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History, Literature, and IdentityFour Centuries of Sikh Tradition$
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Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780198070740

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198070740.001.0001

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Sovereignty of the Third Panth

Sovereignty of the Third Panth

Bhangu’s Gurū-Panth Prakāsh

(p.253) 13 Sovereignty of the Third Panth
History, Literature, and Identity

J.S. Grewal

Oxford University Press

Gurū Panth Prakāsh, finalized by Ratan Singh Bhangu in 1841, deals with the true source of Sikh sovereignty. Bhangu links the issue of sovereignty with the creation of the Khalsa, indicating that the Khalsa never submitted to the Mughals. Bhangu talks about how the Sikhs became Singhs, who then began to plunder the villages around Anandpur and joined forces with Guru Gobind Singh before the battle of Muktsar. Bhangu also gives much importance to the time of Banda Bahadur, whose followers were bound to go down before the Tat Khalsa. For Bhangu, the most important aspect of the Sikh tradition was, in a sense, martyrdom. Bhagu explicitly refers to the Khalsa as the third panth, with a distinct identity of their own in relation to Hindus.

Keywords:   Gurū Panth Prakāsh, Ratan Singh Bhangu, battle of Muktsar, Khalsa, Singhs, Anandpur, Guru Gobind Singh, Banda Bahadur, Tat Khalsa, martyrdom

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