In the 19th century, the introduction of the role of detective was met by contempt and uncertainty. Detective methods such as spying were deemed offending particularly in liberal England. Although met by hostility, the number of detectives was increased by 1869 prompting the creation of the Criminal Investigation Department (CID). Because of the great fear of espionage, the CID adopted a method of prevention instead of detection. This presented new problems as it meant employing secretive methods to disclose a brewing crime. These secretive methods were met by further criticisms that questioned the justifiability of these methods and the usage of the informer. Some criticism drew on the invasion of privacy, the perversion of criminal law to justify the entrapment of a criminal, and the regulations imposed on detectives. In this chapter these criticisms and questions on the role and the influence of detectives are carefully analyzed. The methods employed in the monitoring of criminals such as supervision, spying, are also discussed. The chapter also looks at the formation, development, training, and recruitment of detective police.
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