al. Cant.).

HILTON, David (c.1694–1767), of Durham: a. MT 13 Dec. 1714 (3 s. Robert H., of Stockton, Durham, gent.), c. 27 May 1720; mar. twice, (2) Catherine, da. & coheir John Morland, of Windleston, left money bequests to 1 s. and several da.; recorder of Durham, seneschal (steward) to 6 bishops of Durham (Surtees Soc., cxviii, clxxviii; Longstaffe, Darlington; PRO, PROB 11/931).

HUSSEY, Ignatius (d. 1743): a. GI 3 Mar. 1704 (3 s. Walter H., of Donore, Co. Kildare, gent.), a. MT 25 Nov. 1719, c. 27 Nov. 1719; a. King’s Inns, Dublin, 1724 (King’s Inns Adm. Papers).

JORDAN, Thomas (c.1690–1750), of Gatwick, Surrey: a. MT 27 Oct. 1709 (s. & h. William J., of Charlewood, Surrey, esq.), c. 8 May 1719; MP, Reigate, 1720–2; Trinity, Oxon., 1706; unmar. (HofC 1715–1754; Lond. Mag. (1750); Sewill and Lane, Free Men of Charlwood, 108–10).

LACY, John (d. 1767): a. LI 27 May 1714 (‘John Lacy, gen’), c. 6 May 1721; ?Clare, Cantab., 1715, as born Chelsea, Middx.; left estate to Frances Dashwood of Maiden Lane, Covent Garden (Al. Cant.; PRO, PROB 11/929).

LANE, William (c.1691–1755), of Apperly, Deerhurst, Glos.: a. MT 27 Nov. 1708 (s. & h. William L., of Apperly, Glos., esq., dec.), c. 8 May 1719; Oriel, Oxon., 1708. A (p.334) few motions in Chancery, 1720 (VCH Glos., viii; Atkyns, Glos. (1768); GM (1755); PRO, PROB 11/818).

LAYER, Christopher (1683–1723): a. GI 13 July 1715 (s. & h. John L., of Booton, Norfolk, gent., dec.), c. 4 July 1720; school, Norwich Grammar; mar. Elizabeth, da. Peter Elwin of Alyesham, 1 da. Former attorney; motions in Chancery, 1720; Jacobite conspirator, executed, 1723 (Blomefield and Parkin, Norfolk, vi; Norfolk Arch., xxxii, xxxiii; BL, Eg. 2,719, 2,721; DNB).

LEHEUP, Michael (c.1697–1749), of Hessett, Suff.: a. IT 4 Oct. 1714 (2 s. Thomas L., of St. Anne’s, Westminster, Middx., esq.), a. MT 1718, c. IT 25 June 1721; Trinity Hall, Cantab., 1714; mar. (1) Elizabeth, da. Sir Thomas Gery; (2) Magdalen; bequests to 2s., 1 da., incl. land in Suff., Norf., and Wars.; sec. of presentations to LdCh Hardwicke (GM (1749); HofC 1715–1754, sub Isaac Leheup; Milner-Gibson-Cullum, Pedigree of Wittewronge (1905), 24; PRO, PROB 11/771).

LELY, Richard (c.1696–1736): a. LI 22 Oct. 1712 (eldest s. John L., of Kew Green, Surrey, esq.), c. 30 May 1719; Queen’s, Oxon., 1712. Mar. and bequests to 2 s. and 1 da. Published book of poems and translations, 1723 (R. Lely, Original Poems (1723); PRO, PROB 11/680).

MACMAHON, Galasius: a. IT 1 Mar. 1716 (3 s. Arthur M., late of Monaghan, Co. Monaghan, esq., dec.), c. 25 June 1721; a. King’s Inns, Dublin, 1711 (Kings Inns Adm. Papers).

MANDEVILLE, Charles (d. 1733): a. MT 10 Jan. 1713 (s. & h. John M., of Lincoln, STD), c. 10 Feb. 1721. Bequeathed lands in Norf. and Suff. to bro. George (PRO, PROB 11/625).

MEARS or MERES, William: a. LI 11 July 1717 (3 s. Sir Thomas M., of city of Lincoln, knt.), c. 16 Nov. 1721. Son of the MP (HofC 1660–1690).

MELLING, Francis: a. MT 1 June 1700 (2 s. Francis M., of Bromley nr. Bow, Middx., gent.), c. 27 Oct. 1721.

