Lucca has three archives with substantial medieval material, the Archivio Arcivescovile, the Archivio Capitolare (both of these housed in the same archive in the Arcivescovado), and the Archivio di Stato. These provide all the documentation used in this book, except for a few references to the fondo diplomatico of the Archivio di Stato di Firenze (ASF), which I cite for comparative purposes—and also because a handful of Lucchese charters have ended up there, mostly in the fondo Strozziane-Uguccioni. The comments that follow relate mainly to the period 1050–1225, the focus of this book.
Archivio Arcivescovile (AAL)
This archive has retained its identity as the documentary record of the bishop’s affairs. Its fondo diplomatico, containing single-sheet parchments and parchment rolls, is the richest in all Italy up to 1000, and remains rich until the early fourteenth century. It is most systematically introduced in D. J. Osheim, ‘The Episcopal Archive of Lucca’, Manuscripta, 17 (1973), 131–46. It has four fondi, *, +, ++, and A. There are editions of most of its documents up to 1073.
Barsocchini. D. Barsocchini (ed.), Memorie e documenti per servire all’istoria del ducato di Lucca, v. 2, 3 (Lucca, 1837–41) is the basic edition of documents from 774 to 1000. (L. Schiaparelli (ed.), Codice diplomatico tongobardo, i, it (Rome, 1929–33), replaces it for the years 700–74.)
Bertini. F. Bertini (ed.), Memorie e documenti per servire all’istoria della città e stato di Lucca, iv (Lucca, 1818–36) is an earlier selection of texts, including some twelfth-century documents used in this book. It is technically very inferior.
AAL ii and iii. The AAL is publishing all its eleventh-century documents in modem scientific editions. The first two volumes are: G. Ghilarducci (ed.), Archivio Arcivescovile di Lucca. Carte dell’XI secolo, ii. Dal 1018 al 1030 (Lucca, 1991); L. Angelini (ed.), Archivio Arcivescovile di Lucca. Carte dell’XI secolo, iii. Dal 1031 al 1043 (Lucca, 1987).
Other AAL documents between 1023 and 1073 are published in test di laurea of the Department of Medieval History, University of Pisa. I list them all, for I used them all before the appearance of AAL iii; I cite them in the text after the fondo reference. The editors are L. Marchini for the years 1023–9 (anno accademico 1966–7), G. Mennucci for 1030–4 (anno accademico 1964–5), E. Isola for 1035–40 (p.244) (anno accademico 1964–5), M. G. Nesti for 1041–4 (anno accademico 1967–8), M. G. Pianezzi for 1045–50 (anno accademico 1967–8), P. Bertocchini for 1051–5 (anno accademico 1969–70), for all of whom Professor C. Violante was the relators, and L. Gemignani for 1056–73 (anno accademico 1956–7, relatore Professor O. Bertolini). Gemignani’s huge task, an edition of over 300 texts, led her to miss a few, which have been listed in Cecilia Angeli’s more recent tesi (anno accademico 1985–6, relatore C Violante: see bibliography); she was kind enough to show me her own registers of them.
Frat. Cap. The fondo of the Fraternita dei Cappellani Lucchesi, kept separately in AAL. I cite these according to the brief Italian register by S. Andreucci, ‘I regesti delle pergamene della fraternita dei capellani lucchesi sec. XI-XII’, Actum luce, 2 (1973). 201–16.
Libro della Croce. Privilegia ad episcopatum lucanum spectantia. A late fourteenth-century book of formal episcopal documents; where the copies can be compared with surviving originals, they can be seen to be reasonably accurate.
AAL contains the documents for the parts of the Lucchesia where the bishop had interests. Moriano, Marlia, Compito, Guamo, Sorbano del Vescovo, S. Maria a Monte, and Fucecchio are particularly well represented. (For Guamo, see D. J. Osheim, A Tuscan Monastery and its Social World: S. Michele of Guamo (Rome, 1989).) Outside the Sei Miglia, apart from the areas of the Valdinievole and the Versilia documented in the Capitolo and Pozzeveri archives (see ACL below), AAL is usually our only source.
