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The End of an ÉliteThe French Bishops and the Coming of the Revolution 1786-1790$

Nigel Aston

Print publication date: 1992

Print ISBN-13: 9780198202844

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198202844.001.0001

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(p.269) Appendix 5 Summary of careers of the archbishops and bishops of the French Church after the outbreak of the Revolution, arranged according to province

(p.269) Appendix 5 Summary of careers of the archbishops and bishops of the French Church after the outbreak of the Revolution, arranged according to province

The End of an Élite
Oxford University Press


AIX. Jean de Dieu-Raymond de Boisgelin. Left France for England after the closure of the National Assembly. Helped organize the Church after the Concordat and became abp. of Tours. Preached at the Coronation of Napoleon in 1804.

APT. Laurent-Michel-Éon de Cély. Left Apt in Aug. 1789, and in Italy by early 1790. Adhered to the Exposition in letter dated 14 Jan. 1791.

FRÉJUS. Emmanuel François de Bausset de Roquefort. Left his dioc. in 1790 and refused requests to return from Nice and exercise his pastoral functions. In Turin by the end of 1792. Later in Piedmont, Venice, and Fiume where he died.

GAP. François Henri de la Broüe de Vareilles. Remained in his palace after the suppression of the see in 1790. Continued his struggle against the Constitutional clergy from there until driven out by popular disturbances. Went to Grenoble, Lyon, then Chambéry in 1791; in Lausanne, 1794–5, then to Bavaria. He refused the Concordat, and only returned to Poitiers in 1815.

RIEZ. François Cligny. Fled to Lausanne after the outbreak of the Revolution.

SISTERON. François de Bovet. Went into exile in Germany (at Ratisbon in 1801) after the Civil Constitution of the Clergy; after 1815 refused the see of Toulouse and died as canon of Saint-Denis.


ALBI. Cardinal François-Joachim de Pierres de Bernis. Received the king’s aunts in Rome in 1791, where he remained until his own death.

(p.270) François de Pierre de Bernis. Resided in Paris 1789–mid–1792, then went to Rome.

CAHORS. Louis-Marie Nicolaï-Sabran. Caught up in the Grand Peur in Aug. 1789, when a crowd invaded the palace, incensed at his suppression of some popular religious festivals and practices; bought them off by distributing sums of money at his door. Showed himself conciliatory towards the new authorities in 1790. Died the following year after refusing the oath to the Civil Constitution of the Clergy.

CASTRES. Jean-Marc de Royère. Prepared to implement the Civil Constitution in the Tarn, but Papal rejection of it was decisive. Left Castres on 14 July 1791 after an advance warning that an attack on him was planned. At Aix-les-Thermes on the Spanish frontier for the next twelve months, then moved into Catalonia, and subsequently Portugal.

MENDE. Jean-Arnaud de Castellane. March 1792, accused by Legislative Assembly of stirring up disturbances in the Lozère and imprisoned at Orléans; later taken to Versailles and executed.

RODEZ. Seignelay-Colbert de Castlehill. One of those prelates who was on the point of accepting the Civil Constitution, but finally stayed firm. Emigrated to England.

VABRES. Jean La Croix de Castries de Mairargues. Opposed the imposition of the Civil Constitution in the dioc. of Vabres, and refused the oath himself.


ARLES. Jean-Marie Dulau. Helped non-juring priests from his own private fortune. Arrested 10 Aug. 1792, and murdered at the house of the Carmelites, 2 Sept.

MARSEILLE. Jean-Baptiste de Belloy. At the Revolution retired to the village of Chambly and remained concealed throughout the 1790s. A natural conciliator, he became abp. of Paris during the Consulate despite his great age.

ORANGE. Guillaume-Louis du Tillet. Refused to take the oath to the Civil Constitution, 1790–1.

SAINT-PAUL-TROIS-CHÂTEAUX. Pierre François Reboul de Lambert. Refused to compromise over the Civil Constitution and died peacefully in his palace, March 1791.

TOULON. Léon de Castellane-Mazaugues. Had retired to Vintimille by late 1789 because of personal intimidation in Toulon itself. In Turin, spring 1793; still there July 1798. Venice the next year. Died at Udine exercising a ministry among French troops of occupation.

