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Punjab ReconsideredHistory, Culture, and Practice$
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Anshu Malhotra and Farina Mir

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780198078012

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198078012.001.0001

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The History of the Ẓafar-nāmah of Guru Gobind Singh

The History of the Ẓafar-nāmah of Guru Gobind Singh

(p.65) 3 The History of the Ẓafar-nāmah of Guru Gobind Singh
Punjab Reconsidered

Louis E. Fenech

Oxford University Press

This chapter focusses upon one of the most intriguing documents attributed to the tenth Sikh guru, Guru Gobind Singh, the Zafar-namah or Epistle of Victory. Written, apparently, as a response to the Emperor Aurangzeb’s treachery in early 1705 the Zafar-namah is one of the few Sikh texts prepared in Persian and included within the controversial Sikh canon, the Dasam Granth. The preparation of this text and its inclusion within Sikh scripture allows us to more fully understand the Islamicate background of the Sikh tradition.

Keywords:   Guru Gobind Singh, Aurangzeb, Zafar-namah, Persian, Dasam Granth, Sikh scripture, Islamicate

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