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The Epidemic StreetsInfectious Diseases and the Rise of Preventive Medicine 1856–1900$

Anne Hardy

Print publication date: 1993

Print ISBN-13: 9780198203773

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198203773.001.0001

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(p.302) (p.303) Bibliography

(p.302) (p.303) Bibliography

Source:
The Epidemic Streets
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Place of publication London, unless otherwise shown.

Printed Primary Sources

Reports of the London Medical Officers of Health, 1856–1900.

Annual Reports of the Medical Officer for London, 1890–1900.

Annual Reports of the Statistical Committee of the Metropolitan Asylums Board, 1887–1910.

Minutes of Proceedings of the Metropolitan Asylums Board.

Annual Reports of the London Fever Hospital.

Parliamentary Papers

Registrar-General's Annual Reports, 1855–1900 (and decennial supplements, 1861–1920).

John Simon, Papers Relating to the History and Practice of Vaccination (1857).

General Board of Health, Papers Relating to the Sanitary State of the People of England (1857–8).

Reports of the Medical Officer of Health to the Privy Council 1859–1870.

William Pole, Report…to the Board of Trade and to the Home Office on the Constant Service System of Water Supply (1872).

Reports of the Medical Officer of Health to the Local Government Board, 1872–1902, 1917–18.

Annual Reports of the Water Examiner to the Board of Trade.

Commission on the Influence of Smallpox and Fever Hospitals, 1882.

Royal Commission on the Housing of the Working Classes, 1885.

Royal Commission on Vaccination, Report, 1896.

Interdisciplinary Committee on Physical Deterioration, 1904.

Journals and Newspapers

British Medical Journal.

Glasgow Medical Journal.

Journal of the Royal Statistical Society.

Journal of the Sanitary Institute.

Journal of the Royal Sanitary Institute.

Journal of State Medicine.

Lancet.

London Statistics.

Medical Research Committee Special Report Series.

Medical Times and Gazette.

Medico-Chirurgical Transactions.

Nineteenth Century.

(p.304) Practitioner.

Public Health.

South London Press.

The Times.

Transactions of the Epidemiological Society.

Transactions of the National Association for the Promotion of Social Science.

Transactions of the Pathological Society.

Transactions of the Sanitary Institute.

Transactions of the Society of Medical Officers of Health.

West London Medical Journal.

Contemporary Articles and Monographs

Journal articles of special importance only have been included as separate items in the bibliography.

AMOS, JAMES , Nine Years in Kent Street (1870).

ARMSTRONG, H. E., Port Sanitary Administration on the Tyne (1888).

ASHBY, H., and WRIGHT, G. A., The Diseases of Children, fifth edn. (1905).

——— ‘The prevention of smallpox in the metropolis’, Journal of the Sanitary Institute, 23 (1902).

BALME, HAROLD , ‘The signs and symptoms of measles in relation to diagnosis and prognosis’, Practitioner, 73: 2 (1904).

BEETON, ISABELLA , The Management of Children in Sickness and in Health (1873).

BEEVOR, Sir H., ‘The declension of phthisis’, Lancet (1899), i.

BLYTH, A. W., A Manual of Public Health (1890).

BOOTH, CHARLES , (ed.), Life and Labour of the People (1892).

BOOTH, W., In Darkest England (1890).

BRETONNEAU, P., Des Inflammations spéciales du tissu muqueux, et en particulier de la dipthérite (Paris, 1826).

BUCHAN, A., and MITCHELL, A., ‘The influence of weather on mortality from different diseases at different ages’, Journal of the Scottish Meteorological Society, 4 (1875).

BUDD, W., Typhoid Fever (1861).

CARPENTER, ALFRED , Hints On House Drainage, third edn. (1866).

CHEADLE, W. B., The Artificial Feeding of Infants (1889).

CLARK, Sir JAMES , A Treatise on Pulmonary Consumption (1835).

COLLIE, ALEX , On Fevers (1887).

CORFIELD, W. H., The Etiology of Typhoid Fever and its Prevention (1902).

CORNET, G., ‘On the distribution of tubercule bacilli outside the body’, Zeitscrift für Hygiene (Nov. 1888).