MORGAN, David (c.1693–1746): a. MT 12 Feb. 1711 (s. & h. Thomas M., of Cardiff, Glam.), c. 10 Feb. 1721; Christ Church, Oxon., 1711. Sometime poet, pamphleteer, and practising barrister, executed as Jacobite, 1746 (Trans. Cymm. Soc., 1920–1; Y Cymmrodor, xiv; Cambrian J., iv; Cardiff Recs., iii).

NOEL, William (1695–1762), of Bloomsbury Sq., Middx.: a. IT 12 Feb. 1717 (2 s. John N., late of Kirkby, Leics., bt., dec.), c. 25 June 1721, bencher, 1738, treasurer, 1748–9; a. LI, 1744, bencher, 1754, treasurer, 1755; Lichfield Gram.; Pembroke, Cantab., 1713; mar. Elizabeth, da. Sir Thomas Trollope, bt., of Casewick, Lincs., 4 da., left lands in Leics. and Lincs., and large cash bequests; dep. rec. Stamford, 1736, MP, Stamford, 1722–47, West Looe, 1747–57; KC, 1738, CJ Chester, 1749–62, JCP, 1757–62. Leader in Chancery, 1740 (HofC 1715–1754; HofC 1754–1790; Foss, Judges, viii; Nichols, Leics., iv; Sainty, KCs; DNB; App. C below; BL, Add. MSS, 35,592, 35,594, 32,699; PRO, PROB 11/882).

ORLEBAR, John (c.1696–1765), of Hinwick, Beds.: a. MT 26 Nov. 1707 (s. & h. John O., barrister of MT), c. 27 May 1720, bencher, 1742, treasurer, 1751–2; school, Eton, 1707–15; King’s, Cantab., 1715; mar. Mary, da. Samuel Rolt of Milton Ernest, MP; 1 s., 4 da.; MP Bedford, 1727–34, commr. of excise, 1738–65; MCh, 1760 (HofC 1715–1754; VCH Beds., iii; Orlebar, The Orlebar Chronicles (1930); BL, Add. MSS, 4,316, 32,701; Beds. CRO, Orlebar MSS).

PACEY, Richard: a. IT 22 Nov. 1710 (s. & h. Henry P., of Boston, Lincs., gent.), c. 14 June 1719; Trinity Hall, Cantab., 1712, LLB, 1716, fellow, 1716–31 (nominee of (p.335) Parker, LCJ of Kings Bench). Active in KB (Crown), Exch., and Chancery, 1720 (BL, Stowe MSS 750).

PAYNTON, Thomas, of city of Oxford?: a. IT 22 Nov. 1718 (s. & h. Shreeve P., of IT, London, esq.), c. 25 June 1725 (Parochial Coll., Oxon. Rec. Soc., ii. 145–6).

ROBERTS, John (d. 1748), of LI: a. LI 30 July 1698 (s. & h. John R., of Ellesmere, Salop., gent.), c. 3 Feb. 1719, bencher, 1736, treasurer, 1745; mar., 1 s. Active in Chancery, 1740 (PRO, PROB 11/766).

SEARLE, Andrew (c.1694–1726), of Chambers, Epping, Essex: a. MT 28 Nov. 1715 (s. & h. Andrew S., of Chambers, Epping, Essex, esq.), c. 19 May 1721; school, Felstead; Peterhouse, Cantab., 1712, BA, 1716–17; mar. Anne, da. Henry Beadell, of London (Al. Cant.).

SMITHSON, Anthony (d. 1722): a. GI 10 Dec. 1714 (2 s. Hugh S., bencher of GI), c. 25 Nov. 1720. Pre-deceased father, who was MP Middx. (HofC 1715–1754).

SUTTON, Thomas (c.1691–1759), of Kensington, Middx.: a. IT 25 June 1713 (3 s. Thomas S., of Kensington, Middx., gent.), c. 14 June 1719; school, Westminster; Christ Church, Oxon., 1710; mar. Letitia, to whom he left jointure out of Leics. estate. Commr. for hackney coaches, 1726–41, salt duties, 1741–55. 1 motion in Chancery, 1720 (Lysons, Environs of Lond., iii; BL, Add. MSS, 32,861, 36,126; PRO, PROB 11/844).

THOMAS, Richard, of Foedallen, Carnarv. (d. 1722): a. MT 17 Sept. 1714 (s. & h. Joseph T., of Coed-Allen, Carnarv., clk., dec.), c. 1 July 1720; inherited large estate, mar. Gaynor, bequests to s. (PRO, PROB 11/588).