(p.271) Auch

AUCH. Louis Apollinaire La Tour du Pin Montauban. Led stubborn resistance in his diocese to the imposition of the new ecclesiastical order, 1791; finally forced to seek refuge in the abbey of Montserrat, near Barcelona; continued to take an interest in his old province. 1803, bp. of Troyes; 1806, Napoleonic Senator.

AIRE. Sebastien Charles Philibert Roger de Cahuzac de Caux. In exile with bps. of Bayonne and Dax.

BAYONNE. Étienne Joseph de Pavée de Villevieille. Crossed to Spain March 1791; returned to his dioc. briefly in June, because of his trust in the faithful on the frontier.

BAZAS. Jean-Baptiste Grégoire de Saint-Sauveur. Refused the oath in 1790 to the Civil Constitution.

COMMINGES. Antoine Eustache, baron d’Osmond. Emigrated 1791; ended his career as bp. of Nancy.

COUSERANS. Dominique de Lastic. Died in Germany.

DAX. Charles-Auguste Le Quien de la Neufville. Travelled throughout the Iberian peninsula in 1790s; accepted the Concordat.

LECTOURE. Louis Emmanuel de Cugnac. Refused to go into exile; imprisoned near Auch, Aug. 1792; released after Terror because of his age and indifferent health. Died on the family estate at Fondelin, near Condom.

LESCAR. Marc Antoine Moé. At Lescar after suppression of see; travelled to London via Spain; bp. of Troyes, 1802.

OLORON. Jean-Baptiste-Auguste de Villoutreix. Emigrated to England, where he died.

TARBES. François de Gain-Montaignac. Co-operated with the new departmental authorities, 1790. At Saint-Sebastien Feb. 1791. Later one of the prelates residing at Montserrat, near Barcelona. Resigned as bp. of Tarbes from Portugal, 1801; died in London.


BESANÇON. Raymond de Durfort. Tried to respond ‘patriotically’ to the Revolution in 1790–1 until publication of the decrees on the Civil Constitution in Nov. Left his palace in Apr. 1791, having refused to resign the see. Travelled to Switzerland and died at Soleure, March 1792.

BELLEY. Gabriel Amédée Cortois de Quincey. See left vacant after his death in Jan. 1791.

(p.272) Bordeaux

BORDEAUX. Jérome-Marie Champion de Cicé. Emigrated in early 1791. 1792, in Brussels. Spent much of the revolutionary decade attempting to explain his initially favourable response to the Civil Constitution. After the Concordat, he became abp. of Aix.

AGEN. Jean-Louis d’Usson de Bonnac. Willing to make every possible concession to the new ecclesiastical order, even to the point of reorganizing his diocese according to the Civil Constitution. Retired to Switzerland, then Bavaria.

ANGOULÊME. Philippe-François Albignac de Castelnau. Fought hard against the Civil Constitution and the intrusion of a new bp. In hiding at Millau, south of Rodez, by Dec. 1790. Escaped via Paris and Dieppe to England, Dec. 1792. Died in London.

CONDOM. Alexandre Caesar d’Anteroches. Attempted co-operation with local authorities in 1790, but felt obliged to distribute the Pastoral Letter of bp. Asseline in Nov. Left Paris for London, Sept. 1792, where he died.

LUÇON. Marie-Charles-Isidore Mercy. Emigrated to Switzerland in Aug. 1792 from Paris, where he had lived in hiding, but kept in contact with his clergy throughout. After the Concordat returned to France, and apptd. abp. of Bourges.

PÉRIGUEUX. Emmanuel Louis Grossoles de Flammarens. Opposed to the Civil Constitution and emigrated 1791. Died in London, which he reached in Aug. 1792.

POITIERS. Martial-Louis de Beaupoil de Sainte-Aulaire. One of the most intransigent prelates in the summer of 1790, and the first to sign the ‘Exposition’ after the abps. Did not return to Poitiers after refusing the oath in the National Assembly, Jan. 1791.

LA ROCHELLE. Jean-Charles de Coucy, Left La Rochelle, July 1791. Went to Spain. Refused to recognize the Concordat; abp. of Reims, 1817.