——— ‘On the mortality among nurses and its causes’, Zeitscrift für Hygiene (Feb. 1889).

CREIGHTON, CHARLES , A History of Epidemics in Britain, 2 vols. (Cambridge, 1894).

CROOKSHANK, EDGAR M., The Prevention of Smallpox, with Special Reference to the Origin and Development of the Stamping-Out System (1894).

DAVIES, DAVID , Typhoid Fever in Bristol (Bristol, 1879).

DIBDIN, W. J., The Purification of Sewage and Water (1897).

DOWNES, ARTHUR , ‘Notes on diphtheria’, Transactions of the Epidemiological Society, ns 7 (1887–8).

(p.305) DRINKWATER, HARRY , The Epidemic of Measles Prevalent in Sunderland (Edinburgh, 1885).

DUDFIELD, T. O., ‘Metropolitan sanitary administration’, Transactions of the Society of Medical Officers of Health (1884–5).

——— Two Sanitary Addresses (1889).

——— ‘History of the Society of Medical Officers of Health’, Public Health, Jubilee Issue (1906).

FERGUSON, M., ‘A study of the social and economic factors in the causation of rickets’, Medical Research Committee Special Report, 20 (1917–18).

GAMGEE, J., The Cattle Plague (1866).

GLADSTONE, CATHERINE , Healthy Nurseries and Bedrooms (1884).

GOODALL, E. W., and WASHBOURN, J. W., A Manual of Infectious Diseases (1908).

GREENHOW, E. H., Diphtheria (1860).

GRESSWELL, D. A., The Natural History of Scarlet Fever (Oxford, 1890).

GWYNN, E., ‘Diagnosis in relation to the notification of infectious diseases’, Public Health, 10 (1897–8).

HAMMACK, J. T., ‘The relation between density of population and mortality from consumption’, Transactions of the National Association for the Promotion of Social Science (1859).

HART, ERNEST , ‘The Mosaic code of sanitation’, Sanitary Record, 1 (1877).

——— Report on the Influence of Milk in Spreading Zymotic Disease (1897).

——— Waterborne Typhoid (1897).

HELLYER, S. S., The Plumber and Sanitary Houses, fourth edn. (1884).

HEWITT, G., The Pathology of Hooping Cough (1855).

HIRSCH, A., Handbook of Geographical and Historical Pathology (1886).

HOGG, JOHN , Observations on Consumption (1860).

HOUSTON, A. C., Studies in Water Supply (1913).

JENNER, Sir W., Lectures and Essays on Fever and Diphtheria (1893).

JOHNSTONE, FRANCES , The Prevention of the Spread of Fevers (1883).

KENWOOD, HARRY , ‘The notification of measles’, Journal of the Sanitary Institute, 18 (1897).

KILVERT, FRANCIS , Diary, ed. W. Plomer (1939).

LAING, JAMES S. ‘Whooping cough: its prevalence and mortality in Aberdeen’, Public Health, 13 (1901–2).

LATHAM, B., Sanitary Engineering (1873).

LONGSTAFF, G. B., Phthisis, Bronchitis and Pneumonia (1884).

MCVAIL, J. C., Half a Century of Smallpox and Vaccination (Edinburgh, 1919).

MUNRO, A. C., ‘Measles: an epidemiological study’, Transactions of the Epidemiological Society, 10 (1890).

——— ‘The notification of measles’, Public Health, 4 (1891–2).

MURCHISON, C. ‘The etiology, pathology, and treatment of scarlet fever, Lancet (1864), i.

——— Continued Fevers of Great Britain, fourth edn. (1884).

MURPHY, S. F. (ed.), Our Homes and How to Make Them Healthy (1882).

NEWSHOLME, ARTHUR , Epidemic Diphtheria (1898).

——— ‘An inquiry into the principal causes of the reduction in the death-rate from phthisis’, Journal of Hygiene, 5 (1906).

(p.306) NIGHTINGALE, FLORENCE , Notes on Matters Affecting the Health of the British Army (1858).

NIVEN, J., ‘Inquiry into the conditions under which the infection of consumption is operative’, Public Health, 3 (1890–1).

