The chapter begins with a description of a simplified action, as used by Johannes Zumpe in his early instruments, and a survey of the basic acoustics of string vibrations, bridge, and soundboard. The history of the piano is traced from Christofori's invention around 1700, through the development of the Viennese and English actions up to the modern upright and grand. In the section on the ‘piano today’, the strings, pedals, dampers, action, bridges, soundboard, and frame are each examined separately. Techniques used in both manufacture and tuning are covered. The section on performance practice examines tone control, use of the pedals, and contemporary techniques, with reference to some of the great pianists of the past and national schools.
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