SAINTES. Pierre-Louis de la Rochefoucauld-Bayers. Signed the ‘Exposition’ and protested at imposition of Civil Constitution. Arrested because of his blood relation to the overtly Counter-Revolutionary bp. of Beauvais, and died with him in the Massacre at the Carmelite Convent, Paris.

SARLAT. Falcombelle Joseph-Anne-Luc de Pont d’Albaret. Left Sarlat for Paris in 1791. Took the oath of fidelity in Sept. 1792. Returned briefly to Sarlat, then to Pignerolo where he had family ties. To Turin in 1796.


BOURGES. Jean Auguste de Chastenet de Puységur. Wrote nothing (p.273) personally to encourage his clergy to work against the Civil Constitution, but was the first to refuse it.

CLERMONT. François de Bonal. Schism denounced by Bonal; his plan for a restricted oath to the Civil Constitution received little support in the National Assembly, but highly regarded by other episcopal deputies. Attended the Assembly until its dissolution. Advised the king about taking Easter Communion in 1791. Living in a modest apartment near Saint-Sulpice, Aug. 1792. Emigrated to Germany and Switzerland, and died in Munich.

LE PUY-EN-VELAY. Galard de Terraube. Stood as a candidate in the election of a Const, bp., but obtained only 17 votes. Refused the offer of the successfully elected candidate, Étienne Delcher, to resume government of the diocese, Mar. 1791.

LIMOGES. Charles-Louis Duplessis d’Argentré. Large proportion of the clergy stayed loyal to him, and he tried to administer the dioc. from a distance. In Paris from 1791 working with Bp. Bonal; briefly and secretly in Limoges, winter 1791–2, but went back to Paris, and emigrated to England July 1792. Ended up in Münster.

SAINT-FLOUR. Claude Marie Ruffo de Laric. Invited priests and people of his dioc. on 22 Nov. 1790 to adhere to the Pastoral Instruction of Bp. Asseline of Boulogne.

TULLE. Claude-Joseph de Raffelis de Saint-Sauveur. Took a restrictive oath to the Civil Constitution, 1 Dec. 1790, but rejected it entirely in the New Year. Left his see for Carpentras. Died 1791.


CAMBRAI. Ferdinand-Maximilien-Mériadée, Prince de Rohan-Guémené. Briefly Regent of the Principality of Liège, 1790–1. Opposed the Civil Constitution. Retired to Mons in 1791 on arrival of Const, bp., and continued in the Austrian part of his dioc.

ARRAS. Louis-François-Marc-Hilaire de Conzié. Councillor to the duc d’Artois during the Emigration, and left France with him in 1789 as one of the earliest émigrés.

SAINT-OMER. Alexandre-Joseph-Marie-Alexis de Bruyère Chalabre. Out of his dioc. at the Revolution: at Aix-en-Savoie in Oct. 1789, and had reached Milan by the beginning of 1791.


EMBRUN. Louis de Leyssins. On the conservative side during the Revolt (p.274) of the Dauphiné. Resisting the imposition of the Civil Constitution in Embrun from the late summer of 1790. Threatened with forcible expulsion in 1791, he crossed the frontier into Savoy in July.

DIGNE. François Dumouchet. Opposed the Civil Constitution and emigrated in 1791.

GLANDÈVE. Henri Hachette des Portes. Emigrated in 1791 to Nice with many of his clergy. Died at Boulogne just as papal relief for his poverty had arrived.

GRASSE. François d’Étienne. Expelled from his palace, 1790. Emigrated to Italy. In Rome by 1792, where he assisted at the consecration of the abbé Maury as a bp. Risked going back to Marseille to participate in illegal consecrations, Sept. 1797.

SENEZ. Jean-Baptiste-Marie-Servan de Roux de Bonneval. Remained in his dioc. after its suppression; imprisoned, appeared before courts at Castellane and Digne. Sentenced to banishment. Later in Nice, Turin, Ferrara, and Rome. Resigned his see 1801, but refused offer of Avignon, 1817. Lived out the last 27 years of his life at Viterbo.