——— ‘On the prevention of phthisis’, Public Health, 5 (1892–3).

——— ‘The prevention of tuberculosis’, Transactions of the Epidemiological Society, 16 (1896–7).

PALMBERG, A., A Treatise on Public Health and its Applications in Different European Countries (1893).

PARKES, EDMUND , Hygiene, sixth edn. (1883).

PARKES, L. C., ‘The common house fly (Musca Domestica)’, Journal of the Royal Sanitary Institute, 32 (1911).

PAYNE, J. F., ‘Tuberculosis as an endemic disease’, Transactions of the Epidemiological Society, 12 (1892–3).

POWER, W. H., ‘Thoughts on the nature of certain observed relations between diphtheria and milk’, Transactions of the Pathological Society, 30 (1879).

RADCLIFFE, J. N., ‘The prevalence, distribution and limitation of scarlet fever in England’, Transactions of the Epidemiological Society, 2 (1864).

RANSOME, ARTHUR , ‘The prospect of abolishing tuberculosis’, Public Health, 2 (1892–3).

——— Where Consumption is Bred in Manchester and Salford (1888).

RAVENSHILL, A., and SCHIFF, M., Household Administration (1910).

REECE, R. J., ‘Scarlet fever’, West London Medical Journal, 9, (1904).

REEVES, M. P., Round About a Pound a Week (repr. 1979).

RENDLE, W., London Vestries and their Sanitary Work (1865).

REYNOLDS, Sir J. R. (ed.), A System of Medicine, second edn. (1870).

RICHARDSON, B. W., ‘Health at home’, Transactions of the Sanitary Institute, 1 (1879).

——— The Field of Disease (1883).

RUSSELL, J. A., Hints about the Prevention of Consumption (Glasgow, 1896).

——— On the Prevention of Tuberculosis (Glasgow, 1896).

SCOVELL, C. A., ‘The isolation of infectious diseases in the metropolis’, Journal of the Sanitary Institute, 17 (1896).

SHADWELL, ARTHUR , ‘The German colony in London’, National Review, 26 (1896).

SIMON, J., English Sanitary Institutions (1889).

SIMPSON, Sir J. Y., A Proposal to Stamp Out Smallpox (Edinburgh, 1868).

SLADE-KING, E., ‘Notes on the spread of diphtheria’, Transactions of the Sanitary Institute, 2 (1800–1).

SMITH, EDWARD , ‘English statistics of hooping-cough’, Medico-Chirurgical Transactions, ns 37 (1854).

——— Handbook for Inspectors of Nuisances (1873).

SNOW, J., On the Mode of The Communication of Cholera (1855).

SQUIRE, WILLIAM , ‘Measles’ and ‘Whooping Cough’, in Richard Quain(ed.), A Dictionary of Medicine (1882).

STALLARD, J. H., London Pauperism among Jews and Christians (1864).

STILL, G. F., Common Disorders and Diseases of Childhood (1909).

SWITHINBANK, H., and NEWMAN, G., The Bacteriology of Milk (1903).

SYKES, J. F. J., ‘The control of infectious diseases’, Transactions of the Sanitary Institute, 7 (1886–7).

(p.307) ——— ‘The causes of the increase of diphtheria mortality in London’, Public Health, 6 (1893–4).

——— Public Health and Housing (1901).

——— Smallpox in London in 1901 (1901).

SYMONS, W. H., ‘Local statistics’, Public Health, 12 (1899–1900).

THOMPSON, T. S. L., ‘The collection and disposal of house and trade refuse’, Journal of the Royal Sanitary Institute, 32 (1911).

THORNE, R. THORNE , Diphtheria: Its Natural History and Prevention (1891).

——— The Administrative Control of Tuberculosis (1899).

VACHER, FRANCIS , A Healthy Home (1894).

VALLIN, E., ‘L'Hygiène de Londres’, Revue d'hygiène, 5 (1883).

VIESCA, Countess DOLORES DE , ‘Sanitary house management’, Transactions of the Sanitary Institute, 7 (1885–6).

