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War, Revolution, and the Bureaucratic StatePolitics and Army Administration in France, 1791–1799$

Colin Burrow

Print publication date: 1993

Print ISBN-13: 9780198205425

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198205425.001.0001

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(p.304) Appendix C: War Ministry Division Chiefs and Adjuncts, 1792 to 1794

(p.304) Appendix C: War Ministry Division Chiefs and Adjuncts, 1792 to 1794

War, Revolution, and the Bureaucratic State
Oxford University Press

ARCAMBAL, HYACINTHE-FRANÇOIS, b. Paris, 26 Jan. 1760 Entered the War Ministry at age 14 in June 1774 and rose as high as Chief of the General Correspondence Bureau in Oct. 1791; sacked by Servan after interrogations by the Commune on 23 Aug. 1792; listed as Bureau Chief for General Correspondence in the Agency for Military Subsistence on 23 Vend. III; commissaire ordonnateur at Amiens when called to Paris on 6 Vent. III; commissaire ordonnateur of the 15th military division (Rouen), 3 Flor. III to II Ther. IV when named Chief of the 1st Division (Supplies); ousted in the wake of Schérer's appointment, Ther. V; Bureau Chief for Laws and Archives, 2 jr. co. VI to Jan. 1815 [AG PC 2; AG Ya 26; C 356, d. 18801 and d. 18802; Recueil, xx. 504; AF III 161, d. 764; AG c.d.g. Marchant; AF III 28; AF III 554, pl 3731.]

AUBERT, CLAUDE Artillery officer under Bouchotte at Metz; named Adjunct of the 3rd Division (Engineering and Artillery) on 15 Apr. 1793 but transferred to the Army of the Eastern Pyrenees as adjutant-general exactly one month later. [A.-P. Herlaut, Le Colonel Bouchotte (1946), i. 35.]

AUDOUIN, FRANÇOIS-XAVIER, b. Limoges (Haute-Vienne), 18 Apr. 1766 Priest and vicar of the parish of Saint-Maurice of Limoges, where he established a reputation as a distinguished writer; became vicar of the church of Saint-Thomas d'Aquin in 1791; member of Insurrectionary Commune 9 Aug. 1792; Commissaire du Conseil Exécutif to the Vendée 2 Sept.; Secretary-General under Pache 18 Oct. 1792 to 4 Mar. 1793; married Pache's daughter on 15 Jan. 1793 and given the grade of commissaire ordonnateur the next day; released by Beurnonville but returned to be Adjunct of the 6th Division (Infantry Personnel) throughout Bouchotte's ministry, 15 Apr. 1793 to 1 Flor. II; arrested along with Pache on 21 Flor. II and spent eighteen months in prison until released as part of the 4 Brum. IV amnesty; défenseur officieux before the Conseil des Prises; ‘enfant Chéri’ of Babeuf; became a historian in the War Depot, an VII. [P. Caron, La Première Terreur (1792) (1950), 19; AG PC 21; A. Soboul, Les Sans-culottes parisiens en l'an II (1962), 884; Dictionnaire de biographie française.]

BERTIER, JEAN-FRANÇOIS, b. Metz (Moselle), 29 Sept. 1737 Son of a maréchal des logis and innkeeper; educated at the Jesuit college in Metz; entered the army at age 14, became sergeant by 20; quartermaster-treasurer in 1764; lieutenant in 1769; (p.305) commissaire des guerres in 1775; promoted to commissaire ordonnateur in 1788; stationed at Rennes until named ordonnateur grand juge militaire on 1 Oct. 1791; entered the War Ministry two weeks later as Chief of the General Inspection Bureau; expelled by Servan on 27 Aug. 1792; returned to La Rochelle as commissaire ordonnateur of the 12th military division, a position he held continuously until year XIII despite being officially sacked on 16 June 1793, and officially reinstated as commissaire ordonnateur en chef for the Army of the Alps on 17 Fruc II. [AG Ya 37]

BOUCHOTTE, JEAN-BAPTISTE-SIMON, b. Metz (Moselle), Nov. 1753 Son of the caissier de l'extraordinaire des guerres at Metz, worked in his father's offices for ten years; quartermaster-treasurer from 1779 to 16 Dec. 1792 then commissaire des guerres till his younger brother made him Adjunct of the 1st Division (Funds) on 15 Apr. 1793; received grade of commissaire ordonnateur 1 May 1793; made redundant when the Ministry was disbanded on 1 Flor. II; reformed from the commissariat 25 Prai. III; reactivated on the last day of year VII. [AG c.d.g. Bouchotte.]

