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Gibbon and the 'Watchmen of the Holy City'The Historian and his Reputation, 1776-1815$

David Womersley

Print publication date: 2002

Print ISBN-13: 9780198187332

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2010

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198187332.001.0001

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Index

Index

Source:
Gibbon and the 'Watchmen of the Holy City'
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
(p.446) Abulfeda (or Abu’l-Fida) (1273–1331) 150
Abulpharagius (or Bar Hebraeus) (1226–86) 147, 150
Addison, Joseph (1672–1719) 193
ædesius (d. 355) 138
Almon, John (1737–1805) 182
Ambrose, St, Bp of Milan (c.339–97) 111
Amhurst, Nicholas (1697–1742) 19 n., 265–6, 267, 270–1, 272, 279, 280, 283–4
‘Ancients and Moderns’ 47–8, 71–4, 82, 83, 85–6, 366
Annual Register, The 44
Antoninus, Marcus (121–80) 1
Apthorp, East 39, 49, 51, 53–4, 313
Arabian Nights, The 147
Arius (c.250–336) 122
Arnall, William (?1715–?1741) 102
Artaxerxes II, king of Persia (fl. late 5th and early 4th centuries BC 18, 19
Athanasius, St (c.293–373) 120, 121, 122, 123, 124–5, 127–43, 151, 164, 365
Atterbury, Francis (1662–1732) 86, 102
Augustus Caesar (63 BCAD 14) 169, 183
authorship 5–6
Ayliffe, John (1676–1732) 259, 264,
Badcock, Samuel (1747–88) 163
Baker, Thomas (1656–1740) 262, 266–7
Barbeyrac, Jean (1674–1744) 49, 112
Barnabas, St, spurious gospel of 152–3
Basil, St (c.329–79) 120
Batt, John (1746–1831) 342
Bayle, Pierre (1647–1706) 49, 166, 313–14
Beausobre, Isaac de (1659–1738) 4
Belsham, William (1752–1827) 189, 204–5
Bentham, Edward (1707–76) 268, 271, 280
Bentley, Richard (1662–1742) 43–99, 47, 53, 74–7, 81, 82–99, 128, 139;
Dissertation Upon the Epistles of Phalaris (1697, 1699 and 1777) 43–4, 74–5, 81, 83, 85, 94;
Paradise Lost (1732) 97;
Remarks Upon a Late Discourse of Free-Thinking (1713 and 1743) 53, 75–6
Bernard, St (1090–1153) 4
Blackburne, Francis (1705–87) 297, 305
Blackstone, Sir William (1723–80) 178, 187, 193, 288, 308, 318, 360–1
Blount, Charles (1654–93) 23
Bolingbroke, Viscount, see St. John, Henry
Boothby, Sir Brooke (1743–1824) 232
Bossuet, Jacques-Bénigne, Bp of Meaux (1627–1704) 127, 160
Boswell, James (1740–95) 148–9, 354–5;
Life of Johnson (1791) 148–9, 354–5
Boulainvilliers, Henri de (1658–1722) 152, 153–5, 159, 160, 162, 165, 169
Boyle, Charles (1676–1731) 47, 75, 84, 85–99
Brown, John (1715–66) 39, 40
Bull, George, Bp of St. David’s (1634–1710) 124
Burgh, William (1741–1808) 47, 48, 83, 84, 86
Burke, Edmund (1729–97) 6, 13, 74, 196, 204, 209, 276, 280, 337, 348–9, 353, 361;
influence on the Memoirs’ 209–40, 276;
on education 301;
prizing of the gothic 230;
reverence for religion 214–15, 325–6
(p.447) Bury, Arthur (1624–1713) 151
Cadell, Thomas, the Elder (1742–1802) 28–9, 194–5, 248
Calvin, Jean (1509–64) 83, 85
Camden, William (or Cambden) (1551–1623) 3