VINRACE, JOHN , The War Against Consumption (1901).

WALDO, F. J., and WALSH, D., ‘Murder by measles’, Nineteenth Century, 39 (1896).

WARREN, ELIZA , How I Managed my Children from Infancy to Marriage (1865).

WELCH, HENRY , ‘Modern views on the etiology of phthisis’, Practitioner, 64 (1890).

WEST, CHARLES , Lectures on the Diseases of Infancy and Childhood, seventh edn. (1884).

——— The Mother's Manual of Children's Diseases (1885).

——— How to Nurse Sick Children, new edn. (1908).

WHITELEGGE, B. A., ‘Measles epidemics, major and minor’, Transactions of the Epidemiological Society, 12 (1892–3).

——— and NEWMAN, G., Hygiene and Public Health, rev. edn. (1905).

WILLIAMS, C. J. B., and WILLIAMS, C. T., Pulmonary Consumption, second edn. (1887).

WILLIAMS, C. T., ‘The duration of phthisis pulmonalis’, Medico-Chirurgical Transactions, 54 (1871).

——— and HORTON-SMITH, P., The Climates and Baths of Great Britain (1902).

Secondary Printed Books and Articles

AABY, PETER , et al., ‘Overcrowding and intensive exposure as determinants of measles mortality’, American Journal of Epidemiology, 120 (1984).

——— ‘Severe measles: a reappraisal of the role of nutrition, overcrowding, and virus dose’, Medical Hypotheses, 18 (1985).

——— ‘Severe measles in Sunderland, 1885: a European-African comparison of causes of severe infection’, International Journal of Epidemiology, 15 (1986).

ACKERKNECHT, E. H., ‘Anti-contagionism between 1821 and 1867’, Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 22 (1948).

AYERS, G. M., England's First State Hospitals (1969).

BEHAR, M., ‘A deadly combination’, World Health (Feb.–Mar. 1974).

BETT, W. R. (ed.), The History and Conquest of Common Diseases (Norman, Okla., 1954).

BLOOMFIELD, A. L., A Bibliography of Internal Medicine: Communicable Diseases (Chicago, 1958).

BOOTH, D., ‘Mortality differentials within large American cities in 1890’, Human Ecology, 7 (1979).

BREESE, B. B., and BREESE HALL, C., Beta Haemolytic Streptococcal Diseases (Boston, 1978).

(p.308) BRIGGS, A., ‘Cholera and society in the nineteenth century’, Past and Present, 19 (1961).

BRIMBLECOMBE, PETER , The Big Smoke (1987).

BROCK, T. D., Robert Koch: A Life in Medicine and Bacteriology (1988).

BROOKS, G. F., and BUCHANAN, T. M., ‘Pertussis in the United States’, Journal of Infectious Diseases, 122 (1970).

BRUNDAGE, A., England's Prussian Minister: Edwin Chadwick and the Politics of Government Growth, 1832–1854 (University Park, Pa., and London, 1988).

BRYDER, LINDA , ‘Silicosis, tuberculosis, and the slate industry in North Wales 1927–1939’, in P. Weindling (ed.), The Social History of Occupational Health (1985).

——— Beneath the Magic Mountain: A Social History of Tuberculosis in the Twentieth Century (Oxford, 1988).

BUCHANAN, I. H., ‘Infant mortality in British coal mining communities, 1880–1911’, unpublished Ph.D thesis, University of London (1983).

——— ‘Infant feeding, sanitation, and diarrhoea in colliery communities, 1880–1911’, in D. J. Oddy and D. S. Miller (eds.), Diet and Health in Modern Britain (1985).

BURKITT, D., and TROWELL, H. C. (eds.), Refined Carbohydrate Foods and Disease (1975).

BURNETT, JOHN , A Social History of Housing 1815–1985, second edn. (1986).

——— Plenty and Want: A Social History of Food in England from 1815 to the Present Day, third edn. (1989).

——— ‘Housing and the decline in mortality’, in R. S. Schofieldet al. (eds.), The Decline of Mortality in Europe (Oxford, 1991).

BURNETT, Sir MACFARLANE , and WHITE, DAVID O., The Natural History of Infectious Disease, fourth edn. (Cambridge, 1972).