THORNTON, Tempest (1696–1734): a. GI 6 Feb. 1714 (s. & h. Richard T., late of Leeds, Yorks., gent.), c. 20 May 1720; Univ., Oxon., 1714; unmar. (Thoresby, Ducatus Loediensis, 26).

TREBY, Brinley (d. 1723): a. MT 10 March 1710 (2 s. George T., LCJ of CP, knt., dec.) (Pol. State, xxvi. 462; Hist. Reg. Chron., 47).

WAY, Lewis (c.1698–1771), of the Old Court House, Richmond, Surrey: a. IT 5 May 1715 (s. & h. Benjamin W., late of Walthamstow, Essex, gent., dec.), c. 25 June 1721, bencher, 1752, treasurer, 1759–60. Financier: director of S.S. Co., and president of Guy’s hospital; mar. 4 times, 3 s., 1 da. (Lathbury, History of Denham, 312–14; Stirling, The Ways of Yesterday, 21–6; Bucks. CRO, Way MSS; PRO, PROB 11/964).

WHELDON (WELDON), Spicer (d. 1748): a. MT 28 Oct. 1712 (2 s. James W., of St. Clement Danes, Middx., gent., dec.), a. LI 29 Apr. 1715, c. 12 Feb. 1719, bencher, 1743. Leader in Chancery, 1740 (App. C below; GM (1748)).

WILLIAMS, John (c.1696–1768): a. IT 19 Mar. 1713 (s. & h. John W., late of St. Paul’s, Shadwell, Middx., gent., dec.); Magdalen, Oxon., 1715.

WILLIAMS, Llewellyn (d. 1748): a. MT 18 June 1717 (s. & h. Philip W., of Duffrin, Glam., esq.), c. MT 10 Feb. 1721; mar. twice, 1 s., 2 da. (DWB, sub Philip Williams; Phillips, Vale of Neath).

WILLIAMS, William (c.1695–1769): a. IT, 11 Feb. 1718 (s. & h. Henry W., of Brecon, Brec., gent.), c. 14 June 1719; Jesus, Oxon., 1712, BA, 1715; AG for Anglesey, Caernarvon, and Merioneth, 1745–69. Helped to try Jacobites at Carlisle, 1746 (Roberts, Eminent Welshmen, 596).

WOOD, Byam (d. 1738), of Luckham, Somerset: a. GI 19 June 1719 (of Staple Inn, 1689; 4 s. John W., late of Luckham, Somerset, clk., dec.), a. MT 22 June 1721, c. 23 June 1721; mar. Elizabeth, n.i. (PRO, PROB 11/687).

(p.336) 17691771 Sample

ADYE, John Willett: a. LI 6 June 1763 (of the Island of St. Christopher), c. 12 Apr. 1769.

ARDEN, Richard Pepper (1744–1804), of Alvanley, nr. Frodsham, Cheshire, and Great George St., parish of St. Margaret, Westminster: a. MT 7 June 1762 (2 s. John A., of Pepper Hall, nr. Richmond, Yorks., esq.), c. 10 Feb. 1769, bencher, 1780, treasurer, 1791; a. LI 1779; school, Manchester Gram.; Trinity, Cantab., 1761, BA, 1766, MA, 1769, fellow, 1767; mar. Anne Dorothea, da. Richard Wilbraham Bootle MP, esq., of Rode Hall, Cheshire and Latham Hall, Lancs.; 3 s., 4 da.; rec. of Macclesfield 1771–80; MP Newtown, I.o.W., 1783–4, Aldborough, 1784–90, Hastings, 1790–4, Bath, 1794–1801; j. of S. Wales circuit, ?1776, KC, 1780, SG, 1782–3, 1783–4, CJ of Chester, 1784–8, AG, 1784–8, knt., 1788, MR 1788–1801, CJ CP 1801–4; cr. Baron Alvanley, 1801. (HofC 1754–1790; GM (1804); Sainty, KCs; Foss, Judges, viii; Manchester Sch. Reg. (Chetham Soc. lxix); BL, Add. MSS, 28,159, 28,160; PRO, PROB 11/1407).

BAILEY, John: a. MT 8 Aug. 1765 (eld. s. James B., late of city of Dublin, gent., dec.), c. 23 Nov. 1770; 1 motion in KB (pleas), 1770.

BAKER, Thomas (1749–80): a. MT 22 Jan. 1765 (2 s. John B. sen., of MT, London, esq.), c. 9 Feb. 1770; went to W. Indies, 1770; SG, Grenada, 1772, AG Grenada, 1774; returned to England 1778 and arrested for debt; died in KB prison (Diary of John Baker, ed. P. C. Yorke; PRO, PROB 11/1070).

