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Youth and the Welfare State in Weimar Germany$

Elizabeth Harvey

Print publication date: 1993

Print ISBN-13: 9780198204145

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198204145.001.0001

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(p.299) (p.300) Appendix: Tables

(p.299) (p.300) Appendix: Tables

Source:
Youth and the Welfare State in Weimar Germany
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

(p.299) (p.300) Appendix: Tables

(p.301) (p.302)

Table 1. Occupational structure of the youthful labour force compared to the total workforce in the Reich, 1925 and 1933

1925: Erwerbspersonen aged 14–20 years

Male

%

Female

%

Total

%

Agriculture

902,811

27.0

966,094

37.0

1,868,905

30.5

Industry and crafts

1,986,926

59.5

771,635

29.5

2,758,561

42.9

Transport and commerce

356,374

10.7

329,799

12.6

686,173

13.9

Admin., services

89,632

2.7

77,264

3.0

166,896

4.8

Domestic service

3,629

0.1

466,533

17.9

470,162

7.9

TOTAL all sectors

3,339,372

100.0

2,611,325

100.0

5,950,697

100.0

1925: Total Erwerbspersonen (all ages)

Male

%

Female

%

Total

%

Agriculture

4,793,147

23.3

4,969,279

43.3

9,762,426

30.5

Industry and crafts

10,497,387

51.1

2,988,875

26.1

13,486,262

42.1

Transport and commerce

3,684,506

18.0

1,550,864

13.5

5,235,370

16.4

Admin., services

1,519,356

7.4

611,900

5.3

2,131,256

6.7

Domestic service

36,892

0.2

1,357,094

11.8

1,393,986

4.3

TOTAL all sectors

20,531,288

100.0

11,478,012

100.0

32,009,300

100.0

1933: Erwerbspersonen aged 14–20 years

Male

%

Female

%

Total

%

Agriculture

597,034

28.3

567,922

33.3

1,164,956

31.4

Industry and crafts

1,177,370

55.8

461,270

27.0

1,638,640

46.4

Transport and commerce

230,613

10.9

301,516

17.7

532,129

11.5

Admin., services

104,959

5.0

77,881

4.5

182,840

2.8

Domestic service

1,445

0.0

298,565

17.5

300,010

7.9

TOTAL all sectors

2,111,421

100.0

1,707,154

100.0

3,818,575

100.0

1933: Total Erwerbspersonen (all ages)

Male

%

Female

%

Total

%

Agriculture

4,694,003

22.5

4,648,782

40.5

9,342,785

28.9

Industry and crafts

10,294,180

49.5

2,758,802

24.0

13,052,982

40.4

Transport and commerce

4,011,311

19.3

1,920,758

16.7

5,932,069

18.4

Admin., services

1,797,593

8.6

901,063

7.9

2,698,656

8.4

Domestic service

19,946

0.1

1,249,636

10.9

1,269,582

3.9

TOTAL all sectors

20,817,033

100.0

11,479,041

100.0

32,296,074

100.0

Notes:

1. Erwerbspersonen includes Erwerbstätige and Erwerbslose.

2. ‘Agriculture’ includes forestry and fisheries; ‘Transport and commerce’ includes retail trade, commerce, transport, hotels, and catering; ‘Administration and services’ includes armed forces, churches, hospitals, education, private services such as hairdressing.

Source: H. Siemering, Deutschlands Jugend in Bevölkerung und Wirtscbaft (Berlin, 1937), 132, 139, 141.

(p.303)

Table 2. Occupational structure of the youthful labour force compared to the total workforce in the city of Hamburg, 1933

Erwerbspersonen aged 14–20 years

Male

%

Female

%

Total

%

Agriculture

482

1.9

86

0.4

568

1.2

Industry and crafts

13,454

52.3

6,147

27.8

19,601

40.9

Transport and commerce

10,769

41.8

9,348

42.2

20,117

42.0

Admin., services

996

3.9

1,476

6.6

2,472

5.2

Domestic service

24

0.1

5,091

23.0

5,115

10.7

TOTAL all sectors

25,725

100.0

22,148

100.0

47,873

100.0

Total Erwerbspersonen (all ages)

Male

%

Female

%

Total

%

Agriculture

4,504

1.2

422

0.2

4,926

0.9

Industry and crafts

145,619

37.4

43,949

25.6

189,568

33.8

Transport and commerce

194,619

50.0

70,557

41.1

265,176

47.3

Admin., services

43,939

11.3

26,970

15.7

70,909

12.6

Domestic service

394

0.1

29,901

17.4

30,295

5.4

TOTAL all sectors

389,075

100.0

171,799

100.0

560,874

100.0

Note: Erwerbspersonen includes Erwerbstätige and Erwerbslose.