BUSVINE, JAMES , Insects, Hygiene and History (1976).

BYNUM, W. F., ‘Hospital, disease and community: the London Fever Hospital 1801–1850’, in Charles Rosenberg (ed.), Healing and History (1979).

CAIRNS, M., and STEWART, A., ‘Pulmonary tuberculosis in the printing and shoemaking trades. Historical Survey 1881–1931’, British Journal of Social Medicine, 5 (1951).

CHALMERS, A. K., The Health of Glasgow, 1818–1925 (Glasgow, 1930).

CHAPMAN, C. B., ‘The year of the Great Stink’, Pharos (July 1972).

CHAVE, SIDNEY , Recalling the Medical Officer of Health (1987).

CHICK, DAME HARRIETTS ‘The discovery of vitamins’, Progress in Food and Nutrition Science, 1 (1975).

——— HUME, M., and MACFARLANE, M., War on Disease: A History of the Lister Institute (1971).

CLEGG, E. J., and GARLICK, J. P. (eds.), Disease and Urbanisation (1980).

CLIFF, A., and HAGGETT, P., ‘Island epidemics’, Scientific American, 250 (May 1984).

CORFIELD, PENELOPE , The Impact of English Towns 1700–1800 (Oxford, 1982).

CRONJE, GILLIAN , ‘Tuberculosis and mortality decline in England and Wales, 1851–1900’, in R. I. Woods and J. Woodward (eds.), Urban Disease and Mortality (1984).

——— ‘Captain of the Men of Death: pulmonary tuberculosis in the economy of England and Wales, 1851–1910’, unpublished Ph.D thesis, University of London (1990).

CURL, J. S., The Victorian Celebration of Death (1976).

DAUNTON, MARTIN , House and Home (1983).

DAVIDOFF, L., and HALL, C., Family Fortunes: Men and Women of the English Middle-Class, 1750–1850 (1987).

(p.309) DAVIDSON, M., and ROUVRAY, F. G., The Brompton Hospital (1954).

DAVIS, J., Reforming London: The London Government Problem 1855–1900 (Oxford, 1988).

DEARDEN, C., HARMAN, P., and MORLEY, D., ‘Eating more fats and oils as a step towards overcoming malnutrition’, Tropical Doctor, 10 (1980).

DICKINSON, H. W., A History of Water Supply (1954).

DIXON, CYRIL , Smallpox (1962).

DWORK, DEBORAH , War is Good for Babies and Other Young Children (1987).

DYOS, H. J., ‘Railways and housing in Victorian London’, Journal of Transport History, 2 (1955).

——— ‘Some social costs of railway building in London’, Journal of Transport History, 3 (1957).

——— ‘The slums of Victorian London’, Victorian Studies, 11 (1967).

EYLER, J. M., Victorian Social Medicine: The Ideas and Methods of William Farr (1979).

——— ‘Scarlet fever and confinement: the Edwardian debate over isolation hospitals’, Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 61 (1987).

FEE, E., and ACHESON, R. (eds.), A History of Education in Public Health (Oxford, 1991).

FEIGIN, R. D., and CHERRY, J. D., Textbook of Infectious Diseases, second edn. (Philadelphia, Pa., 1987).

FEINSTEIN, C., ‘What really happened to real wages?: trends in wages, prices and productivity in the United Kingdom, 1880–1913’, Economic History Review, second ser. 63: 3 (1990).

——— ‘New estimates of average earnings in the United Kingdom, 1880–1913’, Economic History Review, second ser. 63: 4 (1990).

FINER, S. E., The Life and Times of Sir Edwin Chadwick (1952).

FISHMAN, W. J., East End 1888 (1988).

FLOUD, R., WACHTER, K. W., and GREGORY, A., Height, Health and History: Nutritional Status in the United Kingdom 1780–1980 (Cambridge, 1990).

FORFAR, J. O., and ARNEIL, G. C. (eds.), A Textbook of Paediatric Medicine third edn. (Edinburgh 1984).

FRASER, STUART , ‘Leicester and the smallpox’, Medical History, 24 (1980).

