Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Brother-Making in Late Antiquity and ByzantiumMonks, Laymen, and Christian Ritual$

Claudia Rapp

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780195389333

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2016

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195389333.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.oxfordscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2017. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy). Subscriber: null; date: 20 February 2017

(p.263) Appendix 1 Table of Manuscripts

(p.263) Appendix 1 Table of Manuscripts

Brother-Making in Late Antiquity and Byzantium
Oxford University Press

Below is a list of sixty-six manuscripts that contain prayers for adelphopoiesis. Only Greek manuscripts where the prayers are known to be present carry a number. The manuscripts that I was able to study in the original or in reproduction are marked with an asterisk. In those cases where a more recent, specialized study is available, earlier manuscript catalogs are not mentioned consistently. For the dating of the Sinai manuscripts, I have followed Gardthausen rather than Dmitrievskij.

Boswell offers a list of sixty-two “manuscripts consulted,” which largely takes its lead from Dmitrievskij’s list of prayer books and their content (here indicated as D). Boswell does not indicate which of these manuscripts he studied in the original. I have found a number of errors in Dmitrievskij’s information (which is not surprising), which are repeated in Boswell (which is surprising, considering that in the preface, he gives the impression of having worked his way through the manuscript tradition, from London and Paris, to points further East).1 Panagou identifies four additional manuscripts that had not previously been known to contain adelphopoiesis prayers, due to insufficient information in the printed catalogs. He does not include in his discussion sixteen manuscripts that were listed by Boswell.

Further manuscripts that contain the adelphophoiesis ritual will no doubt be identified in the future. I will strive to maintain an updated list online.2

(p.264) Manuscript

Century, Region, Use




Preceded by

Followed by


Vatican, Barb. gr. 336* (Barberinum Sancti Marci)

8; Southern Italy; Constantinopolitan rite of the pre-iconoclast period1


  • Euchê eis adelphopoiêsin

    • —Kyrie ho theos ho pantokratôr ho poiêsas anthrôpon

  • Jacob2

  • Strittmatter3

  • Parenti4

Cutting of beard

Hair clipping of child


Sinai, gr. 957*



  • Euchê eis adelphopoiêsin

    • —Ho panta pros sôtêrian

  • D 4

  • Gardthausen6

Hairclipping of child



  • Grottaferrata,

  • Gamma beta VII*

first half 10;7 Calabria; monastic use


  • Euchê epi adelphopoiêsin

    • —Ho poiêsas ton anthrôpon

  • Euchê allê tês adelphopoiêsias

    • —Ho endoxazomenos en boulê agiôn

  • Euchê allê eis adelphopoiêsin

    • —Anthêron hêmin kai polypothêton hê tês agapês euôdia


Reconciliation of enemies

Revocation of an oath


  • Grottaferrata, Gamma beta

  • IV*

10 (975–1000); copied near Monte Cassino; monastic use


  • Euchê eis adelphopoiêsian

  • Those who want to become brothers enter behind the priest, place their hands on the Gospel, chant Psalm 23; the

  • deacon says prayers for peace, “for the servants of God NN and NN, and for their love in Christ and their well-being,” that their love and brotherhood may remain “without scandal,” that the Lord God may forgive them every transgression, that we may be saved from all affliction.

    • —Ho poiêsas ton anthrôpon

    • —Ho panta pros sôtêrian

  • The priest embraces them and gives the dismissal.


