Personalized Integrative Markers for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most common disorder of childhood-adolescent brain health. Here, we take an integrative neuroscience approach to personalized medicine. The goal of this approach is: 1) to identify promising markers that bridge cognitive and brain measures, as well as genomics; these currently have value for supporting diagnostic and personalized treatment decisions in clinical practice. These markers are sensitive and specific for distinguishing ADHD, focusing on the triad of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. These markers are assessed with straightforward cognitive tests that relate to brain function and genes affecting dopamine. The same markers are also implicated in predicting response to stimulants. A different set of markers capturing alterations in emotion, feeling and their regulation shows promise in identifying comorbid internalizing conditions, such as anxiety, and externalizing conditions, such as conduct disorder.
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