COEDÈS, JOSEPH-IGNACE, b. 1 Apr. 1740 Part of field administration during the Seven Years War; bureau chief for Boullogne, trésorier géneral de l'extraordinaire des guerres 1763–78; premier commis for military expenses in the Contrôle Générate des Finances (1778–88) and the Royal Treasury (1788–91); entered the War Ministry as head of funds and accounting, Oct. 1791 till named to the Administration of Military Subsistence by Servan on 5 Sept. 1792; Adjunct of the 1st Division (Funds) under Beurnonville 4 Feb. to 15 Apr. 1793; member of the Agency for General Subsistence 1 Pluv. III to 30 Pluv. IV; member of the Relié Co. which replaced this agency 1 Vent. IV to 30 Pluv. V. [AG PC 21; DX5; Recueil, xix. 321–2; MC XLV 657.]

DEFORGUES, FRANÇOIS-LOUIS-MICHEL, b. Vire (Calvados), 29 Sept. 1759 Educated at Louis-le-Grand and the Paris Law Faculty; Danton's clerk while procureur at the Paris Parlement; member of the Insurrectionary Commune on 9 Aug. 1792 and part of its infamous Comité de Surveillance 2 Sept. to mid-Oct; entered the War Ministry as head of the Bureau du Contentieux under Pache; released by Beurnonville; rehired as Bureau Chief for Military Police on 15 Apr. 1793; promoted to Adjunct of the 5th Division (Troop Movements and Recruitment) on 7 May, where he remained until appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs on 22 June; arrested with Danton on 14 Germ, and released on 23 Ther. II; member of the Ouin Co. providing military subsistence 1 Frim. to 30 Mess. VI. [Dictionnaire de biographie française; F. Braesch, La Commune du 10 août 1792 (1911); MC XLV 661.]

DE LALAIN, CHARLES, b. Saint-Dizier (Haute-Marne), 14 Oct. 1745 Son of an avocat au Parlement; entered the War Ministry in 1764 under the aegis of his uncle Pierre-Paul Saint-Paul, premier commis of the Bureau des Grâces; acquired the rank of commissaire des guerres in 1769; promoted to commissaire ordonnateur and ‘Chef adjoint’ to his uncle 18 Nov. 1789; upon Saint-Paul's retirement, 1 Oct. (p.306) 1791, de Lalain replaced him, with the title of Chief of the Appointments and Rewards Bureau in the new ministerial organization; made redundant when his bureau was reorganized on 8 May 1792, but immediately named one of five new Administrators of Troop Clothing; sacked by Hassenfratz in Oct. 1792; condemned to death by the Revolutionary Tribunal along with his uncle Saint-Paul 27 Niv. II. [AG Ya 27; AG Xs 115, d. an II.]

D'HILLERIN, PIERRE-GUY, b. La Rochelle (Charente-Inférieure), 27 June 1747 Son of a doctor écuyer du roi; took a law degree; entered the War Ministry in 1770, where he remained an ordinary clerk till named Chief of the Personnel Division by Servan on 21 Aug. 1792; sergeant-major in the Versailles National Guards in 1789 and member of Jacobin Club from 1790; dismissed on 6 Nov. 1792 over irregularities by his subordinates; had been named commissaire des guerres on 7 Sept. 1792 and helped to organize troop transfers to the Vendée and Lyons in 1793; attached to the Hôtel des Invalides 10 Pluv. II; made a bureau chief in the Convention's Military Committee on 10 Flor. III; attached to the état-major of Paris throughout the Directory. [AG c.d.g. d'Hillerin.]

