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Access to Medicine in the Global Economy$
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Cynthia Ho

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780195390124

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195390124.001.0001

An Overview of “TRIPS-Plus” Standards

Chapter:
(p.223) 8 An Overview of “TRIPS-Plus” Standards
Source:
Access to Medicine in the Global Economy
Author(s):

Cynthia M. Ho (Contributor Webpage)

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195390124.003.0009

This chapter provides an overview of international developments since TRIPS that further impact access to medicine. In particular, some countries are now required to adopt higher standards than those required by TRIPS. These “TRIPS-Plus” standards are predominantly implemented as a result of bilateral or regional trade agreements instigated by wealthy countries since the conclusion of TRIPS. Although they are dubbed “TRIPS-Plus,” they have no formal relation to TRIPS. Rather, the term is used to indicate that these requirements go beyond the minimum obligations imposed under TRIPS. The chapter explains common themes among TRIPS-Plus requirements that impact upon the cost of drugs. This thematic approach aims to highlight how drug costs may be impacted, as well as how and why countries adopt such requirements; however, it is not intended to provide a comprehensive review of every enacted or pending TRIPS-Plus requirement.

Keywords:   TRIPS, TRIPS-Plus, international agreements, access to medicine, licensing laws, drug costs

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