GASTELL, BARBARA , ‘Measles: a potentially finite history’, Journal of the History of Medicine, 28 (1973).

GAULDIE, ENID , Cruel Habitations (1974).

GOODALL, E. W., GREENWOOD, M., and RUSSELL, W. T., Scarlet Fever, Diphtheria and Enteric Fever, 1895–1914, Medical Research Council Special Report, no. 137 (1929).

GREAVES, J. P., and HOLLINGSWORTH, D. F., ‘Trends in food consumption in the United Kingdom’, World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics, 6 (1964).

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GUILLAUME, PIERRE , Du Désespoir au salut: les tuberculeux aux XIX et XX siècles (Paris, 1986).

HALL, P. G., The Industries of London since 1861 (1962).

——— ‘The East London footwear industry: an industrial quarter in decline’, East London Papers, 5 (1962).

HALL, S. A., ‘The cattle plague of 1865’, Medical History, 6 (1962).

(p.310) HAMLIN, C., What Becomes of Pollution? Adversary Science and the Controversy on the Self-Pollution of Rivers in Britain, 1850–1900 (New York, 1987).

——— A Science of Impurity: Water Analysis in Nineteenth-century England (Bristol, 1990).

HARDY, ANNE , ‘Smallpox in London: factors in the decline of the disease in the nineteenth century’, Medical History, 27 (1983).

——— ‘Water and the search for public health in London in the xvii and xix centuries’, Medical History, 27 (1984).

——— ‘Urban famine or urban crisis? Typhus in the Victorian city’, Medical History, 32 (1988).

——— Hardy, Anne ‘Public health and the expert: the London Medical Officers of Health, 1856–1900’, in R. M. MacLeod (ed.), Government and Expertise: Specialists, Administrators, and Professionals, 1860–1919 (Cambridge, 1988).

——— ‘Diagnosis, death and diet: the case of London, 1750–1914’, Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 18 (1988).

——— ‘Parish pump to private pipes: London's water supply in the nineteenth century’, Medical History, Supplement no. 11 (1992).

——— ‘Rickets and the rest: childcare, diet, and the infectious children's diseases, Social History of Medicine, 5 (1992).

——— ‘Tracheotomy versus intubation: surgical intervention in diphtheria in Europe and the United States, 1830–1930’, Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 66 (1992).

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HORSFALL, F. L., and TAMM, I., Viral and Rickettsial Infections of Man (1965).

HOWE, G. M., Man, Environment and Disease in Britain (Harmondsworth 1976).

HUGHES, MOLLY , A London Child of the 1870s (Oxford, 1977).

JOLLY, H., and LEVENE, M., Diseases of Children (1985).

JONES, G. S., Outcast London (1971).

LAMBERT, R. S., ‘A Victorian national health service: state vaccination, 1855–71’, Historical Journal, 5 (1962).

——— Sir John Simon, 1816–1904, and English Social Administration (Bristol, 1965).

LANDERS, JOHN , ‘Mortality, weather and prices in London 1675–1825: a study of short-term fluctuations’, Journal of Historical Geography, 12 (1986).

——— and Mouzas, A., ‘Burial seasonality and cause of death in London 1670–1819’, Population Studies, 42 (1984).

LAWSON, RICHARD , ‘Urbanisation and change in nineteenth-century England’, in J. Pattern (ed.), The Expanding City (1983).

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LEWES, F., ‘The G.R.O. and the provinces in the nineteenth century’, Social History of Medicine, special issue (Dec. 1991).

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LILIENFELD, A. M., ‘The French influence on the development of epidemiology’, Bulletin of the History of Medicine, ns 4, supplement (1980).

LILIENFELD, D. E., ‘“The Greening of Epidemiology”: sanitary physicians and the London Epidemiological Society (1830–1870)’, Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 52 (1978).

(p.311) LIPMAN, V. D., A Social History of the Jews in England (1954).

——— A Century of Social Service 1859–1959: The Jewish Board of Guardians (1959).

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LUCKIN, W., ‘Death and survival in the city’, Urban History Yearbook (1980).