BALDWIN, William (c.1737–1813), of Brook St., nr. Grosvenor Sq., Middx.: a. MT 4 June 1760 (only s. John B., of Halifax, Yorks., gent.), c. 2 July 1770, bencher, 1797, treasurer, 1810; MP, Malton 1795–8, Westbury, 1802–6; counsel for colonial business and criminal business, Home Office, 1796–1813; mar. with 2 s., 2 da.; left large cash and securities bequests. Leader in KB (Crown and Pleas), 1790. Formerly att. in KB and sol. in Chancery; man of business to Duke of Portland (App. C below; HofC 1790–1820; Sainty, Office-Holders, v; Trans. Halifax Antiq. Soc. (1969), 119–20; GM (1813); BL, Add. MSS 33,542; PRO, PROB 11/1549).

BATT, John Thomas (1746–1831), of the Adelphi, London, and New Hall, Downton, Wilts.: a. LI 29 Dec. 1763 (of Christ Church, Oxon., esq.), c. 30 Jan. 1770; school, Westminster; Christ Church, Oxon., 1762, BA, 1766, MA, 1769; FSA; mar. Susan, da. James Neave, of Nunton, Wilts. Friend of Gibbon; a few motions in KB, Exch., in 1770; retired from bar by 1800 (Hoare, Wilts., iv; Bedford CRO, MSS L30/15/4; BL, Add. MSS, 34,886, 35,127–35,129, 36,594).

BENTHAM, Jeremy (1748–1832), of Queen’s Sq. Place, Westminster: a. LI 26 Jan. 1763 (of Queen’s Coll., Oxon., s. Jeremiah B., of Barking, Essex, esq.), c. 6 Nov. 1769; bencher, 1818; school, Westminster; Queen’s, Oxon., 1760, BA, 1763, MA, 1766. A few motions in KB and Chancery, 1770 (DNB; Works, ed. Bowring, x–xi; Dinwiddy, Bentham; BL, Add. MSS 33,537–33,553; papers in Univ. Coll., Lond.).

BICKNELL, John (d. 1790): a. MT 22 June 1761 (2 s. Robert B. jun., of IT, esq.), c. 10 Nov. 1769, a. LI 24 May 1769. Father leader in equity, 1770. A few motions in Chancery, 1770; practising from LI 1777; admin. of estate granted to Sabina, wid. (Browne’s Law List; PRO, PROB 6/166).

BROWN, Thomas (b. c.1750): a. LI 13 Nov. 1765 (of Trinity Coll., Oxon., gent.; s. Edward B., of Walcot, Lincs., esq.), c. 10 June 1771; Trinity, Oxon., 1765, created MA, 1776, BCL, 1780.

(p.337) BUCK, Samuel (c.1746–1806), of New Grange, Yorks.: a. LI 26 Sept. 1763 (s. William B., late of Rotherham, Yorks., gent., dec.), c. 23 Nov. 1771; schools, Wakefield and Westminster; Trinity Hall, Cantab., 1763, LLB, 1770; rec. of Leeds, 1776–1806; steward of Honour of Pontefract, 1796; mar. Anne, da. Richard Ellison, of Thorne, Yorks. (BL, Add. MSS 38,310).

BUTCHER, John (b. c.1746): a. IT 21 Jan. 1765 (2 s. James B., of the Island of Barbados, esq.), c. 23 Nov. 1770; Pembroke, Oxon., 1764.

CHAPMAN, Thomas (c. 1742–89), of Lower Grosvenor Place, Pimlico, Middx.: a. GI 8 Nov. 1763 (of Staple Inn, gent.), c. 22 Nov. 1769, bencher, 1785, treasurer, 1786; a. IT 11 Feb. 1774. Practising from IT, 1777 (Browne’s Law List; PRO, PROB 11/1186).

CLAYTON, Richard (c.1745–1828), of Adlington Park, Lancs.: a. IT 25 June 1762 (s. & h. John C., late of Northall, Lancs., esq., dec.), c. 8 Feb. 1771; BNC, Oxon., 1763; rec. of Wigan, 1815–28; constable of Lancaster Castle; consul at Nantes; mar. Anne, da. Charles White esq., FRS, of Manchester; bequests to 2 da.; cr. bt. 1774 (Croston, Lancs., iv; PRO, PROB 11/1748).