D'ORLY, ANDRÉ-PHILIBERT-FRADET, b. 23 Feb. 1734 Son of War Ministry clerk with forty-four years of service; entered War Ministry in Jan. 1757; commissaire des guerres from 1767, including seventeen years of service in Corsica; Chevalier de St.-Louis 13 Feb. 1791; commissaire auditeur of 19th military division; resigned to become commissaire des guerres again 19 Apr. 1792; commissaire ordonnateur at Soissons 9 Sept. 1792 and commissaire ordonnateur of 11th military division 5 Oct. 1792; named Adjunct of the 2nd Division (Supplies) 7 Feb. and then sacked on 10 Apr. 1793; ordered arrested by the Convention's Committee for Supervising Contracts for corruption in clothing contracts 5 Vent. II. [AG Ya 42; AP lviii. 453; AF II* 21.]

DUBRETON, JACQUES-PAUL-TOUSSAINT, b. Josselin (Morbihan), 25 May 1758 Son of an avocat à la Cour ‘noble maître’; entered the War Ministry in 1778 and became deputy chief of the Artillery Bureau on 1 Dec. 1791; Chief of the Artillery and Engineering Bureau 22 Aug. to 22 Nov. 1792, when he was made redundant; commissaire ordonnateur 25 Nov. 1792; commissaire ordonnateur en chef for various southern armies from 14 Vent. II to 26 Flor. IV; transferred to Liège as commissaire ordonnateur of the 25th military division and then attached to the Sambre-and-Meuse Army 12 Prai. IV, sacked by the Directory on 5 Brum. V but had this revoked on 28 Niv. V; commissaire ordonnateur en chef for various armies on the Rhine frontier from 11 Pluv. V until transferred as such to the Army for England 14 Pluv. VI; part of General Kilmaine's expedition to Ireland 29 Vend. VII; commissaire ordonnateur en chef for the Army of Rome 14 Frim. VII; recalled to justify his actions to the Minister regarding the burning of the Bodin Co.'s receipts 22 Mess. VII. [AG PC 15; AG c.d.g. Dubreton.]

DUPIN, EDME-HENRI-VICTOR, b. Limoges (Haute-Vienne), 1 April 1743 Son of a conseiller secrétaire du roi; attended the École du Génie at Mézières 1766–7; (p.307) received as engineer 1768; captain in 1777; promoted to engineering battalion chief 1 Apr. 1793; Bouchotte called him from Lille to act as a special adviser in the Ministry on 15 May 1793; Adjunct of the 3rd Division (Artillery and Engineering) from 5 July 1793 to 12 Pluv. II, then briefly Executive Commissary for Arms and Powders until made Adjunct in the Public Works Commission 1 Flor. II to 2 Vent. III; returned to the army at his former rank; assistant-director of fortifications at Perpignan 2 Flor. III to 1 jr. co. VII (during which time he was promoted to brigade chief, 16 Prai. IV); director of fortifications at Toulouse I Vend. VIII. [AG d. Dupin; A. Blanchard, Dictionnaire des ingénieurs militaires, 1691–1791 (Montpellier, 1981); A.-P. Herlaut, Le Colonel Bouchotte (1946), 36; AP lxxxiv. 340; Recueil, xii. 640; Moniteur, réimp. xxiii. 520.]

FÉLIX, DOMINIQUE-XAVIER, b. Vézelise (Meurthe), 29 Nov. 1763 Son of a conseiller du roi and lieutenant-général civil et criminel; entered the artillery in 1779; rose to 1st lieutenant-colonel of the 3rd battalion of the Nord 4 Sept. 1791; adjutant-general and effectively Beurnonville's chef d'état-major in the Moselle Army 19 Aug. 1792; named Adjunct of the 6th Division (Infantry Personnel) and promoted to colonel 7 Feb. 1793, then to brigade-general a month later; sacked by Bouchotte on 10 Apr. and suspended as general on 1 June; imprisoned for a year and released after 9 Ther.; reintegrated on 13 Prai. III after serving the Convention in the Prairial uprisings; resigned his commission on 15 Ther. III and received retirement settlement in year V at the age of 42. [AG GB 48/2.]