——— LUCKIN, W. ‘Typhus and Typhoid in London’, in R. I. Woods and J. Woodward (eds.), Urban Disease and Mortality (1984).

——— Pollution and Control: A Social History of the Thames (Bristol, 1986).

MACARTHUR, W. P., ‘The medical history of the famine’, in R. D. Edwards and T. D. Williams (eds.), The Great Famine (Dublin, 1956).

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MCFARLANE, NEIL , ‘Hospitals, housing and tuberculosis in Glasgow’, Social History of Medicine, 2 (1989).

MCKEOWN, THOMAS , The Modern Rise of Population (1976).

MACLEOD, R. M., ‘Law, medicine and public opinion: the resistance to compulsory health legislation, 1870–1907’, Public Law (Summer 1967).

——— ‘The frustration of state medicine 1880–1899’, Medical History, 11 (1967).

——— (ed.), Government and Expertise: Specialists, Administrators and Professionals, 1860–1919 (Cambridge, 1989).

MCNEILL, WILLIAM , Plagues and Peoples (1976).

MADSEN, T., and MADSEN, S., ‘Diphtheria in Denmark’, Danish Medical Bulletin, 3 (1956).

MARLAND, HILARY , Medicine and Society in Wakefield and Huddersfield, 1780–1870 (Cambridge, 1987).

MECKEL, R. A., ‘Immigration, mortality and population growth in Boston, 1840–1880’, Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 15 (1985).

MELLANBY, E., ‘Accessory food factors (vitamines) in the feeding of infants’, Lancet (1920), i.

MERCER, A. J., ‘Smallpox and epidemiological-demographic change in Europe: the role of vaccination’, Population Studies, 39 (1985).

——— Disease, Mortality and Population in Transition, (Leicester, 1990).

MILL, ALAN , ‘Flush it or fester’, New Scientist (3 Jan. 1985).

MITCHELL, ALLAN , ‘An inexact science: the statistics of tuberculosis in late nineteenth-century France’, Social History of Medicine, 3 (1990).

MORLEY, DAVID , Paediatric Priorities in the Developing World (1973).

——— MORLEY, DAVID ‘Nutrition and infectious diseases’, in E. J. Clegg and J. P. Garlick (eds.), Disease and Urbanisation (1980).

——— E. J. CLEGG and J. P. GARLICK ‘Severe measles’, in N. F. Stanley and R. A. Joske (eds.), Changing Disease Patterns and Human Behaviour (1980).

——— and WOODLAND, MARGARET , See How They Grow: Monitoring Child Growth for Appropriate Health Care in Developing Countries (1986).

——— and MARTIN, W. J., ‘Measles in Nigerian children’, Journal of Hygiene, Cambridge, 61 (1963).

MULLETT, C. F., ‘A century of English quarantine, 1709–1825’, Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 23 (1949).

(p.312) MURRAY, J. and MURRAY, A., ‘Suppression of infection by famine and its activation by refeeding—a paradox?’, Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 20 (1977).

NEWBY, M., Sick Children's Hospital Nursing in Nineteenth Century Britain, Occasional Papers in Nursing and Caring, 1 (1987).

NEWSHOLME, ARTHUR , Fifty Years in Public Health (1935).

ODDY, D. J., ‘A nutritional analysis of historical evidence: the working class diet 1880–1914’, in D. J. Oddy and D. S. Miller, The Making of the Modern British Diet (1976).

——— ‘Urban famine in nineteenth-century Britain: the effect of the Lancashire cotton famine on working-class diet and health, Economic History Review, second ser. 37 (1983).

——— and MILLER, D. S. (eds.), Diet and Health in Modern Britain (1985).

OWEN, DAVID , The Government of Victorian London, 1855–1889: The Metropolitan Board of Works, the Vestries and the City Corporation, ed. R. M. MacLeod (1982).

PALMER, ROY , The Water Closet (1973).

PANUM, P. L., Observations Made during the Epidemic of Measles on the Faroe Islands in the Year 1846 (New York, 1940).

PARISH, H. J., A History of Immunization (Edinburgh, 1965).

——— Victory with Vaccines (Edinburgh, 1968).

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