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Unbecoming CitizensCulture, Nationhood, and the Flight of Refugees from Bhutan$

Michael Hutt

Print publication date: 2005

Print ISBN-13: 9780195670608

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195670608.001.0001

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(p.283) Appendix The Paro Pönlop’s Kasho to Dalchan and Garjaman Gurung

(p.283) Appendix The Paro Pönlop’s Kasho to Dalchan and Garjaman Gurung

Source:
Unbecoming Citizens
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

(p.283) Appendix

The Paro Pönlop’s Kasho to Dalchan and Garjaman Gurung

Nepali text:

svasti śhāmrājamin basnyā camārci īlākābhitra basnyā sardār dālcan guruṅsaṃga basnyā duniyā graiha basti abadekhi uprānta pachi partta (?) sardār dālcan nepālilāī mohor garidiñye jagā purva bālāduvār tursā nadideṣi pasi ucunpato kholā deṣi purva yetibhitrakā jamin jagā sardār dālcan guruṅ garjamān guruṅ duī bābu chorālai diyāko cha. aba uprānta tyo jagā diyāko artha lāī choāṭ baḍā kohi kasaile kehi garnu pauṃdaina bhanyā yo paṭṭā sardār bābu chorā duīko nāmmā diñyā yasbhitra choṭā baṛā kasaile pani jagā thicomico gari ujur garnu pāuṃdaina bhani bhararājā rimphurājāle paṭṭā dastakhat garidinyā īti sambat 1944 bhadau mahinā.

yo jagā bālāduvār tursā nadi [purva…]… sā pachi cunapatā ṣolādeṣi purva cunematīko sir umbho leṣ deṣi dakhin angrejko simāna bu[ru/ka?]sdeṣi uttar yesbhitrakā jagāko mohor paṭṭā daskat gari diyāko bamojim aba uprānta tyo jagābhitrako mācha māṭo ḍhungā kāṭh bāṃs coyā pāt sab graiha jaminmā byābharko calān gari hāmrā sarkārko khajanā bharnā garnu. [ansadara santān bhar?] sog bhog calān gari ṣānu jāri (jāhi?) garnu vijāī vidot nagarnu jagā guljār garnu ujār nagarnu basti basāunu rasti calāunu bhani sardār dālcan guruṅ bābu chorālāī mohor paṭā gari diyāko yesmā kohi choṭā baṛā kasaile bāt ujur garnu pāunyā chaina bhanyā [sahari?] bābu chorā duīlāī mohor gari hāt diñyā yesmā gaihra duniyāle choṭā baṛāle mālum garnu so jagāko sog bhog garnu kām garnu diyāko cha. īti sambat 1944 bhadau mahinā śubham.

I have issued this official document (mohor) to Sardar Dalchan Nepali, all the villages of commoners living with Sardar Dalchan Gurung on our land in Chamarchi district (ilākā) […]. It is declared that from now on the land extending to the west from Baladuwar Tursa river, and to the east from Uchunpato river, the land of this area is given to Sardar Dalchan Gurung (and) Garjaman Gurung, (p.284) the father and the son respectively. It is now declared that the meaning of the grant made in the name of the father and son is that nobody [else], whether great or small, may do anything on the land. The Bhar Raja Rinphu Raja signs this document, saying that nobody, whether great or small, may oppress or lodge complaints on this land, dated 1944 BS, the month of Bhadau.

The land that has the Baladuwar Tursa river to the east, the Chunapata river to its west, is to the south of the hills at the head of the Chunemati, and to the north of the British border. The land within these [boundaries] is granted by this signed document (mohor paṭṭā) and thus you must make use of all the fish, soil, rocks, wood, bamboo, cane, foliage on the land of this area and pay the government taxes. [Your children should live off this land(?)], refrain from injury and oppression (bidyut-bijāī), make the land productive not barren, establish villages, [enhance the environment(?)], I have granted this document to Sardar Dalchan Gurung so that no one whether great or small may appeal against the matter […] and I have set my hand to this grant, may the whole world know, great and small, that permission is given to work and enjoy the fruit of this land, dated 1944 BS, the month of Bhadau, śubham.

Tibetan text:

(1) / da lan/’di zhabs kyi mnga’ ’og tu bsam (2) rtse’i cha ’dus sdod mi so dha ri dar li tsang gtsos (3) pa’i rgya gar ne pa la dmang [khar?] [da?] nas phar ji srid (4) nam gnas kyi bar so dha ri dar li tsang ’og sa gzhi (5) gnang bas sa khram bkod par [?] gdung na khong las (6) krong shar no di sa nas phar bcad btsu. ne spa (7) stang chu bshag chu’i bcad tshur bcad te sa gzhi de (8) [dang?] so dha ri dar li tsang pha [phus?] gnyis kyi khongsu gnang (9) bzhag yod da nas phar sa gzhis ’di’i bskor nas (10) che phra med pa sus dang gang gi yang bslab zer byed mi (11) chog pa’i bka’i tham ’di so dha ri dar li gtsang pha bu’i (12) lag bzhag tu thams cad ’dul zhes me mo phag lo (13) zla bdun ’gro bzhin zla ba’i dkar tshes bzang por rin spungs rgyal (14) khab nas gnang bar dge/

Translation1

At this time: to the villages of commoners of the Indian Nepalese headed by Sardar Dalchan, residents of Samtse district within our jurisdiction.

By this grant of lands in perpetuity to Sardar Dalchan, the lands shown on the map extending from Dung Nakhong (?and) from Trongshar Nodisa, as far as the Chunabata river (?where it meets the) Shak river are granted for the possession of Sardar Dalchan and his son.

(p.285) This document (kasho), against which nobody whatsoever, great or small, may appeal concerning these lands from this time forth, is given into the hands of Sardar Dalchan and his son on an auspicious day during the first half of the seventh month of the female fire-pig year known as the ‘All-conquering’ from the Court of Rinpung.

Notes:

(1) Translation by Philip Denwood. Line numbers of text are given in brackets, with unclear syllables in square brackets. The wider spacing in lines 3 and 9 correspond to wider spacing in the text and paragraphs in the translation. Text ‘as is’ with no corrections. The epithet ‘all-conquering’ should perhaps refer to the year name, though it could refer to the Rinpung Court.