GAU, JOSEPH-FRANÇOIS (des Voves), b. Strasbourg, 21 Nov. 1748 Son of Gau de Vaumorin, Trésorier du Génie in Strasbourg and later director of the Klingenthal arms manufacture 1765–84; commissaire des guerres 1777; four years in American War of Independence; special adviser to the Conseil de la Guerre from Oct. 1785 until named War Ministry bureau chief on 1 Jan. 1789; commissaire ordonnateur 26 Dec. 1789; Director-General of Funds 14 Oct. 1791 to 1 July 1792; Aubry named him Director of the CPS's War Section Central Bureau 15 Germ.–io Ther. III; arrested by order of the Convention on 30 Vend. IV for introducing royalism into the officer corps; released in general amnesty of 4 Brum. IV; elected deputy of the Council of 500 but suspended on 13 Vent. IV; readmitted on 1 Prai. V; deported after 18 Fruc. V. [AG PC 36; Notables, iii. 22; Recueil, xxv. 727; Moniteur (an IV), 143; A. Kuscinski, Les Députés au corps législatif du Directoire (1905), 365.]

GAUTIER, PIERRE-NICOLAS, b. 1767 Writer; member of the Paris Jacobins from 1791; named chief secretary of the Commission for the Camp outside Paris 29 Sept. 1792; deputy chief in the War Ministry 17 Oct. 1792 to 18 Apr. 1793, when named premier commis; replaced Ronsin as Adjunct of the 2nd Division (Supplies) 16 May 1793–8 Germ. II; member of the Agency of General Subsistence 1 Flor. II–30 Niv. III; member of the Ouin and Ferdinand Companies providing military subsistence 1 Frim. VI-30 Frim. VII. [BG D2v, 123; Recueil, xii. 236–7.]

HASSENFRATZ, JEAN-HENRI, b. Paris, 25 Dec. 1755 Master carpenter at age 22; studied mathematics under Monge and became an ingénieur-géographe in 1780; (p.308) receveur élève des mines 1782; entered Lavoisier's laboratory in 1783; professor of physics at the École des Mines from 1786; Division Chief for Matériel in the War Ministry 5 Sept. 1792 to 4 Mar. 1793; named commissaire national attached to the Paris Arms Manufacture 27 Brum, to 10 Flor. II; inspector of mines 30 Mess. II till sacked on 20 Vent. III; arrested after the Prairial III journées while teaching at the École Polytechnique. [Libermann, Défense, 150; C. Richard, Le Comité de Salut Public et les fabrications de guerre sous la Terreur (1922), 89, 419–20; F7 4739, d. 2.]

JOURDEUIL, DIDIER (-Léautey), b. 1760 Huissier; member of the Commune's infamous Comité de Surveillance from 2 Sept. to 2 Dec. 1792; passed into the War Ministry as Bureau Chief for Retirements and Pensions; promoted to Adjunct of the 5th Division (Troop Movements and Recruitment) July 1793 to 30 Germ. II; arrested in Flor. II and released in early Fruc. II; Carnot approved Pille's request for his return to the Commission for Armies but Jourdeuil does not appear to have accepted; rearrested in late Prai. III to be tried together with Pache, Bouchotte, Audouin, and d'Aubigny; released in the 4 Brum. IV amnesty. [F. Braesch, La Commune du 10 août (1792) (1911), 311; AF II 24, d. 193; AG PC 45; Moniteur, réimp. xxiv. 603.]