CLYFFORD, William Morgan (d. 1814): a. LI 13 Nov. 1765 (s. Richard M., of Argood, Mon., esq.), c. 24 Nov. 1770; Trinity Hall, Cantab., 1765; mar. Eliza Maria, da. and coheir John Lewis, of Llantillo, Mon., esq.; 2 s. (Bindney, Mon., ii–iii).

ELLCOCK, Edward (c.1748–98), of St. George, Barbados, and Clifton, Glos.: a. MT 17 Aug. 1765 (3 s. Grant E., of the island of Barbados, America, esq.), c. 23 Nov. 1770; Pembroke, Oxon., 1765; mar. Margaret, 2 da. (PRO, PROB 11/1305).

ELMES, John: a. GI 10 June 1764 (of the island of Antigua, gent.), c. 27 Nov. 1770.

FOOTE, George Talbot Hatley (c.1744–1821), of East Malling, Kent: a. LI 24 Nov. 1763 (eld. s. Benjamin Hatley F., of Linton, Kent, esq.), c. 26 Apr. 1769; St. Mary’s Hall, Oxon., 1762. 1 motion in Chancery, 1770 (Hasted, Kent, iv, vi).

FREIND, Robert (c.1740–80), of Hitcham House, Bucks.: a. IT 2 Feb. 1767 (s. & h. Revd William F., DD, late Dean of Canterbury, dec.), c. 23 Nov. 1770; Christ Church, Oxon., 1756, BA, 1760, MA, 1763; mar., n.i. (VCH Beds., iii; Beds. CRO, MSS L30/14/150; PRO, PROB 11/1062).

GRAHAM, Robert (1744–1836): a. IT 8 Apr. 1766 (s. & h. James G., of Dalston, Hackney, Middx., esq.), c. 10 May 1771; bencher, 1793, treasurer, 1797–8; a. LI 1793; school, Dalston; Trinity, Cantab., 1762, BA, 1766, MA, 1769, fellow, 1767. Rec. of Oke-hampton; counsel to Univ. Cantab., 1787–91; KC and AG to Pr. of Wales, 1793; BExch., 1800–27; knt., 1800. Active in Chancery, 1790 (Foss, Judges, ix; Browne’s Law List (1798); DNB).

GREY, Hon. John (1743–1802): a. MT 16 Mar. 1761 (3 s. Rt. Hon. Henry, Visc. Stamford), a. IT 10 Nov. 1764, c. 10 Nov. 1764; Queens’, Cantab., 1761, MA, 1763; mar. Susannah, da. Ralph Leycester, of Toft, Cheshire; bequests of land in Cheshire and Leics. and cash to wife and 1 s. (GEC Peerage; PRO, PROB 11/1380).

GUNDRY, Nathaniel: a. LI 23 Nov. 1763 (Nathaniel G., esq.), c. 24 Nov. 1770. ?Son of Nathaniel G., JCP, 1750–4 (HofC 1715–1754).

HANMER, Thomas (1745–1828), of Bettisfield Park, Flints.: a. LI 12 Feb. 1765 (s. Job Walden H., of Bucks., esq.), c. 10 Feb. 1770, bencher, 1817; St. Catharine’s, Cantab., 1763; steward of Englefield, Flints.; FRS; mar. Margaret, da. and coheir George Kenyon, esq., of Peel, Lancs.; 6 s., 1 da., bequests to 4 s.; suc. as 2nd bt., 1783. A few motions in KB and Exch., 1770 (Lipscomb, Bucks. iv; VCH Bucks. iv; GM (1828); PRO, PROB 11/1748).

(p.338) HANNAM, John (d. 1772?): a. MT 3 Nov. 1755 (eld. s. George H., of St. George’s, Hanover Sq., Middx., gent.), c. 5 May 1769. ?Died New Inn, 1 Oct. 1772, widower (Lond. Mag.; PROB 6/148).

HARGRAVE, Francis (c.1741–1821): a. LI 1 Apr. 1760 (s. Christopher H., of Chancery Lane, gent.), c. 10 June 1771, bencher, 1802, treasurer, 1813; parl. counsel to Treasury, 1781–9, and legal adviser to Charles Jenkinson, later Earl of Liverpool; rec. of Liverpool, 1797; KC, 1806. Devilled for Thurlow when AG and LdCh. Legal antiquary, papers in BL (DNB; Foss, Judges, viii, sub Kenyon; Sainty, KCs; BL, Add. MSS, 38,308–38,310; GM (1821)).