Campbell, John (1707–75) 189
Carlyle, Thomas (1795–1881) 329
Casaubon, Isaac (1559–1614) 109
Chardin, Sir John (1643–1712) 4
Chatillon, Marie Jeanne de (1718–68) 351–2
Chelsum, James (?1740–1801) 14, 28, 30, 31, 32, 34, 41, 44, 45, 48, 50, 52, 57–70, 82, 88, 89, 90, 93–6, 144, 310, 313, 365;
Remarks on the Two Last Chapters… (1776 and 1778) 57–70
Chesterfield, see Stanhope, Philip Dormer
Chillingworth, William (1602–44) 110, 297, 299–300, 313–14
Christie, Thomas (1761–96) 230
Chrysostom, John, St (c.345–407) 3, 120
Chubb, Thomas (1679–1747) 215
Church and State crises 103
Cicero, Marcus Tullius (106–43 BC ) 53
Cincinnatus, Lucius Quinctius (b.c 519 BC ) 243, 249, 250
Clarke, Godfrey 216
Clarke, Samuel (1675–1729) 122, 123, 126, 296
Clayton, Robert (1695–1758) 129
Coade, George 285
Cocoa Tree, The 79
Collins, Anthony (1676–1729) 19, 53, 75, 82–3, 88, 94, 96, 98, 215, 327
Colman, George, the Elder (1732–94) 294
Commodus (161–92) 25
Concanen, Matthew (1701–49) 102
Constantine the Great (c.280–337) 14, 36–7, 100, 103, 106, 107–8, 133, 134, 245–6
Constantine Porphyrogenitus (905–59) 2
Constantius II (317–61) 134
Cooper, Anthony Ashley, third Earl of Shaftesbury (1671–1713) 20, 72, 299, 312
Courtenay, John (1741–1816) 228, 232
Craddock, Patricia 45
Critical Review, The 44
Cyprian, St, Bp of Carthage (c. 200–58) 26, 34, 112–16, 119
Dacier, Anne (1654–1720) 1, 68–9
Daillé, Jean (1594–1670) 112
Dalrymple, Sir David (1726–92) 116
Davies, Richard (d. 1762) 269, 287
Davis, Henry (1756–84) 13 n%., 14, 17, 27, 34, 39, 44, 45, 49, 55–7, 58, 69–70, 71, 82, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 92, 93–7, 106, 108, 310, 311, 313, 365;
Examination (1778) 69–70, 71, 82, 85, 86, 106
deism 48–55
Devey, John 76
Deyverdun, Georges (1734–89) 132, 193–4, 195, 348–9
Dunning, John, first Baron Ashburton (1731–83) 189
edict of Milan 103
Eden, William, first Lord Auckland (1744–1814) 207, 217, 224–6, 234, 238, 345
Edwards, John (1637–1716) 151
Encyclopédie (1751–76) 155, 160, 161, 162, 169, 351
Epiphanius, St (c.315–403) 20, 145
Erastianism 118–19
Erskine, Thomas, lord (1750–1823) 205
European Magazine, The 44
Eusebius, Bp of Caesarea (265–340) 20, 22, 29
Eyre, Francis 25, 29, 87, 89, 93, 95, 106–7, 116
fashion 52
Fell, John, Bp of Oxford(1625–86) 113–14
Firmin, Thomas (1632–97) 151
Fontenelle, Bernard le Bovier (1657–1757) 72
Foster, Lady Elizabeth (d. 1824) 202, 348–9
Fox, Charles James (1749–1806) 205–6, 324–5, 358–60
(p.448) Freke, William (1662–1744) 151
French Revolution 6–7, 97–8, 195–6, 198–200, 207–40, 372–7;
and composition of ‘Memoirs’ 207–40, 372–7
Fullwood, Francis 151
Gagnier, Jean (1670–1740) 150
Gentleman’s Magazine, The 41
Gerrald, Joseph (1763–96) 204, 205
Giannone, Pietro (1676–1748) 216
Gibbon, Edward, father of the historian (1707–70) 1, 241–56;
death of 241–56, 380–2
Gibbon, Judith, née Porten, natural mother of the historian (d. 1747) 353