LASAULSAYE, FRANÇOIS-TOUSSAINT (Canavas de), b. Bordeaux, 18 Feb. 1743 Son of a professor of music; secretary of the due d'Aiguillon, Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs in 1775; became commissaire des guerres at Paris in 1775; commissaire ordonnateur at Mézières when named Adjunct of the 5th Division (Troop Movements and Recruitment) by Beurnonville on 7 Feb. 1793; dismissed by Bouchotte on 15 Apr.; reintegrated as commissaire ordonnateur Flor. III; Adjunct in the Transport Commission when named Executive Commissary of Armies specially charged with military transport 1 Mess. III; Chief of the 2nd Division (Supplies) from 15 Brum, to 17 Pluv. IV; at head of the Central Bureau for Troop Clothing and then chief when it became the 7th Division, sacked by Bernadotte Mess. VII. [AG Ya 20; AG MR 2015; AF III 161, d. 764; AF III 144b, d. 682; AF III 28; AG Xs 148.]

LESTRANGES, LOUIS-CHARLES-CÉSAR (de Beaudiné de Romanet de), b. Saint-Félicien (Ardèche), 12 May 1749 Joined the Languedoc dragoons in 1765; became captain and regimental commander by June 1786; promoted lieutenant-colonel Apr. 1792; attached to the Camp outside Paris as an adjutant-general 9 Sept. 1792; served as Adjunct of the 4th Division (Control and Inspection) under Beurnonville 10 Feb-15 Apr. 1793; suspended as general on 1 June, then imprisoned from 1 Aug. to Pluv. II; reinstated and named brigade-general 3 Mess. III; served in defence of the Convention on 13 Vend. IV; commander of the Loire-et-Cher from 3 Brum. V to year IX. [AG GB 47/2; F7 477420.]

MAZURIER, PAUL-ÉDOUARD, b. Metz (Moselle), 13 Oct. 1752 Entered the artillery in 1771 and received promotion to sergeant in 1774; served in seven campaigns in America without promotion, then promoted adjutant (Apr. 1791), 1st (p.309) lieutenant (Feb. 1792), captain (n Sept 1792), and battalion chief (14 Niv. II); replaced Dupin as Adjunct of the 3rd Division (Artillery and Engineering) from 8 Pluv. to 25 Germ. II, when Bouchotte promoted him to brigade chief and posted him as artillery director at Le Havre, where he died on 22 Vend. VI, his 45th birthday. [AG officersʼ dossiers; Recueil, x. 474.]

MIOT, FRANÇOIS, b. Heuilly Le Grand (Haute-Marne), 22 Apr. 1732 Secretary to Marshal de Belle-Isle, Secretary of State for War 1756; made a tour of inspection in Germany together with de Belle-Isle's son 1757–8; entered the War Ministry's Bureau of Troop Movements upon returning in July 1758; acquired the rank of commissaire des guerres; became principal clerk in Dec. 1789 at a salary of 8,000 livres; Chief of the Uniforms, Remounts, and Étapes Bureau 1 Jan. to 31 Dec. 1792, when he resigned. [AG Ya 30.]

MULLER, JACQUES-LÉONARD, b. Thionville (Moselle), n Dec. 1749 Son of a surgeon; entered a Swiss regiment in 1765 and rose to captain by Dec. 1791; promoted to lieutenant-colonel, 21 Oct. 1792; colonel 14 Jan. 1793; adjutant-general brigade chief 8 Mar. 1793; promoted to brigade-general when named Adjunct of the 3rd Division (Artillery and Engineering) on 5 May, but only remained until 5 July, when he was sent to the Army of the Western Pyrenees to be its chef d'état-major; promoted division-general and named C.-in-C. of this army on 2 Oct. 1793; on his own request he left this post and passed to the Army of the Alps on 16 Fruc. II; suffering from asthmatic fits and severe nervous shakes, he retired with a pension on n Germ. III; re-employed as commander of the 12th military division (Niort) from 17 Flor. VI to 24 Brum. VII; during this time he declined an offer from the Helvetian Republic to be their Minister of War; called to form part of the Directory's Military Bureau on 27 Brum. VII and given title as Inspector-General of Infantry for the interior on 28 Vent. VII; left the Military Bureau on 23 Mess. VII to reorganize and take command of the Rhine Army; left this command on 4 Vend. VIII and returned to the 12th military division on 13 Frim. VIII. [AG GD 190/2.]

