Fascism is primarily associated with the Mussolini's regime in Italy and Hitler's government in Germany. While these two countries exhibited an explosive effect, this study was only marginally concerned with their actual practices, their ‘modernizing’ nature and impact and their role in perpetrating the Second World War. The main concern of this study was the concept of fascism as an idea and a cultural mood which attracted intellectuals before the World War I and before fascism was transformed into mass political movements. Fascism in internationally deprived countries such as Italy and Germany were seen as tools for strong revisionist foreign policy element and a militaristic tendency which aided for procuring power. On the whole, fascism was more about domestic affairs. It was a cultural and political response to the rise of mass society, urbanization, and secularization. Fascists belonging to the nineteenth century looked for an alternative way to modernity that would preserve ‘civilization’ and elite culture from the threat of democratic and socialism, that would include the masses without being dominated and subjugated by them and that would change the ‘disenchantment of life ’ linked with modern rationalism.
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