VENCE. Charles François Joseph de Pisani. Left his palace Jan. 1791, but stayed in Vence until Easter the same year. Nailed the names of those priests who had taken the oath to the cathedral door to signify their excommunication. At Rome in March 1792, home by the time of the Concordat. Bp. of Namur, 1804–26.


LYON. Yves-Alexandre de Marbeuf. In Hamburg after 1791; left the struggle against the Constitutional Church in Lyon to his V. G.s.

AUTUN. Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand. Notoriously took the oath to the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, 1790; helped found the Constitutional Church, 1791; career in secular politics from 1792.

CHALON-SUR-SAÔNE. Jean-Baptiste Duchilleau. Governed his dioc. from Friburg during the 1790s; abp. of Tours after the Restoration.

DIJON. René Desmontiers de Merinville. Left France in 1791; one of the principal organizers of the Concordat settlement in France. Himself bp. of Chambéry 1801–10; chanoine-évêque of Saint-Denis after 1806.

LANGRES. César-Guillaume de La Luzerne. Opposed to the Declaration of the Rights of Man. Retired to his dioc. after the October Days, first to Clairvaux, then Langres, finally fleeing to Switzerland in Apr. 1791.

MÂCON. Gabriel François Moreau. Stayed in France during the 1790s; arrested Aug. 1792, and three times imprisoned. Bp. of Autun in the last months of his life after the Concordat.

(p.275) SAINT-CLAUDE. Jean Baptiste de Rohan-Chabot. In France for most of 1790s, also in Switzerland and Germany; briefly bp. of Mende after the Concordat; abp. of Auch 1817, but never took possession.


NARBONNE. Arthur-Richard Dillon. Wrote personally to Louis XVI, 22 Sept. 1790, stating that it was ‘impossible d’acquiescer à la dégradation du siége archiépiscopal et primatiale de Narbonne.’ Continued to live at Hautefontaine until Sept. 1791, when he emigrated to England via Prussia. Massively indebted at his departure, but the revolutionary confiscation precluded chance of paying his creditors.

AGDE. Charles-François-Siméon Vermandois de Saint-Simon Rouvoy Sandricourt. Only driven from his dioc. in June 1791 when a mob surrounded the palace. Fled to Paris, where he was executed in the Terror.

ALAIS (or ALÈS). Cardinal de Bausset. In Lausanne, Aug. and Sept. 1790, with the Prince and Princess de Chalais. Returned to Paris, 1791, having decided against going to Alais where the majority of his clergy were unsympathetic. Recommended Pastoral Instruction of Bp. Asseline to his flock, 27 Nov. 1790. Remained in hiding in France throughout the 1790s.

ALET. Charles La Cropte de Chanterac. Abandoned his palace by early 1791 but remained in Alet. Strengthened by his example, the Chapter continued to celebrate the daily offices until Jan. 1792 in the cathedral. Went into Spain, Sept. 1792.

BÉZIERS. Aymar Claude de Nicolaï-Goussainville. Nov. 1790, protested at the requirements of the Civil Constitution. Remained in possession of the see after election of Const, bp. in Apr. 1791 and even toured the dioc. clandestinely; considered as an incendiary by the local authorities; granted his passport 3 June 1791, and went to Paris where his father was still alive. 1792, Wesel in the Low Countries; 1796, in Florence; 1801, resigned his see.

CARCASSONNE. François Marie Vintimille. Refused the oath to the Civil Constitution and left for exile.

LODÈVE. Jean-Félix-Henri de Fumel. Died of a cerebral congestion, Jan. 1790.

MONTPELLIER. Joseph François de Malide. Opponent of the Civil Constitution from the first. Emigrated to London, and buried in Old St Paneras churchyard near the bp. of Uzes.

NÎMES. Pierre-Marie-Madelaine Cortois de Balore. Denounced as seditious and unconstitutional in Apr. 1791 for his opposition (he was safely in Paris) to the new constitutional bp. Left France, Aug. 1792; (p.276) briefly imprisoned at Troyes; escaped after six days and went to Holland, then Zurich. One of the first to resign his see in 1801.

SAINT-PONS DE THOMIÈRES. Louis-Henry de Bruyère Chalabre. Emigrated c.1791.