Gibbon, Dorothea, née Patton, stepmother of the historian (1715–96) 16, 27, 39
Gibbon, Edward (1737–94):agreement with Burke on French affairs 226–36, 248, 253–4, 301
anticlericalism 360–1
attitude towards Christianity 14–42, 107, 227, 346–7, 361–2, 369–71
attitude towards monarchy 188
behaviour as a Member of Parliament 1
character 41
comments on church architecture 111
composition of ‘Memoirs’ 207–40, esp. 236–40
conversion to Catholicism 6, 147–8, 257, 299–304, 310–13, 383–421
death 7, 342
defence of the unreformed House of Commons 200–1
desire for fame 5, 39
friendship with Holroyd 216–17, 364
gentility 90–9
immersion in the Arian controversy 100–46, 164
imputations of irreligion 53
manuscripts 342–3
on ancient and modern slavery 220–1
on the Church Fathers 100–46
on the death of his father 241–56
on Whigs and Tories 197
portrait by Reynolds 342
public reputation 7–8
relationship to Conyers Middleton 31–2, 98–9, 105, 309–13
residence in Oxford 257–332, 383–421
skill in controversy 127–46
suspicion of reform 234–5
use of allusion 101
Victorian response to 45
works by:
‘Antiquities of the House of Brunswick, The’ 177–206
Critical Observations on the Design of the Sixth Book of the Aeneid (1770) 71, 73–7, 82
Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, History of the (1776–88):
attacked for irreligion 5–6;
Church Fathers in 100–46;
completion of 175–6;
first instalment (1776) 1–2, 16;
footnotes in 1–5, 30 n%., 34, 66;
irony in 34–5, 79–80;
Islam in 147–72;
revisions in 13–42, 364;
second instalment (1781) 2–3, 100;
shaped by detractors 365–6;
third instalment (1788) 3–4;
use of sources in 2–3
Essai Sur l’Étude de la Littérature (1761) 1, 64–5, 71–3, 81, 82, 214, 349–50
‘Memoirs of My Life’ 6–7, 16–18, 46, 55–6, 73–4, 96, 99, 100–1, 127, 143, 144, 163, 175–6, 186, 207–40, 241–56, 257–332, 339, 343–4, 364, 380–2, 383–421;
composition of 207–40, 372–7;
editing of 340–63
Miscellaneous Works (1796, 1814 and 1815) 7, 335–63, 422–7
‘Sur la Monarchie des Mèdes’ 357
Gibbon, Hester (1706–90) 248
Gibson, Edmund, Bp of London (1669–1748) 86
Gildon, Charles (1665–1724) 54
Godwin, William (1756–1836) 159–62, 326;
Herald of Literature, The 159–62
Goldgar, Anne 68
Grand Tour 52
Gregory of Tours, St, Bp of Tours (c.538–94) 3
(p.449) Guise, William (1737–83) 216
Guizot, François (1787–1874) 44
Hall, John (1627–56) 260, 261
Hannibal (247–c. 183 BC ) 113
Hastings, Warren (1732–1818) 176
Hayley, William (1745–1820) 73, 176, 239, 343
Hedworth, Henry 151
Helvétius, Claude Arien (1715–71) 213, 215, 350–1
Herbelot de Molainville, Barthélemy d’ (1625–95) 147
Herbert of Cherbury, Edward, Lord (1582–1648) 51
Herring, Thomas, Abp of Canterbury (1693–1757) 110
Heylyn, Peter (1600–62) 112–13
Heyne, Christian Gottlob (1729–1812) 73
high-churchmanship 89
Hilary of Poitiers, St (c.315 – c.367) 145
‘Hoadlyism’ 108
Hobbes, Thomas (1588–1679) 8–9, 118–19;
Leviathan (1651) 118–19
Holbach, Paul Henri, Baron d’ (1723–89) 350–1