Source: StJB Hamburg, Nachtrag zum Jahrgang 1933/4, p. 30.

(p.304)

Table 3. Economic participation rates of the youthful population in the Reich, 1925 and 1933

Economically active young people as % of resident population in age-group

1925

1933

Male

Female

Overall

Male

Female

Overall

14–16 years

72.4

52.0

62.8

46.3

16–18 years

88.9

72.1

84.6

70.8

18–20 years

93.6

77.4

92.4

78.6

TOTAL 14–20 years

85.0

67.0

76.0

82.6

68.3

75.5

Sources: Siemering, Deutschlands Jugend, 122–3; Johanna Ernst, ‘Die wirtschaftliche und berufliche Lage der weiblichen Jugend im Winter 1931/2’, Arbeit und Beruf, 7/8 (1932), 93.

(p.305)

Table 4. Apprentices and unskilled young workers in Hamburg: survey of vocational school pupils, Dec. 1926

Male

As % of total male pupils

Female

As % of total female pupils

Overall

As % of total pupils

Craft apprentices

14,185

58.6

2,639

14.1

16,824

39.2

Commercial trainees

6,514

26.9

4,421

23.7

10,935

25.5

Unskilled workers, domestic servants

3,045

12.6

5,005

26.8

8,050

18.8

‘Without occupation’ e.g. Haustöchter

5,864

31.4

5,864

13.7

Unemployed

450

1.9

735

4.0

1,203

2.8

TOTAL

24,194

100

18,682

100

42,876

100

Source: ‘Berufsgliederung der Jugend in Hamburg. Stand Dezember 1926’, in Jahresbericht des Ortsausschusses Groß-Hamburg des ADGB, 30. Geschäftsjahr (1926), 98–101.

(p.306)

Table 5. The unemployed as a proportion of the economically active population in different age-groups in the city of Hamburg and in the Reich in June 1933

City of Hamburg 16 June 1933

Reich 16 June 1933

No. of unemployed

As % of EAP in age-group

No. of unemployed

As % of EAP in age-group

14–18 yrs

M

1,215

11.0

90,624

8.9

F

1,549

18.6

57,462

7.3

TOTAL

2,764

14.3

148,086

8.2

18–20 yrs

M

5,234

35.6

265,526

24.4

F

3,452

25.0

107,618

11.7

TOTAL

8,686

30.5

373,144

18.6

20–25 yrs

M

20,758

47.2

900,752

30.8

F

10,168

26.7

293,222

13.6

TOTAL

30,926

37.7

1,193,974

23.5

Total 14–25 yrs

M

27,207

39.0

1,256,902

25.0

F

15,169

25.2

458,302

11.9

TOTAL

42,376

32.6

1,715,204

19.3

Total all ages

M

127,373

32.7

4,712,432

22.6

F

41,053

23.9

1,142,586

9.9

TOTAL

168,426

30.0

5,855,018

18.1

Sources: For Hamburg: Aus Hamburgs Verwaltung und Wirtschaft, 12/9 (1935) 171–5, 174; for Reich: Siemering, Deutschlands Jugend, 139, 260–2.

(p.307)

Table 6. Youth unemployment compared to total unemployment in Hamburg and in the Reich in July 1932

City of Hamburg 31 July 1932

Reich 31 July 1932

No. of unemployed

As % of total male, female and overall unemployed

No. of unemployed

As % of total male, female and overall unemployed

14–18 yrs

M

1,629

1.6

79,323

1.8

F

1,918

5.6

70,751

6.5

TOTAL

3,547

2.6

150,074

2.8

18–25 yrs

M

19,975

19.5

957,373

22.3

F

10,552

31.1

349,407

32.0

TOTAL

30,527

22.4

1,306,780

24.2

14–25 yrs

M

21,604

21.1

1,036,696

24.1

F

12,470

36.7

420,158

38.7

TOTAL

34,074

25.0

1,456,854

27.0

Total all ages

M

102,142

4,299,294

F

33,970

1,092,954

TOTAL

136,112

5,392,248

Sources: For Hamburg: Sondererhebung über die Zahl der jugendlichen Arbeitslosen im Arbeitsamtsbezirk Hamburg, 31 July 1932, StAH, Arbeitsbehörde i, 16; for Reich: Sondererhebung über die Zahl der jugendlichen Arbeitslosen, 31 July 1932, ZStA Merseburg, Rep. 120, BB VII, 1, 181.