Archivio Capitolare (ACL)
The archive of the cathedral chapter, or Canonica. ACL also includes the archive of the rural monastery of Pozzeveri, founded in 1056, the most substantial rural archive for the whole of the Lucchesia in our period.
RCL. P. Guidi and O. Parenti (eds.), Regesto del capitolo di Lucca, 4 vols. (Rome, 1910–39), contains the ACL documents up to 1200. Although a register rather than a full edition, in practice it is as good as an edition. It is the most reliable research tool for the Lucchesia in the period, and has an excellent index.
ACL. For documents from the main archive after 1200, 1 cite the fondo numbers, which are arranged by single letters of the alphabet, thus: F109 (a. 1209).
Fondo Martini. A separate fondo inside the ACL diplomatico; up to 1150 it is edited in a Pisan tesi di laurea by M. N. Guidoni (anno accademico 1971–2, relatore C. Violante), which I cite; after 11501 cite documents by their archival marking, which is simply a date.
(p.245) A+i. The first surviving notarial register from Lucca, dating to 1220–5 and 1236, for the notaries Benedetto and Ciabatto. A+2 and the long series of LL registers continue Ciabatto’s career from 1226 into the 1260s. The uncontrollable wealth of documentation in these registers is the best reason to keep one’s researches strictly to the period up to 1225. From the start, they are on paper. A. Meyer, ‘Der Luccheser Notar Ser Ciabatto und sein Imbreviaturbuch von 1226/1227’, Quellen und Forschungen, 74 (1994), 172–293, edits an early volume.
Archivio di Stato (ASL)
ASL i, ii. G. degli Azzi Vitelleschi (ed.), Re ale archivio di stato in Lucca. Regesti 1, i, ii (Lucca, 1903–11). A register in Italian and Latin of all the fondi then existing in the ASL diplomatico up to 1155. It is not a very adequate register; not much detailed work on these documents can be done without looking at the originals.
S. Giustina, S. Ponziano, etc. Single-sheet documents from the twenty-five or so fondi of ASL diplomatico from 1156, further identified by date. ASL Guinigi, a family archive, has pre-1156 documents not registered in ASL i or ii.
SMCO, SMFP Parchments from, respectively ASL S. Maria Corteorlandini and ASL S. Maria forisportam.
Estimo. Fourteenth-century (and later) tax records from the Lucchese contado.
ACL and ASL documents, which, like AAL, are essentially the archives of churches, are overwhelmingly for the city and the Sei Miglia. Different fondi tend to focus on different villages, reflecting the tendency for members of individual communities to be linked to one specific urban (or, more rarely, rural) church: so, Brancoli documents tend to be found in ASL Spedale and SMFP, S. Concordio di Moriano in ASL Archivo de’ Notari, S. Margherita in RCL, and so on. But the fit is never complete; landowning was too complex in the Lucchese Sei Miglia to permit the exclusive village allegiances to an ecclesiastical community that can be found in more rural areas of Tuscany (see, for example, C. J. Wickham, The Mountains and the City (Oxford, 1988), 204–15). Although we have a great many documents from many villages—over a hundred for the twelfth century alone in several cases—arguments from silence have to be constructed with an awareness of these patterns of distribution in mind.
Where I use dates in the text, I have as far as possible made sure, by checking indictions, that they follow modern anno dommi dating, with the year starting on 1 January. Where I simply cite documents, such as AAL ++D21 (a.1102), or ASL S. Ponziano 7 febb. 1202, I have left them as they are listed in the archives, for these are their collocation numbers, and it would be pointless to correct them.
(p.246) Lucchese documents normally, fortunately, begin the new year on 25 December, leaving relatively few ambiguously dated texts in the last week of the modern year; the main exceptions are documents from the Valdarno (including S. Maria a Monte), which often follow the Pisan style, which began the year ‘1150’ on 25 March 1140 by our dating.
For other published editions, see the bibliography.