Holroyd, John Baker, first Lord Sheffield (1735–1821) 7–8, 27, 38, 190, 195, 196, 197, 199–200, 203, 204, 205, 207–40, 241, 249, 257, 259, 277, 297, 306–7, 329, 335–63, 364;
anti-clericalism 222–3;
antipathy to the French 224–5;
bibliography 378–9;
editing of Miscellaneous Works 257, 259, 330–2, 335–63, 369–71;
influence on the ‘Memoirs’ 207–40;
life and character 216–26;
on commerce and agriculture 218–23;
on slavery 219–20
Holroyd, Maria (1771–1862) 224, 234, 343–4, 357–8
Homer 2, 4, 68–9, 72, 349–50
Horace, or Quintus Horatius Flaccus (65–8 BC ) 75
Horne, George (1730–92) 111
Horsley, Samuel, Bp of St Asaph (1733–1806) 109, 157–8, 203, 366
Houdar de la Motte, Antoine (1672–1731) 68–9, 72
Hume, David (1711–76) 4, 14–15, 49, 80, 107, 166, 193, 222, 298, 327, 350, 351;
Natural History of Religion (1757) 166, 350
Hunter, Christopher (1675–1757) 45
Hurd, Richard (1720–1808) 13, 71, 76, 77–82, 158
Hurdis, James (1763–1801) 331–2
Hyde, Thomas (1636–1703) 147, 278
Islam 146, 147–72, 176, 365, 366;
European responses to 149– 57
Jackson, John (1686–1763) 130
Jebb, John (1736–86) 269, 297
Jenyns, Soame (1704–87) 54
Jerome, St (c.342–420) 34, 120
Johnson, Samuel (1709–84) 75, 148–9, 353–5
Jortin, John (1698–1770) 74, 87, 88
Josephus, Flavius (c.37– c.100) 29–30
Julian the Apostate (c.331–63) 104, 127–43, 164, 231, 246
Kennett, White, Bp of Peterborough (1660–1728) 86
Knox, Vicesimus (1752–1821) 273–5, 284–5, 307, 315–28, 332;
Letter toLord North (1789) 320–1;
Liberal Education (1781) 273, 284–5, 315, 316–21;
Personal Nobility (1793) 324–6;
Spirit of Despotism (?1795) 326–7;
Winter Evenings (1788) 273, 316–21
Langer, Ernst (1743–1820) 194
Latitudinarianism 86–9, 108, 111
Laud, William (1573–1645) 113
Lavater, Johann Kaspar (1741–1801) 217
Law, Edmund (1703–87) 297, 298
Law, William (1686–1761) 246–7
LeClerc, Jean (1657–1736) 3, 4, 20
Leibnitz, Gottfried Wilhelm (1646–1716) 190–1, 202–3
Leland, John (1691–1766) 49–50, 96
Leslie, Charles (1650–1722) 54, 151
Libertinism 351–2
(p.450) Licinius (d. 325) 14
Locke, John (1632–1704) 151, 285
Loftus, Smyth 39–40, 51, 58, 59, 98–9, 105–6, 108
Louis XVI (1754–93) 199, 201–2
Low, D. M. 45
Lowth, Robert, Bp of London (1710–87) 73, 288
Lucian (c.120– c.180) 25
Lyttelton, George (1709–73) 54
Mably, Gabriel Bonnot, Abbé de (1709–85) 188
Macaulay, Catherine (1731–91) 229
Macaulay, Thomas Babington (1800–59) 44, 45
Macclesfield, see Parker, Thomas
Mackintosh, Sir James (1765–1832) 206, 229, 231
Magdalen College, Oxford 147, 257–332
Mahomet (c.569–632) 146, 147–72, 176
Maimonides, Moses (1135–1204) 3
Mallet, David (?1705–65) 78
Mangey, Thomas (1688–1755) 148–9, 166
Marracci, Lodovico (1612–1700) 150
Marsham, Sir John (1602–85) 3
Mason, William (1724–97) 1
Maxentius, Marcus Aurelius Valerius (d. 312) 245–6
Middleton, Conyers (1683–1750) 6, 31–2, 35, 49, 98–9, 100, 105, 116–17, 119–22, 299, 309–13;
Defence of the Letter to Dr. Waterland (1732) 100;
Free Enquiry (1749) 119–22, 309–13;