UZÈS. Henri-Benoit-Jules de Béthisy de Mezières. Disapproved of giving up tithes, and denounced in the National Assembly, 22 Feb. 1791; left France for Brussels, 1792, but returned briefly to Paris after the death of Louis XVI. Then in London. Subscribed to the Concordat but awarded no see. Buried in Old St Paneras churchyard.


PARIS. Antoine-Elénore-Léon Le Clerc de Juigné de Neuchelles. Abandoned the National Assembly in late summer 1789 and went to Chambéry, then Constance. Returned to France, 1802, from his last refuge, Augsburg.

BLOIS. Alexandre Lauzières de Thémines. Emigrated to Savoy, Spain, and England. Refused to resign his see in 1801, and as a die-hard Gallican became head of the Petite Église. He only recognized papal authority in the last months of his life.

CHARTRES. Jean-Baptiste-Joseph de Lubersac. Undertook clandestine ordinations after 1791 in Paris, then travelled to England, Belgium, and Germany. Returned to France after the Consulate, and became canon-bishop of Saint-Denis, 1808.

MEAUX. Camille Apollinaire de Polignac. Combatted the implementation of the Civil Constitution in the diocese of Meaux from Paris. In the Queen’s circle, 1790–1; exile in Switzerland, Pressburg, and Hungary. Resigned 1801, but only returned to France at the Restoration.

ORLÉANS. Alexandre de Jarente Senas d’Orgeval; took oath to the Civil Constitution, but renounced his functions as bp. and priest, Nov. 1792, in wake of September Massacres; died in Paris in a home for infirm clerics, after first having travelled to Rome to obtain the pardon of Pius VII for his action.


REIMS. Alexandre Angélique de Talleyrand-Périgord. Abp. declared incapacitated from exercising his functions for refusing the oath, 18 Feb. 1791. Retired to Aix-la-Chapelle after the end of the National Assembly.

AMIENS. Louis Charles de Machault. Emigrated Dec. 1790 and went (p.277) to Tournai. Returned briefly the next month, but soon aware it was impracticable to remain.

BEAUVAIS. François-Joseph de la Rochefoucauld-Bayers. Did not emigrate. Denounced, arrested, and imprisoned at the convent of the Carmelites, where he died with his brother, the bp. of Saintes, in the September Massacres.

BOULOGNE. François Gaston Partz de Pressy. Ready to take some comfort from the first months of the Revolution, and wanted recognition of sovereignty founded on both king and nation. Died Oct. 1789.

Jean-René Asseline (1742–1813), apptd. 1789, one of the last bps. of the Gallican Church. Non-noble origins, G. V. of the archdiocese of Paris, and holder of a chair at the Sorbonne. His Pastoral Instruction of Oct. 1790 was extremely influential and widely used by other prelates. Stayed in his dioc. until the last practicable moment, leaving on 5 June 1791 for Ypres, from whence he still hoped to administer the see.

CHÂLONS-SUR-MARNE. André-Jules-Clermont Clermont-Tonnerre. Gave his flock guidance over the response to the Civil Constitution. Protested at the division of his see and declared the election of a new bp. a nullity. Emigrated late 1791 to Brussels; hopes of returning to his dioc. destroyed by the French victory at Valmy, Sept. 1792. Went to Altona near Hamburg, 1794. 1814, Peer of France. 1820, abp. of Toulouse. 1822, made cardinal.

LAON. Louis-Hector-Honoré-Maxime de Sabran. Sent a pastoral instruction to be read from the pulpits of every church in the dioc. in late 1790, accompanied by the Pastoral Instruction of Bp. Asseline.

NOYON. Louis André Grimaldi. Detained in 1789 travelling near Dôle. Emigrated to England in 1791.

SENLIS. Jean Armand de Bessuéjouls, comte de Roquelaure. Ceased his episcopal rule at Senlis, Nov. 1790, and went to Paris to officiate as Premier aumônier to Apr. 1791. Remained in France throughout the 1790s. Hid first at Arras, where imprisoned until Thermidor. At Crépy in his old dioc. from 1795, making a brief visit to Senlis in 1797, and even confirming in the former cathedral. Abp. of Malines, 1802–8, and canon of Saint-Denis from 1808.