HAWKINS, John (c.1746–85), of Bath, Som.: a. IT 10 July 1760 (s. & h. Caesar H., of Westminster, Middx., esq.), c. 9 Feb. 1770; mar. Anne, 1 s. 1 motion in Chancery, 1770, and possibly practising from chambers in Temple, 1777 (GM (1785); Browne’s Law List; PRO, PROB 11/1129).

HAWLEY, Henry (c.1745–1826), of Leybourne Grange, Kent, and Harley Street, London: a. IT 13 Apr. 1751 (s. & h. James H., of IT, London, esq., MD), c. 10 Feb. 1769; Oriel, Oxon., 1763, BA, 1766; sheriff of Kent, 1783; mar. (1) Dorothy, da. of John Ashwood, of Madeley, Salop., esq., (2) Anne, da. of William Humphreys of Llewyn, Montgomerys., esq.; 2 s., 5 da., left large estate; cr. bt., 1795. 1 motion in Exch., 1770 (GM (1826); C. H. Fielding, Memories of Malling (1893), 102; PRO, PROB 11/1708).

HOWORTH, Henry (c.1746–83): a. LI 23 Oct. 1764 (s. Revd Henry Probert H., of Meslough, Radnors., clk.), c. 27 May 1769, call to bench adjourned, 1780; school, Westminster; rec. of Abingdon, 1780; MP, Abingdon 1782–3; KC, 1780; drowned in Thames, 1783; unmar., but made bequest for 4 illeg. children by Mary Chippendale. Leading counsel in KB (Crown) and Old Bailey (HofC 1754–1790; GM (1783); G. Howson, The Macaroni Parson; PRO, PROB 11/1103).

INNESS, Robert (d. 1777?): a. MT 30 June 1758 (of Clifford’s Inn, London, gent.), c. 29 June 1770; a few motions in Exch. and Chancery, 1770 (GM (1777)).

JAMES, Richard (1746–1807): a. MT 10 Apr. 1766 (eld. s. William J., of Ightham, Kent, esq.), c. 14 June 1771; school, Tonbridge; mar. Letitia, da. Thomas Gibbons of Cranbrook, Kent; n.i.; receiver-gen. of land tax for Kent (Arch. Cant., lxxxiii; GM (1807)).

JODRELL, Richard Paul (1745–1831), of Lewknor, Oxon., and Portland Place, London: a. LI 18 Jan. 1764 (s. Elizabeth J., of Bedford Row, Middx., wid.), c. 23 Nov. 1771; school, Eton, 1756; Hertford, Oxon., 1764, cr. DCL, 1793; FRS, 1772, FSA, 1784; sheriff, Oxon., 1781–2; MP, Seaford, 1790–2, 1794–6; mar. Vertue, da. & coheir Edward Hase, of Sall, Eynsford, Norfolk; 3 s., 2 da.; classical scholar and dramatist (HofC 1790–1820; VCH Oxon., viii; GM (1831)).

KING, John: a. IT 13 Feb. 1764 (2 s. William K., late of New Town, Lacemavady, Ire., merchant, dec.), c. 7 Feb. 1770. One of this name d. 1774, will proved Derry (Phillimore and Thrift, Index to Irish Wills, v).

LITTLEHALES, Joseph Laurentius (d. 1804?): a. LI 21 Aug. 1766 (s. Joseph L., of LI, gent.), c. 25 Nov. 1771. One of this name, of Brill, Bucks., Revd and doct. of law, d. 1804 (PRO, PROB 11/1405).

LIVINGSTONE, Philip jun. (1741–87): a. LI 30 Sept. 1761 (of city of New York, gent.), c. 7 Feb. 1770. Settled in Jamaica before Revolution, mar. Sarah Johnson, of St. Andrew, Jamaica; 6 s., 4 da.; d. New York, 1787 (Cal. NY Wills 1628–1836; E. B. Livingstone, Livingstones of Livingstone Manor (1910)).

(p.339) MACDONALD, Archibald (1747–1826), of Duke St., Westminster, East Sheen, Surrey, and Armadale Castle, Skye: a. LI 13 Nov. 1765 (of Christ Church, Oxon.), c. 24 Nov. 1770, bencher, 1778, treasurer, 1789; school, Westminster 1760–4; Christ Church, Oxon., 1764, BA, 1768, MA, 1772; MP, Hindon, 1777–80, Newcastle-under-Lyme 1780–93; PP, 1778; 2nd j. of Carmarthen, 1780–9; SG, 1784–8, AG, 1788–93; knt. 1788; CB of Exch., 1793–1813; cr. bt. 1813; mar. Lady Louisa, da. Granville Leveson-Gower, Marquis of Stafford; 2 s., 5 da. Although AG in 1790 only a moderate practice in equity side of Exch. and Chancery (App. C below; Williams, Great Sessions in Wales; HofC 1754–1790; HofC 1790–1820; Foss, Judges, viii; DNB; GM (1826); Sainty, KCs; PRO, PROB 11/1713).