SIJAS, PROSPER, b. Caen (Calvados) Son of a Receiver-General of Aides de Vivre; fourrier-écrivain and secretary to the état-major of Monsieur's regiment until 1783; became sergeant-major of the battalion of the Petits-Augustins district in 1789; vice-president of the Paris Jacobin Club 17 Nov. 1792; made bureau chief in the War Ministry by Pache at this time; sacked by Beurnonville but recalled by Bouchotte on 15 Apr. 1793 to be Adjunct of the 4th Division (Control and Inspection); held this post until named Adjunct of the Commission for Armies on 1 Flor. II; quarrelled publicly with Pille and was guillotined as a Robespierrist on 10 Ther. II. [A.-P. Herlaut, Le Colonel Bouchotte (1946), i. 36; PC 77 d. Sijas aîné; M. Reinhard, Le Grand Carnot (1952), i. 145.]

SPONVILLE Senior clerk at the Treasury; Chief of the Personnel Division of the War Ministry from 4 Nov. 1792 to 4 Feb. 1793; returned to the Treasury as ‘chef du controle de la guerre’; ordered arrested by the CPS on 11 Niv. II but continued (p.310) his functions under armed guard. [H. Libermann, La Défense nationale à la fin de 1792 (1927), 153; Recueil, ix. 773.]

VAUCHELLE, FRANÇOIS-ANDRÉ Chief secretary for the government of the Îies du Vent; made several inspection tours; named principal clerk in the Artillery Bureau 1772; acquired the office of commissaire général des poudres et salpêtres in 1784 and retained his post in the War Ministry; Chief of the Artillery and Engineering Bureau 1 Oct. 1791 to 22 Aug. 1792; sacked by Servan; member of the Agence de la Poste aux Chevaux et Relais 15 Mess. II to 30 Prai. III; member of the Administration of Post and Parcels I Mess. III to 12 Fruc. III; charged with the liquidation of the former Administration of Transport and Military Cartage 13 Fruc. III to I Ther. VI; made redundant in the consolidation of the liquidation bureaux into a commission. [AG Ya 31; AF III 28 and 170, d. 797.]

VILAIN D'AUBIGNY, JEAN-LOUIS-MARIE, b. (Oise), 1754 Assessor for a juge de paix; member of the Parisian special tribunal of 17 Aug. 1792; commissaire du Conseil Exécutif Sept. 1792; head of the Secrets Section of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs; 2nd Adjunct of the War Ministry's 2nd Division (Supplies) Sept. 1793–30 Germ. II; member of the Agency for Military Transport 1 Flor. II–30 Vent. III; liquidator of this agency until 1 Ther. VI; commissaire du Directoire attached to the Rochefort Co. after 1 Ther. VII. [E. Charavay (ed.), Assemblée électorale de Paris (1890–1905), i. 2; AF II 24, d. 197; C 355; AF III 28.]

VINCENT, NICOLAS-FRANÇOIS, b. Paris, 1767 Son of a prison concièrge; clerc de procureur; Bureau Chief for the Paris National Guard; secrétaire greffier of the Cordeliers Club; member of the Commune of 10 Aug.; commissaire du Conseil Exécutif on 29 Aug. 1792; placed in charge of War Ministry personnel by Pache in Dec. 1792; sacked by Beurnonville and destined as commissaire des guerres for Corsica but rehired by Bouchotte as Secretary-General on 14 Apr. 1793 where he remained—despite imprisonment from 27 Frim. to 14 Pluv.—until sacked on 23 Vent. II by Bouchotte; arrested that night and guillotined in the Hébertist fournée of 4 Germ. II. [AG célébrités, Vincent; BG D2v, 123; A.-P. Herlaut, Le Colonel Bouchotte (1946), i. 37–8, ii. 185–6.]