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Fezzes in the RiverIdentity Politics and European Diplomacy in the Middle East on the Eve of World War II$
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Sarah D. Shields

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780195393316

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195393316.001.0001

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Fezzes and Hats

Fezzes and Hats

(p.17) 1 Fezzes and Hats
Fezzes in the River

Sarah D. Shields (Contributor Webpage)

Oxford University Press

When Syria’s political leaders left Paris in the fall of 1936, their focus was on the new Franco-Syrian Treaty that promised their independence. On stopping in Istanbul en route to their triumphant homecoming, they were blindsided by Turkish officials and a Turkish press that demanded a different future for the Sanjak [province] of Alexandretta separate from Syria. Chapter 1 sketches the background of the contested territory, the ideological context in which Syria demanded independence and Turkey claimed the Sanjak, and the violence that ensued as Turkish activists mobilized opposition to the Sanjak’s participation in the November 1936 elections to the Syrian Parliament. For the Syrian regime, these elections were the first step toward their promised independence from France, the colonial power upon which they had become paradoxically dependent if they hoped to fulfill their dreams of independence, a policy they called Honorable Cooperation.

Keywords:   National Bloc, hat reform, Ataturk, Kemalism, Hatay, Alawi, electoral violence

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