(p.308) (p.309)

Table 7. Youth unemployment rates in different sectors of the economy compared with total unemployment in the Reich, 16 June 1933

14–25-year-olds

Total population

Male

As %

Female

As %

Total

As %

Male

As %

Female

As %

Total

As %

Agriculture

Unemployed

68,574

5.5

14,995

3.3

83,569

4.9

262,822

5.6

46,329

4.0

309,151

5.3

Economically active

1,303,997

25.9

1,159,862

30.1

2,465,859

27.7

4,694,003

22.5

4,648,782

40.5

9,342,785

28.9

Unemployed as % of econ. Active

5.2

1.3

3.4

5.6

0.9

3.3

Industry and crafts

Unemployed

993,348

79.0

210,938

46.0

1,204,286

70.2

3,607,062

76.5

589,834

51.6

4,196,896

71,7

Economically active

2,769,929

55.0

1,076,652

27.9

3,846,581

43.3

10,294,180

49.5

2,758,802

24.0

13,052,982

40.4

Unemployed as % of econ. Active

35.9

19.6

31.3

35.0

21.4

32.1

Transport and commerce

Unemployed

155,255

12.3

112,275

24.5

267,530

15.6

677,202

14.4

245,143

21.4

922,345

15.7

Economically active

654,176

13.0

690,225

17.9

1,344,401

15.1

4,011,311

19.3

1,920,758

16.7

5,932,069

18.4

Unemployed as % of econ. Active

23.7

16.3

19.9

16.9

12.8

15.5

Admin., services

Unemployed

38,515

3.1

30,176

6.6

68,691

4.0

160,431

3.4

83,357

7.3

243,788

4.2

Economically active

302,337

6.0

229,539

6.0

531,876

6.0

1,797,593

8.6

901,063

7.9

2,698,656

8.4

Unemployed as % of econ. Active

12.7

13.1

12.9

8.9

9.2

9.0

Domestic service

Unemployed

1,210

0.1

89,918

19.6

91,128

5.3

4,915

0.1

177,923

15.6

182,838

3.1

Economically active

4,674

0.1

698,425

18.1

703,099

7.9

19,946

0.1

1,249,636

10.9

1,269,582

3.9

Unemployed as % of econ. Active

25.9

12.9

13.0

24.6

14.2

14.4

TOTAL all sectors

Unemployed

1,256,902

100.0

458,302

100.0

1,715,204

100.0

4,712,432

100.0

1,142,586

100.0

5,855,018

100.0

Economically active

5,035,113

100.0

3,854,703

100.0

8,889,816

100.0

20,817,033

100.0

11,479,041

100.0

32,296,074

100.0

Unemployed as % of econ. Active

25.0

11.9

19.3

22.6

9.9

18.1

Unemployed as % of resident population

22.2

8.2

15.3

14.8

3.4

9.0

Source: Siemering, Deutschlands Jugend, 132, 139, 253, 262, 266–7.

(p.310) (p.311)

Table 8. Education and punishment in the practice of the juvenile courts in the Reich and in Hamburg, 1924–1933

Reich

Total juveniles convicted (verurteilt)

Cases where no punishment imposed as % of Verurteilte

Cases where punishment imposed as % of Verurteilte

Juveniles with previous convictions as % of Verurteilte

1924

41,196

14.5

85.5

16.7

1925

22,578

16.8

83.2

13.0

1926

21,623

18.0

82.0

10.6

1927

21,219

20.0

80.0

9.7

1928

23,050

18.6

81.4

10.8

1929

22,509

19.7

80.2

11.6

1930

23,410

20.4

79.5

11.9

1931

20,245

20.7

79.8

12.1

1932

18,852

18.2

81.7

14.1

1933

14,269

16.5

83.4

13.4

Hamburg

Total juveniles convicted (verurteilt)

Cases where no punishment imposed as % of Verurteilte

Cases where punishment imposed as % of Verurteilte

Juveniles with previous convictions as % of Verurteilte

Juveniles with previous convictions as % of accused (Beschuldigte)

