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YorkThe Making of a City 1068-1350$
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Sarah Rees Jones

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780198201946

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2014

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198201946.001.0001

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The King, the Barons, and the Shire

The King, the Barons, and the Shire

Chapter:
(p.84) 4 The King, the Barons, and the Shire
Source:
York
Author(s):

Sarah Rees Jones

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198201946.003.0004

This chapter examines the relationship between the city and royal government. Prior to the Norman Conquest the kings of England never visited York and did not maintain a royal household there. The first three Norman kings attempted to rebuild the city as a royal capital in the north and the impact of Norman colonization has been underestimated by previous historians. The chapter shows that many features of the later medieval city were the result of re-planning under the Normans, who built a royal palace, endowed new monasteries and hospitals and turned the surrounding countryside into royal forest. This royal presence was not to last. The chapter traces its disintegration and the replacement of royal institutions of personal government by both national and civic systems of bureaucratic administration. The chapter also traces the resettlement of French knights in York as part of a process of Norman colonization through which northern barons controlled the county city. It then analyses changes in the patterns of aristocratic residence in the city through the next two hundred years, culminating in a new influx of royal administrators as York temporarily became a capital base for the Edward I and Edward II in their wars against Scotland between 1298 and 1336.

Keywords:   King, sheriffs, barons, Norman Conquest, forest, Scottish Wars, royal palace

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