SOISSONS. Henri-Joseph-Claude de Bourdeilles. Imperious in manner towards lower clergy. Hopes that he would continue as bp. of the Aisne were dashed when he made public his opposition to the religious changes enacted by the National Assembly in Oct. 1790, which he claimed interfered with strictly spiritual matters. Left the town, Feb. 1791, with a crowd throwing stones at his carriage; exile in Brussels, Holland, and Münster. Resigned his see 1801, died in Paris.

(p.278) Rouen

ROUEN. Dominique de La Rochefoucauld. President of the First Estate in the Estates-General of 1789; remained as leader of the episcopal deputies until the dissolution of the National Assembly, Sept. 1791. Born into a poor branch of the family, but inherited wealth and used most of it in charitable giving; obliged to borrow money on leaving for exile at Münster in Westphalia.

AVRANCHES. Pierre Augustin Godart de Belbeuf. In Avranches Oct. 1789–Aug. 1790. Celebrated Mass in the cathedral on the Fête de la Féderation, July 1790. Left Dieppe for London, Sept. 1792. Refused to resign see in 1802; remained in England and died in Hampstead.

BAYEUX. Joseph Dominique Cheylus. Mayor of Bayeux, Jan.-Nov. 1790. In danger of criminal trial for his opposition to the Civil Constitution, but remained at liberty. Finally quitted the town 6 May 1791, the day his arrest was ordered, and escaped via Cherbourg to Jersey.

COUTANCES. Ange-François de Talaru de Chalmazel. Mayor of Coutances, 1790; slow to guide his priests in response to the Civil Constitution; retired from the town in 1791 before the arrival of the Constitutional bp., and emigrated to England the following year.

ÉVREUX. François de Narbonne Lara. Jan. 1791, sent out circular letter denying that he would take the oath as rumour had suggested, but still looked to the Pope to bring Church and State together in France. Disappointed in this, he emigrated to Tournai, June 1791, and went on to Rome (his father had been premier gentilhomme to the duke of Parma).

LISIEUX. Jules-Basile Ferron de la Ferronnays. Redoubled his activity in the dioc., 1790, and received the new municipality in the cathedral. In hiding in Paris from late 1790 after the local authorities had accused him of inciting rebellion by his actions and writings. A fierce opponent of the Civil Constitution, he left France in June 1791. Emigrated to Switzerland, Holland, and Münster in Germany. Reduced to indigence, surviving on papal handouts.

SÉEZ. Jean-Baptiste du Plessis d’Argentré. 1790, mayor of Séez; expressed willingness to obey civil laws, but refused to extend his jurisdiction to cover the whole Orne département. Left his palace when the Const, bp. arrived. In Paris 1791–2, thence to Münster in Westphalia.


SENS. Loménie de Brienne. Returned to France, spring 1790, with health barely improved by over eighteen months in Italy. One of only four (p.279) diocesan bps. to take the oath. Apptd. bp. of the Yonne département; resigned as a cardinal, Mar. 1791. Died in prison.

Sept. 1789, his nephew, Martial de Loménie, apptd. Coadjutor of the see as bp. in partibus of Trajanopolis and Rhodope.

AUXERRE. Jean-Baptiste-Marie Champion de Cicé; went to Halberstadt near Brunswick in 1791; later in England, and known to Burke.

NEVERS. Louis Jérome Suffren de Saint-Tropez, trans, from Sisteron, 1789. Refused the oath and went into exile.

TROYES. Louis-Mathias-Joseph de Barral. Took over as bp. when his uncle abdicated, Jan. 1791; left Troyes in March with his uncle, the former bp. Deported from Paris in Sept. 1792, and eventually settled in Constance in Switzerland. Favourite of Napoleon, and abp. of Tours in 1804.


TOULOUSE. François Fontanges. Survived the fall of his patron, Cardinal Loménie de Brienne. Soon confirmed as a favourite of the Queen’s, and prominent courtier 1789–91, engaged in secret ministerial negotiations. Retired from the court at Marie-Antoinette’s behest, June 1791, as she feared for his safety. Emigrated shortly afterwards to Palma in Majorca. Resigned his see 1801, and became bp. of Autun.