MORGAN, Charles Tirrell (c.1743–1805), of Fairford, Glos.: a. LI 3 Apr. 1761 (of Exeter Coll., Oxon., gent.), c. 27 May 1769; Exeter, Oxon., 1759, BA, 1763, fellow, 1764–5, MA, 1767, proctor, 1771, professor of moral philosophy, 1772. Active JP Glos., 1780–1800; mar. but n.s.i (Al. Ox.; VCH. Glos., vii; Trans. Bristol & Glos. Arch. Soc., viii. lxxv; PRO, PROB 11/1424).

NORTON, Fletcher (1744–1820): a. MT 6 Nov. 1755 (2 s. Fletcher N. esq., bencher of MT), c. 9 June 1769, bencher, 1795, treasurer, 1808; schools, Harrow, Eton, 1756–62; Univ., Oxon., 1762; MP, Appleby, 1773–4, Carlisle, 1774–5; BExch., Scotland, 1775–1820; mar. Caroline Elizabeth, da. James Balmain, commr. of excise; 4 s., 4 da. (HofC 1754–1790).

PARTRIDGE, Henry jun. (1746–1803), of Cromer, Norfolk, and Bedford Row, London: a. MT 29 June 1757 (s. & h. Henry P., bencher of MT), c. 9 Nov. 1770, bencher, 1787; KC, 1787; Wadham, Oxon., 1764; j. of Isle of Ely; mar. Catherine Reynardson, da. Samuel S., of Holywell, Lincs. 3 s., 4 da.; leader in Exch. (equity), 1790. Papers in Norfolk CRO (App. C below; GM (1803); Sainty, KCs; PRO, PROB 11/1404).

PRESTON, Jacob (1741–87), of Beeston St. Lawrence Hall, Norfolk: a. LI 23 Sept. 1761 (s. & h. Isaac P., esq.), c. 16 May 1770; Caius, Cantab., 1759, LLB, 1765, fellow, 1767; FRS and FSA; chairman quarter sess., Norfolk (GM (1787)).

ST. JOHN, Hon. John (c.1746–93), of Park St., Grosvenor Sq., London: a. LI 21 Dec. 1765 (3 s. Rt. Hon. John, Visc. St. John, dec., and former fellow commoner of Trinity, Oxon.); a. MT 15 May 1767, c. 15 June 1770; school, Eton; Trinity, Oxon., 1763; MP, Newport I.o.W., 1773–4 and 1780–4, Eye, 1774–80; surveyor-gen. of crown lands, 1775–84; practised from a chamber in the Strand, 1777; published Observations on the Land Revenue of the Crown (1787), and had two tragedies performed at Drury Lane, 1789 (Browne’s Law List; HofC 1754–1790; PRO, PROB 11/1238).

SCOTT, Francis Talbot (1745–89), of East Malling, Kent: a. LI 25 Jan. 1764 (s. Edward S., of Scots Hall, Kent, esq.), c. 23 Nov. 1771; Hertford, Oxon., 1763; mar. Cecilia, 1 s. (Arch. Cant., x; GM (1789); PRO, PROB 11/1183).

SIBTHORPE, Henry or Humphrey (c.1745–1815), of Canwick, Lincs.: a. LI 18 Nov. 1766 (as Henry S., of Corpus Christi, Oxon., esq.; s. Dr. S., of Oxford), c. 30 Jan. 1770; schools, Harrow 1755, Westminster, 1756; Corpus, Oxon. (as Humphrey), 1758, BA, 1762, MA, 1766, cr. DCL, 1777; MP, Boston, 1777–84, Lincoln, 1800–6; mar. Susanna, da. Richard Ellison of Thorne, Yorks., and Sudbrooke Holme, Lincs., banker; 5 s., 1 da.; Col. of Lincs. militia; took additional name of Waldo in 1804 (HofC 1754–1790; HofC 1790–1820; Hill, Georgian Lincoln; BL, Add. MSS, 35,645, 35,668).

