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Shifting LandscapesThe Making and Remaking of Village Commons in India$

Rita Brara

Print publication date: 2006

Print ISBN-13: 9780195673012

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195673012.001.0001

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(p.260) Appendix I (Tables A.1–A.22)

(p.260) Appendix I (Tables A.1–A.22)

Source:
Shifting Landscapes
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Table A.1. Prices of livestock products: Rajasthan state (1967–95)

(Rs per kg.)

Years

Cow milk

Buffalo milk

Goat mutton

Sheep mutton

1967–68

1

1

3

3

1976–77

2

3

8

8

1986–87

4

6

22

20

1992–93

7

8

34

29

Source: Perspective plan of Rajasthan 1974–79, vol. II, NCAER (1980) and GOR(1995).

Table A.2. Dry fodder prices: Lachhmangarh tehsil

(Rs per maund)

Type of fodder

1940

1960

1980

1987

Loong

4

13

30

40

(+225)

(+131)

(+33)

Pala

2

10

20

25

+(400)

(+100)

(+25)

Kadvi

44

13

30

40

(+225)

(+131)

(+33)

Phaloosi/chara

4

13

30

50

(+225)

(+131)

(+67)

Source: Field survey and Assessment Report of Sikar Thikana (1940).

Note:

1. Loong and pala are the local terms for the leaf fodder of Prosopis cineraria and Zizyphus nummularia, respectively. Kadvi is the crop residue of bajra; phaloosi refers to the dry husk while the dried leaves of pulses such as moth, moong, and gwar are called chara.

2. Figures in brackets refer to the per cent increase in prices for the intervals between the stated years.

(p.261)

Table A.3. Pattern of land and livestock ownership: 1966–85

(Khedi and Banai)

Landholding

Khedi Dookiya

Banai

size (hectares)

No. of h. hs.

Total land

Total livestock (units)

No. of h. hs.

Total land

Total livestock (units)

Up to 3.9

1966

21

45

67

5

14

12

(24)

(5)

(19)

(12)

(4)

(7)

1985

81

144

305

26

57

72

(52)

(18)

(38)

(44)

(15)

(31)

4–7.9

1966

22

134

101

22

120

96

(26)

(16)

(28)

(54)

(37)

(56)

1985

47

274

276

15

84

59

(30)

(35)

(34)

(25)

(23)

(26)

8–11.9

1966

16

155

78

5

51

25

(19)

(18)

(22)

(12)

(16)

(14)

1985

18

170

140

13

128

51

(11)

(22)

(18)

(22)

(34)

(22)

12 and above

1966

27

518

109

9

139

40

(31)

(61)

(31)

(22)

(43)

(23)

1985

11

196

82

5

106

48

(7)

(25)

(10)

(9)

(28)

(21)

Total 1966

86

852

355

41

324

173

(100)

(100)

(100)

(100)

(100)

(100)

1985

157

784

803

59

375

230

(100)

(100)

(100)

(100)

(100)

(100)

Source: Field survey; Livestock Census, 1966; village jamabandi.

Notes:

1. 1 adult buffalo/cow/camel = 1 animal unit;

1 young buffalo/cow/camel = 0.75 animal unit;

1 sheep/goat = 0.15 animal unit.

2. Figures in brackets are percentages of the total number of households, total cultivable area, and total livestock units in the two villages for 1966 and 1985 respectively.

(p.262)

Table A.4. Pattern of large and small animal ownership: Khedi and Banai

Landholding size (hectares)

H. hs with large animals

Average number per h.h.

H. hs. without large animals

Total

H. hs with small animals

Average number per h.h.

H. hs. without small animals

Total

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

Up to 3.9

1966

24

3

2

26

24

6

2

26

(92)

(8)

(100)

(92)

(8)

(100)

1985

81

4

26

107

103

10

4

107

(76)

(24)

(100)

(96)

(4)

(100)

4–7.9

1966

37

4

7

44

40

13

4

44

(84)

(16)

(100)

(91)

(9)

(100)

1985

62

5

0

62

61

11

1

62

(100)

(0)

(100)

(98)

(2)

(100)

8–11.9

1966

20

5

1

21

20

10

1

21

(95)

(5)

(100)

(95)

(5)

(100)

1985

30

6

1

31

29

12

2

31

(97)

(31)

(100)

(94)

(6)

(100)

12 and above

1966

34

4

2

36

31

8

5

36

(94)

(6)

(100)

(86)

(14)

(100)

1985

16

7

0

16

16

17

0

16

(100)

(0)

(100)

(100)

(0)

(100)

Total

1966

115

4

12

127

115

9

12

127

(91)

(9)

(100)

(91)

(9)

(100)

1985

189

5

27

216

209

11

7

216

(88)

(12)

(100)

(97)

(3)

(100)

Source: Field survey; Livestock Census, 1966; village jamabandis.

