This conclusion discusses the fate of Michaelis’s classical project, its reception among figures like Johann Gottfried Eichhorn, Johann Gottfried Herder, and Johann Georg Hamann. It also evaluates Michaelis’s legacy, arguing that a clear understanding of it has important implications for the study of the Bible today. It also revisits the notions of the scriptural and academic Bibles. Too often the relation between them has been seen as an expression of stale antitheses between reason and faith, history and revelation, historical criticism and theology, the secular and the sacred. The history of modern biblical criticism shows that the fundamental antitheses were not intellectual or theological, but rather social, moral, and political. Academic critics did not dispense with the authority of a Bible resonant with religion; they redeployed it. This point is essential to any discussion of the relation between modern biblical criticism and those who read the Bible principally as scripture.
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