LAVAUR. Jean-Antoine de Castellane de Saint-Maurice. Emigrated to Spain, 1791. Later in Italy, and died in Florence.

LOMBEZ. Alexandre-Henri de Chauvigny de Blot. In Paris during 1790; emigrated to Germany, Italy, and finally England.

MIREPOIX. François Tristan de Cambon. Nov. 1790, published and distributed a manifesto against the Civil Constitution that was denounced by the National Assembly. Died amongst his family in Toulouse.

MONTAUBAN. Anne-François-Victor Le Tonnelier de Breteuil. Opposed the imposition of the Civil Constitution locally.

PAMIERS, Charles Constance César Louis Joseph Mathieu d’Agoult de Bonneval. Left France in 1790; returned to Paris, Nov. 1790; confidante of the royal family, and had advance notice of the flight to Varennes. Departed for Switzerland, May 1791.

RIEUX. Pierre Joseph Lastic. Opponent of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy. Emigrated.

SAINT-PAPOUL. Jean-Baptiste Marie de Maillé de La Tour-Landry. Spent a 5–year period from Apr. 1789 continuously in Paris. Did not emigrate, and survived the Revolution.

(p.280) Tours

TOURS. Joachim François Mamert de Conzié. Went to Aix-la-Chapelle for his health shortly after the outbreak of the Revolution, but made a firm condemnation of the Civil Constitution in Feb. 1791 which played its part in rallying the clergy against it.

ANGERS. Michel François Couet du Viviers de Lorry. Gave an initially warm response to the Revolution; adhered to the Exposition, but did nothing to guide his dioc. over the Civil Constitution and went to live in Rouen. Remained in hiding throughout the Revolutionary decade.

DOL. Urbain de Hercé. Remained in his dioc. until 1 Apr. 1791, and went into Mayenne under threat of arrest. Crossed to England, and died acting as Chaplain to the Émigré army which landed at Quiberon Bay in July 1795.

LE MANS. Julien François-Gaspard de Jouffroy-Gonsans. Publicly declared his opposition to the Civil Constitution on 12 March 1791 when elections were in progress for a Constitutional bp. in Laval. Emigrated 1792; received by the Chapter of Paderborn and given a revenue of 1,200 florins.

NANTES. Charles Eutrope La Laurencie. Absent from his dioc. after July 1790 and only returned from Paris in Nov. (despite the abolition of the Chapter) for a few days to stiffen clerical resistance to the Civil Constitution. Opposed to the Concordat.

QUIMPER. Toussaint-François-Joseph Conen de Saint-Luc. In declining health by 1790, disliked the Revolution, and took no part in the solemn taking of the civil oath, 14 July 1790.

RENNES. François Bareau de Girac. Left for Paris in 1789. Campaigned vigorously against the imposition of the Civil Const, in his dioc. Taking his stance on the prerogatives of the Holy See, he refused to give canonical institution to the abbé Expilly as bp. of Quimper, Oct. 1790. Went eventually to St Petersburg.

SAINT-BRIEUC. Hugues François Regnault de Bellescize. Signed the Exposition, but his opposition to the Civil Constitution was essentially passive. Ill in Paris for a long period, he did not emigrate. Imprisoned during the Terror, he died shortly after release as a direct consequence of his incarceration.

SAINT-MALO. Gabriel Cortois de Pressigny. Episcopal palace and cathedral close attacked by crowds on 11 Nov. 1790 after the cathedral clergy had refused instructions to give up their posts. The bp. had already left Saint-Malo on 15 Oct. after threats to his life had been made. Went to Switzerland. Ambassador to Rome after the Restoration, and abp. of Besançon, 1816–22.

(p.281) ST-POL de LÉON. Jean François de La Marche. Suspicious of the Revolution almost from the beginning; gave careful guidance to his clergy over the Civil Constitution, and only seventeen took the oath. Continued to exercise his episcopal functions, despite the abolition of his see, until his arrest was ordered in Feb. 1791 and he fled to England.

TRÉGUIER. Augustin-René-Louis Le Mintier de Saint-André. Published two Mandements against the sale of Church possessions, 14 Sept. 1789, and condemned the outrages inflicted on the royal family in the October Days, sentiments condemned by the local authorities as anti-Revolutionary. In Feb. 1791 commanded to appear at the bar of the National Assembly along with the bps. of Léon and Vannes; Apr. 1791, crossed over to Jersey.