Note: Figures in brackets are percentages.

(p.263)

Table A.5. Value of small and large animal herds (1985)

(average per household in rupees)

Landholding size (hectares)

Average value of small animal herd

Average value of large animal herd

Total

Upto 3.9

1413

2101

3514

4–7.9

1860

4854

6714

8–11.9

1750

6034

7784

12 and above

2562

9416

11978

Average

1675

3998

5673

Source: Field survey.

Table A.6 Distribution of fallow land by farm size (1985)

(number of households)

Landholding size (hectares)

Extent of fallow as per cent of total land

Total

Nil

Less than 10

10–19.9

20–29.9

30–39.9

40–49.9

Up to 3.9

76

2

15

12

1

1

107

(71)

(2)

(14)

(11)

(1)

(1)

(100)

4–7.9

14

9

18

19

2

0

62

(23)

(15)

(29)

(30)

(3)

(0)

(100)

8–11.9

5

1

7

13

2

3

31

(16)

(3)

(23)

(42)

(6)

(10)

(100)

12 and above

1

5

3

6

0

1

16

(6)

(31)

(19)

(38)

(0)

(6)

(100)

Total

96

17

43

50

5

5

216

(45)

(8)

(20)

(23)

(2)

(2)

(100)

Source: Field survey.

Note: Figures in brackets are percentages.

(p.264)

Table A.7. Distribution of draught animals (bullock, camel, and buffalo-bull)

(number of households)

Land holding size (hectares)

H. hs. without draught animals

H. hs. without draught animals

Total

Total no. of draught animals

Up to 3.9

1966

15

11

26

27

(58)

(42)

(100)

(14)

1985

37

70

107

58

(35)

(65)

(100)

(31)

4–7.9

1966

29

15

44

56

(66)

(34)

(100)

(30)

1985

38

24

62

69

(61)

(39)

(100)

(37)

8–11.9

1966

19

2

21

42

(90)

(10)

(100)

(23)

1985

24

7

31

38

(77)

(23)

(100)

(20)

12 and above

1966

35

1

36

62

(97)

(3)

(100)

(33)

1985

13

3

16

23

(81)

(19)

(100)

(12)

Total

1966

98

29

127

187

(77)

(23)

(100)

(100)

1985

112

104

216

188

(52)

(48)

(100)

(100)

Source: Field survey; Livestock Census, 1966; village jamabandis.

Note: Figures in brackets are percentages.

(p.265)

Table A.8. Distribution of bullock-keeping households

(number of households)

Landholding size (hectares)

H. hs. with bullocks

H. hs. without bullocks

Total

Total no. of bullocks

Up to 3.9

1966

7

19

26

11

(27)

(73)

(100)

(12)

1985

6

101

107

8

(6)

(94)

(100)

(40)

4–7.9

1966

20

24

44

25

(45)

(55)

(100)

(27)

1985

5

57

62

7

(8)

(92)

(100)

(35)

8–11.9

1966

17

4

21

27

(81)

(19)

(100)

(30)

1985

4

27

31

4

(13)

(87)

(100)

(20)

12 and above

1966

19

17

36

28

(53)

(47)

(100)

(31)

1985

1

15

16

1

(6)

(94)

(100)

(5)

Total

1966

63

64

127

91

(50)

(50)

(100)

(100)

1985

16

200

216

20

(7)

(93)

(100)

(100)

Source: Field survey; Livestock Census, 1966; village jamabandis.

Note: Figures in brackets are percentages.

(p.266)

Table A.9. Distribution of camel-keeping households

(number of households)

Landholding size (hectares)

H. hs. with camels

H. hs. without camels

Total

Total no. of camels

Up to 3.9

1966

9

17

26

10

(35)

(65)

(100)

(13)

1985

17

90

107

22

(16)

(84)

(100)

(22)

4.1–7.9

1966

21

23

44

26

(48)

(52)

(100)

(35)

1985

31

31

62

35

(50)

(50)

(100)

(35)

8–11.9

1966

12

9

21

13

(57)

(43)

(100)

(17)

1985

21

10

31

29

(68)

(32)

(100)

(29)

12 and above

1966

19

17

36

26

(53)

(47)

(100)

(35)

1985

10

6

16

14

(62)

(38)

(100)

(14)

Total

1966

61

66

127

75

(48)

(52)

(100)

(100)

1985

79

137

216

100

(37)

(63)

(100)

(100)

Source: Field, survey; Livestock Census, 1966; village jamabandis.

Note: Figures in brackets are percentages.