SIDEBOTTOM, Radcliffe (c.1737–1817), of Sutton Court House, Chiswick, Middx.: a. MT 15 Jan. 1754 (eld. s. Revd Samuel S., late of Middleton, Lancs., clk., dec.), c. 9 June (p.340) 1769, bencher, 1792; BNC, Oxon., 1754; conveyancer (GM (1817); Browne’s Law List (1777 and 1798); PRO, PROB 11/1598).

SPRANGER, John (c. 1744–1804), of Pinner, Middx.: a. IT 25 July 1761 (s. & h. John S., of St. Paul’s, Covent Garden, Middx. gent.), c. 18 May 1770; a. LI, 1774; school, Hackney; Trinity, Cantab., 1761; MCh, 1791–1804; mar. Jane, 2 s.; active in KB, Exch., and esp. Chancery, 1770; v. active in Chancery, 1790 (App. C below; PRO, PROB 11/1413).

TOOKER, Samuel (1737–1807), of Moorgate, Rotherham, Yorks.: a. GI 23 July 1757 (of Rotherham, Yorks., gent.), c. 9 May 1770, bencher, 1785; a. IT 1776; unmar.; 1 motion in King’s Bench, 1770. Yorks. counsel and cousin of Samuel Buck, rec. of Leeds (Hunter, South Yorks., ii; PRO, PROB 11/1455).

WANLEY, William (b. c.1740): a. IT 13 Dec. 1765 (s. & h. Revd Francis W., of Ripon, Yorks., DD), c. 9 Feb. 1770; school, Eton; Christ’s, Cantab., 1758, BA, 1763, MA, 1766.

WARRINER, Gifford (d. 1820), of Canock, Wilts.: a. LI 5 Mar. 1764 (s. Gifford W., of Canock, Wilts., esq.), c. 16 May 1770; sheriff of Wilts., 1790–1 (VCH Wilts., x; Wilts. Arch. Mag., iii).

WENMAN, Hon. Thomas Francis (1745–96): a. IT 12 May 1764 (s. Rt. Hon. Philip, Visc. Wenman), c. 9 Feb. 1770; school, Westminster; Univ., Oxon., 1762; fellow, All Souls, 1765, BCL, 1771, DCL, 1780, regius prof. of civil law, 1789–96; MP, Westbury, 1774–80; rec. of Wallingford, 1772; unmar.; botanist, drowned in Cherwell (HofC 1754–1790; Hist. Univ. of Oxford, ed. Sutherland and Mitchell, v; GM (1796); PRO, PROB 11/1274).

WOODDESON, Richard (1745–1822), of Boswell Court, Westminster: a. MT 3 Mar. 1763 (only s. Revd Richard W. of Kingston, Surrey, clk.), c. 24 Nov. 1769, bencher, 1799; school, Kingston; Pembroke, Oxon., 1759; mig. Magdalen, 1759, BA, 1763, MA, 1765, fellow, 1772–1822, DCL, 1777, Vinerian prof. of common law, 1777–93, counsel to the University; commr. of bankrupts; Oxford lectures published (1792) as A Systematical View of the Laws of England; active in KB, 1770, and in several courts, esp. Chancery, 1790; equity draftsman and went Oxford circuit; unmar., left many legacies to lawyers and other friends (Hist. Univ. Oxford, ed. Sutherland and Mitchell, v; Browne’s Law List; DNB sub Richard Wooddeson sen.; PRO, PROB 11/1664).

WOODHOUSE (WODEHOUSE), Thomas (c. 1747–c. 1803), of Sennow, Norfolk: a. MT 25 Nov. 1763 (3 s. Armine W., of Kimberley, Norfolk, bt.), c. 31 May 1771; Queen’s, Oxon., 1763, BCL All Souls, 1774, DCL, 1780; mar. Sarah, da. Pryce Campbell, of Pembrokes. (Blomefield and Parkin, Norfolk, ii; Carthew, Hundred of Launditch (1877), i. 418).

YELDHAM, John (d. 1788), of The Grove, Great Saling, Essex: a. IT 15 Apr. 1766 (s. & h. John Y., of Great Saling, Essex, esq.), c. 12 June 1771; dep. lieut. and receiver-gen. land tax for Essex;. mar. a da. of Dr. Moses Griffith, MD; bequests to 2 s., 1 da. (GM (1788); PRO, PROB 11/1168).


(1) That is, GIPB; CITR; LIBB; MT Library, MS Orders of Parliament H(8), K(10).

(2) R. Floud, An Introduction to Quantitative Methods for Historians (2nd edn., 1979), 175. In fact the mean continuance for both samples was well within one standard deviation of the same measure for both samples.