VANNES. Sébastien-Michel Amelot. Well-known opponent of the Civil Constitution, for which he was forced out of his palace by the authorities, arrested, and conveyed to Paris in Mar. 1791. Travelled to Switzerland in Oct.


VIENNE. Le Franc de Pompignan. Minister for the Feuille des bénéfices (Aug. 1789–Dec. 1790), resigning the see on his appt., and received the abbey of Buzet in compensation. Agonized over the advice to offer the king on the Civil Constitution. Hoped Church reform would allow for the expansion of episcopal influence.

Charles-François d’Aviau (1736–1826), apptd. 1789. V. G. at Poitiers, where he had effectively run the dioc. for bp. Sainte-Aulaire. Arrived in Vienne, Mar. 1790, but little known to his curés, and lacked the influence of his predecessor. A vigorous and respected opponent of the Civil Constitution.

DIE. Gaspard-Alexis du Plan des Augiers. Opposed the Civil Constitution from its inception. Died in Paris Jan. 1794, doyen of the bps.

GRENOBLE. Henri-Charles Dulau d’Allemans. Never once set foot in his cathedral. Emigrated to Chambéry after the Revolution, and his presence strengthened the arguments of those who wanted to annex it to France.

VALENCE. Gabriel Melchior de Messey. Made a first and incognito entry to the dioc. in Jan. 1791, and retired to Touraon (Ardèche), and then to Vienna after he had made it clear he was only prepared to take a restricted oath to the Civil Constitution. Refused to give up the see in 1801.

VIVIERS. Charles La Font de Savine. Returned to Viviers from the National Assembly in June 1790, a year after resigning as deputy on grounds of ill health. One of the four diocesan bps. to take the oath to the Civil Constitution.

(p.282) Bishops under the Metropolitan Jurisdiction of Foreign Prelates

Under the Archbishop of Trèves

METZ. Louis-Joseph de Montmorency-Laval. In Paris permanently from Apr. 1790. Went to Trèves, May 1791, then Luxembourg, Oct. 1792. Refused to resign his see 1801, and died in Altona.

Henri de Chambre d’Urgons, coadjutor and bishop of Orope in partibus in 1788. In Trèves by spring 1791.

TOUL. Étienne-François-Xavier des Michels de Champorcin. Appeared willing to make considerable efforts to co-operate with the new authorities in 1789–90. Adhered to the Exposition, and went to Bouquenom (Bas-Rhin). Emigrated at the end of 1791.

VERDUN. Henri-Louis-René Desnos. Took the Civic Oath, Feb. 1790, but in Nov. circulated the abp. of Trèves’s Mandement against alterations to diocesan boundaries. Jan. 1791, publicly refused the oath to the Civil Constitution and left Verdun immediately for Trèves. Briefly returned to his old dioc. following the Prussian occupation, Sept. 1792.

NANCY. Anne-Louis-Henri de La Fare. Prominent in debate throughout the lifetime of the National Assembly. Jan. 1791, fled from Nancy rather than take the oath, and travelled to Trèves to join the bps. of Verdun and Metz. Abp. of Sens, 1817–29.

SAINT-DIE. Barthélemy Louis Chaumont. Offered to resign as bp. in Aug. 1789 in order to conserve his income, but the king refused to accept it. Left his palace secretly, Mar. 1791, and went to Brussels. Travelled in Germany and Switzerland, 1792–4, before settiing at Landslut, Bavaria, autumn 1794. Resigned his see in 1801.

Under the Archbishop of Mainz

STRASBOURG. Louis René Edouard, Prince de Rohan. Retired inside the German portion of his diocese and became a fervent Counter-Revolutionary organizer and activist.

Jean-Jacques Lantz, bp. of Dora in partibus, and Coadjutor, died at Ettenheim, 1799.

Under the Archbishop of Tarragona

PERPIGNAN (diocese of ELNE). Antoine-Félix Leyris Desponchés. Arrested in 1791 and denounced for refusing the oath before the courts at Orléans. Died at Udine in Italy.