(p.267)

Table A.10. Distribution of he-buffalo-keeping households

(number of households)

Landholding size (hectares)

H. hs. with camels

H. hs. without camels

Total

Total no. of camels

Up to 3.9

1966

5

21

26

6

(19)

(81)

(100)

(29)

1985

24

83

107

28

(22)

(78)

(100)

(41)

4–7.9

1966

5

39

44

5

(11)

(89)

(100)

(24)

1985

18

44

62

27

(29)

(71)

(100)

(40)

8–11.9

1966

2

19

21

2

(10)

(90)

(100)

(9)

1985

5

26

31

5

(16)

(84)

(100)

(7)

12 and above

1966

7

29

36

8

(19)

(81)

(100)

(38)

1985

5

11

16

8

(31)

(69)

(100)

(12)

Total

1966

19

108

127

21

(15)

(85)

(100)

(100)

1985

52

164

216

68

(24)

(76)

(100)

(100)

Source: Field survey; Livestock census, 1966; village jamabandis.

Note: Figures in brackets are percentages.

(p.268)

Table A.11. Type of draught power used by households without draught animals (1985)

(number of households)

Landholding size (hectares)

Camel

Bullock

Buffalo-bull

Tractor

Total

Up to 3.9

35

1

8

26

70

4–7.9

7

1

2

14

24

8–11.9

4

3

7

12 and above

2

1

3

Total

48

2

10

44

104

Source: Field survey.

Table A.12. Distribution of large milch animals (cows and buffaloes)

(number of households)

Landholding size (hectares)

H. hs. with large milch animals

H. hs. without large milch animals

Total

Total no. of milch animals

Up to 3.9

1966

21

5

26

50

(81)

(19)

(100)

(16)

1985

79

28

107

243

(74)

(26)

(100)

(33)

4–7.9

1966

36

8

44

105

(82)

(18)

(100)

(35)

1985

62

0

62

249

(100)

(0)

(100)

(34)

8–11.9

1966

18

3

21

57

(86)

(14)

(100)

(19)

1985

30

1

31

148

(97)

(3)

(100)

(20)

12 and above

1966

33

3

36

90

(92)

(8)

(100)

(30)

1985

16

0

16

95

(100)

(0)

(100)

(13)

Total

1966

108

19

127

302

(85)

(15)

(100)

(100)

1985

187

29

216

735

(87)

(13)

(100)

(100)

Source: Field survey; Livestock Census, 1966; village jamabandis.

Note: Figures in brackets are percentages.

(p.269)

Table A. 13. Distribution of cow-keeping households

(number of households)

Landholding size (hectares)

Households with cows

Households without cows

Total

Total no. of cows

Up to 3.9

1966

18

8

26

36

(69)

(31)

(100)

(16)

1985

59

48

107

131

(55)

(45)

(100)

(36)

4–7.9

1966

33

11

44

85

(75)

(25)

(100)

(37)

1985

48

14

62

123

(77)

(23)

(100)

(34)

8–11.9

1966

17

4

21

43

(81)

(19)

(100)

(19)

1985

21

10

31

72

(68)

(32)

(100)

(20)

12 and above

1966

29

7

36

63

(81)

(19)

(100)

(28)

1985

11

5

16

34

(69)

(31)

(100)

(10)

Total

1966

97

30

127

227

(76)

(24)

(100)

(100)

1985

139

77

216

360

(64)

(36)

(100)

(100)

Source: Field survey; Livestock Census, 1966; village jamabandis.

Note: Figures in brackets are percentages.

(p.270)

Table A.14. Distribution of buffalo-keeping households

(number of households)

Landholding size hectares

Households with buffaloes

Households without buffaloes

Total

Total no. of buffaloes

Up to 3.9

1966

8

18

26

14

(31)

(69)

(100)

(19)

1985

40

67

107

112

(37)

(63)

(100)

(30)

4–7.9

1966

13

31

44

20

(30)

(70)

(100)

(26)

1985

48

14

62

126

(77)

(23)

(100)

(34)

8–11.9

1966

6

15

21

14

(29)

(71)

(100)

(19)

1985

13

18

31

76

(42)

(58)

(100)

(20)

12 and above

1966

18

18

36

27

(50)

(50)

(100)

(36)

1985

15

1

16

61

(94)

(6)

(100)

(16)

Total

1966

45

82

127

75

(35)

(65)

(100)

(100)

1985

116

100

216

375

(54)

(46)

(100)

(100)

Source: Field survey; Livestock Census, 1966; village jamabandis.

Note: Figures in brackets are percentages.

(p.271)

Table A.15. Distribution of animals-in-milk (1985)

(number of animals)

Landholding size(hectares)

Cows

Buffaloes

Up to 3.9

54

48

Average

0.5

0.4

4–7.9

42

47

Average per household

0.7

0.8

8–11.9

35

44

Average per household

1

1

12 and above

16

30

Average per household

1

2

Total average per household

0.8

1.05

Source: Field survey.