Introductory Discourse (1747) 119;
Letter from Rome (1729) 35
Mill, John Stuart (1806–73) 43
Miller, Edmond 270
Miller, James (1706–44) 157, 273
Milman, Henry Hart (1791–1868) 44, 45
Milner, Joseph (1744–97) 25, 33, 44, 116
Milton, John (1608–74) 201, 261, 283, 353
Momigliano, Arnaldo 2, 43
Monthly Review, The 44
Morgan, Thomas (d. 1743) 215
Mosheim, Johann Lorenz von (c. 1694–1755) 4, 21, 232
Moyle, Walter (1672–1721) 87, 127
Muratori, Lodovico Antonio (1672–1750) 190–2
Murphy, Arthur (1727–1805) 355
Murray, John (1808–92) 207
Napleton, John (?1738–1817) 269–70, 273
Necker, Jacques (1732–1804) 199
Necker, Suzanne, née Curchod (1737–94) 38, 199
Nelson, Gilbert 178
Neoplatonism 129–30, 138–9, 151
Nicea, Council of 151
Nicolson, William (1655–1727) 86
Norton, Jane 45–6, 339
Nye, Stephen (?1648–1719) 151
Ockley, Simon (1678–1720) 147, 150
Oldmixon, John (1673–1742) 102
Origen (c.185 – c.254) 29
‘Ossian’ 337
Oxford University 6, 257–332, 366, 338–421;
and Jacobitism 262–4, 267–8, 270, 280;
examination at 292–3;
tuition at 272–5;
vestiges of Roman Catholicism 279–80, 300
Pacatus Drepanius, Latinus (fl. 390) 3
Paine, Thomas (1737–1809) 205, 326, 330
Parker, Thomas, first Earl of Macclesfield (?1666–1732) 262
Parr, Samuel (1747–1825) 73
patristic scholarship 108–9
Petavius, Denis (1583–1652) 4
philosophie 6, 213–14, 311–12, 357
Pigott, Charles (d. 1794) 204, 213
Pitt, William, the Younger (1759–1806) 199, 359
Pococke, Edward (1604–91) 147, 150, 278
Pocock, J. G. A. 38
Polwhele, Richard (1760–1838) 335
Pope, Alexander (1688–1744) 2, 101–2, 206;
Dunciad, The (1728–43) 42, 101–2, 145
(p.451) Porteous, Beilby, Bp of Chester and later London (1731–1808) 28
Prideaux, Humphrey (1648–1724) 152, 158, 163
Priestley, Joseph (1733–1804) 83–4, 109, 144, 157–8, 227, 231–2, 272, 366;
Corruptions of Christianity (1782) 83
Randolph, Thomas (1701–83) 15, 44, 88, 89, 90, 118, 123, 129, 297
Reiske, Johann Jakob (1716–74) 150
Reland, Adrian (1676–1718) 150
Reynolds, Sir Joshua (1723–92) 342
Richardson, Samuel (1689–1761) 65;
Clarissa (1747–8) 65
Rimius, Henry 181–3, 185, 186, 190
Robertson, William (1721–93) 4, 56–9, 67, 144
Romilly, Sir Samuel (1757–1818) 202
Roome, Edward (d. 1729) 102
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques (1712–78) 213, 326, 327
royal genealogy 177–82
Russell, Lord John, first Earl Russell (1792–1878) 179
St. John, Henry, first Viscount Bolingbroke (1678–1751) 20, 33, 78, 102, 267, 327, 330
Sale, George (?1697–1736) 150
Salisbury, William (c. 1706–96) 30
Sancroft, William, Abp of Canterbury (1617–93) 109
Sarpi, Paolo (1552–1623) 85
Savary, Claude (1758–88) 150
Scott, George Lewis (1708–80) 40
Secker, Thomas, Abp of Canterbury (1693–1768) 28, 297
Serveto, Miguel (or Michael Servetus) (?1511–53) 83–4, 158
Severus, Alexander (208–35) 2
Severus, Sulpicius (146–211) 85,
Seward, Anna (1747–1809) 355
Shaftesbury, Earl of, seeCooper, Anthony Ashley
