A new stage: Bavaria, Alemania, and Lombard Italy, mid-eighth to mid-ninth century
In the course of the eighth century, when charter evidence for dealings with churches is still sparse for Francia and England, it becomes abundant and sharply detailed for the Lombards and the Bavarians, before and after they came under Frankish rule, and for the Alemans, neighbours to the Bavarians, already under it. Although the Bavarians and Alemans were different from the Lombards, they had in common that their gradual and patchy conversion from paganism or Arianism was quite recently more or less completed, and that they lived in societies with strands of strong late-Roman tradition including the recording of transactions in writing. Both sides of the Alps, what emerges most clearly (leaving monasteries aside) is the family- or priest-owned church whose endowment constituted a self-sufficient estate.
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