(p.272)

Table A.16. Cow and buffalo: milk output as perceived

(kgs. per lactating animal per day)

Landholding size (hectares)

Cow

Buffalo

Up to 3.9

5

7

4–7.9

5

7

8–11.9

5

8

12 and above

6

11

Average

5

8

Source: Field survey.

Table A.17. Distribution of goat-keeping households

(number of households)

Landholding size (hectares)

Households with goats

Households without goats

Total

Total no. of goats

Up to 3.9

1966

22

4

26

85

(85)

(15)

(100)

(16)

1985

102

5

107

635

(95)

(5)

(100)

(47)

4–7.9

1966

39

5

44

207

(89)

(11)

(100)

(38)

1985

61

1

62

387

(98)

(2)

(100)

(28)

8–11.9

1966

20

1

21

110

(95)

(5)

(100)

(20)

1985

29

2

31

195

(94)

(6)

(100)

(14)

12 and above

1966

28

8

36

142

(78)

(22)

(100)

(26)

1985

16

0

16

152

(100)

(0)

(100)

(11)

Total

1966

109

18

127

544

(86)

(14)

(100)

(100)

1985

208

8

216

1369

(96)

(4)

(100)

(100)

Source: Field survey; Livestock Census, 1966; village jamabandis.

Note: Figures in brackets are percentages.

(p.273)

Table A.18. Distribution of animals-in-milk

(number of animals-in-milk)

Landholding size (hectares)

Goat

Cow

Buffalo

Total

Up to 3.9

236

54

48

338

(70)

(16)

(14)

(100)

4–7.9

139

42

47

228

(61)

(18)

(21)

(100)

8–11.9

97

35

44

176

(55)

(20)

(25)

(100)

12 and above

62

16

30

108

(57)

(15)

(28)

(100)

Total

534

147

169

850

(63)

(17)

(20)

(100)

Source: Field survey.

Note: Figures in brackets are percentages.

Table A.19. Distribution of sheep-rearing households

(number of households)

Landholding size (hectares)

Households with sheep

Households without sheep

Total

Total no. of sheep

Up to 3.9

1966

18

8

26

56

(69)

(31)

(100)

(10)

1985

56

51

107

378

(52)

(48)

(100)

(42)

4–7.9

1966

32

12

44

300

(73)

(27)

(100)

(57)

1985

42

20

62

256

(68)

(32)

(100)

(28)

8–11.9

1966

16

5

21

83

(76)

(24)

(100)

(16)

1985

21

10

31

150

(68)

(32)

(100)

(17)

12 and above

1966

22

14

36

91

(61)

(39)

(100)

(17)

1985

12

4

16

122

(75)

(25)

(100)

(13)

Total

1966

88

39

127

530

(69)

(31)

(100)

(100)

1985

131

85

216

906

(61)

(39)

(100)

(100)

Source: Field survey; Livestock Census, 1966; village jamabandis.

Note: Figures in brackets are percentages.

(p.274)

Table A.20. Average number of goats per household (1985)

Landholding size (hectares)

Banai

Khedi

Average no. of goats

Average no. of sheep

Average no. of goats

Average no. of sheep

Up to 3.9

4

2

7

4

4–7.9

4

3

7

5

8–11.9

4

2

8

7

12 and above

10

11

9

5

Total

4

3

7

5

Source: Field survey.

(p.275)

Table A.21. Change in livestock population (1966–83)

(per cent)

Unit

Cattle

Buffaloes

Sheep

Goats

Camels

Total

Rajasthan state

+2.9

+43.1

+51.0

+50.0

+ 15.6

+32.2

Arid districts

−8.3

+53.7

+35.6

+96.1

N.A.

N.A.

District Sikar

−8.6

+86.1

+28.8

+86.7

−5.3

+48.9

Source: Report on the Livestock Census of Rajasthan, 1966 and 1983; Board of Revenue, Ajmer.

Notes:

1. The eleven arid districts of Rajasthan include Barmer, Bikaner, Churu, Jaisalmer, Jalore, Jhunjhunun, Jodhpur, Nagaur, Pali, Sikar, and Sirohi.

2. N.A.—Figures not available.

Table A.22. Change in livestock population of large animals (1966–77)

(per cent)

Unit

Bullocks

Cows

Buffalo-bulls

Buffaloes

Rajasthan state

−2.0

+1.3

+24.2

+29.9

Selected villages

−54.5

+31.3

+100.0

+115.5

Source: Reports on the Livestock Census of Rajasthan, 1966 and 1977.

Note: This Table is confined to animals above three years of age.