Shebbeare, John (1709–88) 182
Sheffield, Lord, see Holroyd, John Baker
Sheldon, Gilbert, Abp of Canterbury (1598–1677) 109
Shelley, Percy Bysshe (1792–1822) 205
Sheridan, Richard Brinsley (1751–1816) 176, 335
Sherlock, William (1641–1707) 131
Smith, Adam (1723–90) 4, 222, 252, 278, 288, 289, 291, 302–3, 318, 322
Somers, John, Lord (1651–1716) 264
Spedalieri, Nicola (1740–95) 46
Spinoza, Benedict de (1632–77) 51
Squire, Samuel (1713–66) 76
Stanhope, Philip Dormer, fourth Earl of Chesterfield (1694–1773) 330
Steele, Sir Richard (1672–1729) 193
Stillingfleet, Edward (1635–99) 112
Storer, Anthony (1746–99) 207
Strahan, William (1715–85) 29
Stubbe, Henry 152
Suard, Jean Baptiste Antoine (1733–1817) 38
Subscription 271, 293, 296–8
Subscription Controversy 123, 296–8, 305–6
Suidas (fl. c.1000) 85
Tacitus, Cornelius (c.55–115) 245
Temple, Sir William (1628–99) 75
Tenison, Thomas, Abp of Canterbury (1636–1715) 86
‘ Terrae Filius’ 266–7,
Terrasson, Jean (1670–1750) 72
Tertullianus, Quintus Septimius Florens (c.155– post 220) 20, 34
Thelwall, John (1764–1834) 229
Thirlby, Styan (?1686–1753) 131–2
Tillotson, John (1630–94) 151
Tindal, William (1657–1733) 19, 23, 49, 215, 327
Toland, John (1670–1722) 19, 21, 23, 149, 152–3, 160, 166, 179, 215, 327
Tractarians 108
Traité des Trois Fameux Imposteurs 155–7, 161
Travis, George (1741–97) 41
Trevor-Roper, Hugh 45
trinity, doctrine of the 117–26, 136–7, 151–2
Tucker, Josiah (1712–99) 297
Tyrwhitt, Robert (1735–1817) 43–4, 95
Tyrwhitt, Thomas (1730–86) 263, 271
(p.452) Unitarianism 148–9, 151, 159
Valmy, battle of (1792) 203
Vespasianus, Titus Flavius (9–79) 245
Vindication (1779) 16–17, 42, 43–99, 104, 126–7, 164, 215, 364, 365
Virgil, or Publius Virgilius Maro (70–19 BC) 73, 313
Vitellius, Aulus (15–69) 245
Volney, Constantin François de Chasseboeuf, comte de (1757–1820) 205, 327
Voltaire, François-Marie Arouet de (1694–1778) 2, 105, 155, 157, 160, 161, 162, 164, 169, 213, 215, 224, 322, 327, 328–9, 347
Waldegrave, Thomas (1721–84) 147, 289–90, 299
Walpole, Sir Robert, first Earl of Orford (1676–1745) 102
Walpole, Horace, fourth Earl of Orford (1717–97) 1, 46, 69–71
Warburton, William (1698–1779) 3, 13, 47, 71, 73–9, 82, 87
Waterland, Daniel (1683–1740) 109, 110, 112, 116, 117, 122, 123, 126, 135, 296
Watson, Richard, Bp of Llandaff (1737–1816) 14, 28, 29, 31, 41, 44, 49, 51, 52, 57, 87–8, 108, 144, 203, 313
West, Gilbert (1703–56) 54
Whiston, William (1667–1752) 118, 122, 124–6, 128, 130, 131, 142
Whitaker, John (1735–1808) 44, 229–30, 335–9;
Gibbon’s HistoryReviewed (1791) 44, 339;
Real Origin of Government 229–30, 335–7
Whitbread, Samuel (1758–1815) 205
White, Joseph (1745–1814) 159, 162–4
Wilkes, John (1727–97) 122
Wood, Anthony (1632–95) 264
Wordsworth, William (1770–1850) 198
Wotton, William (1666–1727) 83–4
Xenophon (c.430–352 BC ) 81
Young, Arthur (1741–1820) 222–3, 227–8, 232, 240
Zoroaster (c.628– c.551 BC ) 18
Zosimus (fl. late 5th century AD) 3