1924

708

21.4

78.5

43.7

38.9

1925

461

19.1

80.9

29.0

26.3

1926

494

30.9

69.1

18.2

18.3

1927

514

34.4

65.6

1928

344

38.3

61.6

17.7

13.6

1929

344

43.6

56.3

18.0

9.9

1930

400

41.5

58.5

24.7

13.9

1931

380

43.6

56.3

14.2

7.3

1932

384

35.9

64.1

15.9

6.2

1933

290

38.9

61.0

13.8

6.1

Source: Hubert Matthias, Die Praxis der Jugendgerichte 1924–1933 an Hand der Reichskriminalstatistik (Cologne, 1937), 52–3; StJB Hamburg (1926/7), 314–15; (1928/9), 175–6; (1933/4), 181–2.

(p.312) (p.313)

Table 9. Educational measures ordered by the Hamburg juvenile courts, 1924–1933

Total no. of juveniles accused (Beschuldigte)

Total no. of juveniles convicted (Verurteilte)*

No. of juveniles sentenced to punishments

No. of juveniles for whom educational measures ordered

With punishment

Without punishment

Total

1924

796

708

556

1925

510

461

373

1926

494

341

1927

544

514

337

1928

449

344

212

90

150

240

1929

625

344

194

56

211

267

1930

711

400

234

104

278

382

1931

732

380

214

70

365

435

1932

989

384

246

60

429

489

1933

658

290

177

57

351

408

Made up of

Total no. of educational measures ordered

Caution (Verwarnung)

Probation (Schutzaufsicht)

Public care (Fürsorgeerziehung)

Other

1924

232

29

109

94

1925

196

24

93

79

1926

218

93

72

27

26

1927

243

132

71

24

16

1928

261

105

72

38

46

1929

309

174

84

26

25

1930

382

206

96

48

32

1931

435

273

93

43

26

1932

536

408

70

33

25

1933

405

287

63

27

28

Note: Number of juveniles for whom educational measures ordered includes juveniles against whom proceedings dropped before court verdict reached.

(*) i.e. the number on whom judgment was passed (Abgeurteilte) less those acquitted (Freigesprochene).

Source: StJB Hamburg (1926/7), 314–15; (1928/9), 318–19; (1929/30), 325–6; (1930/1), 309–10; (1931/2), 182–3; (1932/3), 175–6; (1933/4), 181–2.

(p.314) (p.315)

Table 10. Correctional education in Hamburg, 1919–1934

Juveniles in public care (Fürsorgezöglinge, or FZ) in public reformatories run by Landesjugendamt

Total all ages

Over-14s

Over-14s

Male

Female

Total

Male

Female

Total

As % of public reformatory inmates

1919

2,161

617

28.5

1920

2,460

664

27.0

1921

2,547

683

26.8

1922

2,897

781

26.9

1923

3,160

972

30.7

1924

2,732

866

31.7

1925

2,573

892

34.6

1926

1,323

1,065

2,388

542

536

1,078

45.1

1927

1,279

1,122

2,401

529

595

1,124

46.8

1928

1,085

1,045

2,130

464

586

1,050

49.3

1929

1,142

947

2,089

477

499

976

46.7

1930

1,125

958

2,083

455

480

935

44.9

1931

957

892

1,849

358

450

808

43.7

1932

865

834

1,699

332

451

783

46.1

1933

799

639

1,438

217

297

514

35.7

1934

636

623

1,259

258

281

539

42.8

FZ in other reformatoriesand institutions (incl. private)

Total FZ in allinstitutions

Total FZ in institutions/foster care

FZ in institutions as %of total FZ

1919

135

2,296

7,008

32.8

1920

124

2,584

7,399

34.9

1921

116

2,663

7,552

35.3

1922

135

3,032

7,827

38.7

1923

172

3,332

7,821

42.6

1924

171

2,903

6,942

41.8

1925

210

2,783

6,896

40.3

1926

257

2,645

6,563

40.3

1927

403

2,804

6,636

42.2

1928

515

2,645

6,486

40.8

1929

622

2,711

6,128

44.2

1930

440

2,523

5,821

43.3

1931

303

2,152

4,995

43.1

1932

268

1,967

4,586

42.9

1933

203

1,641

3,954

41.5

1934

180

1,439

3,753

38.3

Source: StJB Hamburg (1925), 277; (1930/1), 298; (1933/4), 176.