For the afflicted

Unction of the sick

(p.265) 5

Grottaferrata, Gamma beta X



  • Euchê eis adelphopoiêsin

    • —Ho poiêsas ton anthrôpon

    • —Ho panta pros sôtêrian

  • Panagou

  • Rocchi10


Sinai, gr. 958*



  • Euchê eis adelphopoiêsin

    • —Ho panta pros sôtêrian

    • —Ho poiêsas ton anthrôpon

  • D 31–32

  • Gardthausen12

Removal of wedding crowns

Churching of woman


St. Petersburg, gr. 226 (Euchologium Uspenskij)*

10; Italo-Greek; not monastic


  • —Ho poiêsas ton anthrôpon

    • —Ho panta pros to sympheron


Veiling of a woman

Revocation of an oath


Paris, BN, Coislin 213*

1027; for the priest Strategios,14 Constantinople


  • Euchê eis adelphopoiêsin

    • —Ho panta pros sôtêrian

    • —Ho ton choron tôn agiôn sou apostolôn

  • Duncan15 Arranz16

  • D 998

Filial adoption

Cutting of beard or hair


Grottaferrata, Gamma beta II*

11; Southern Italy17


  • Akolouthia eis adelphopoiêsin

  • The priest places the Gospel on the analogion; the brothers place their hands on it, holding lit candles in their left hands; he censes them. Invocations by deacon. Prayers by priest:

    • —Ho poiêsas ton anthrôpon

  • Euchê etera eis adelphopoiêsin

    • —Ho panta pros sôtêrian

  • They bow to the Gospel, to the priest and to each other, and he says the dismissal.


Hairclipping of child



Sinai, gr. 959*

11; Palestino-Syrian ritual


  • Euchê eis adelphopoiêsin

    • —Ho panta pros sôtêrian

  • D 56

  • Gardthausen19

  • Jacob20

Cutting of hair of a woman

Unction of the sick

(p.266) Sinai, glag. 37, “Euchologium Sinaiticum”21

late 11; Old Church Slavonic


  • —Ho panta pros sôtêrian

    • —Ho poiêsas ton anthrôpon

    • —Ho tês agapês phytourgos (NB this prayer is not used in the Greek adelphopoiesis ritual)

  • Frček 658–668

  • Nahtigal 2022

First cutting of beard



Sinai, gr. 961*



  • Euchê eis adelphopoiêsin

    • —Ho panta pros sôtêrian

D 82 Gardthausen23

Hairclipping of child

Commemoration of the dead


Sinai, gr. 962*



  • Euchê eis adelphopoisian (sic)

    • —Ho panta pros sôtêrian

D 71 Gardthausen25

Prayer for the sick

Commemoration of the dead


Vatican, gr. 1811*

1147 by scribe Petros; Italo-Greek26


  • Akolouthia eis adelphopoiêsin

  • Priest places Gospel on analogion; two men place their hands on Gospel, holding lit candles in the right hand; they are censed by deacon; several introductory prayers

    • —Ho poiêsas ton anthrôpon

  • Euchê deutera

    • —Ho einteilamenos hêmin

  • They kiss the Gospel, the priest, and each other. Priest dismisses them with a blessing.


Blessing of a vine



Sinai, gr. 973*

1153; copied by the priest Auxentios; paper


  • Euchê epi adelphopoiias

  • They put their hands upon one another, priest places a cross on them, chants Psalm 133;

    • —Ho panta pros to sympheron charisamenos tois anthrôpois kai pneumatikên adelphotêta systêsamenos

    • —Hê tachinê akoê, ta tachina splagchna

D 122–123 Gardthausen28



(p.267) 15

Vatican, Ottob. gr. 434*



  • Euchê eis adelphopoiesin

    • —Ho panta pros sôtêrian



After pollution


Bodleian, Auct. E.5.13*

12; originally at the Monastery of the Holy Savior, Messina


  • Euchê eis adelphopoiêsin

    • —Ho panta pros sôtêrian31

  • Cf. Jacob32


After a meal


Escurial, X.IV.13 (=408)

12; Salento, Southern Italy33


  • Akolouthia eis adelphopoiêsin

  • priest, Gospel on stand, first brother, second brother, candles, sign of cross

    • —Ho poiêsas ton anthrôpon

    • —Ho dia tês sês aphatou oikonomias

    • —Ho eipôn tois hagiois sou mathêtais kai apostolois: eirênên tên emên didômi hymin34

  • Andrés35

  • Parenti36




Paris, BN, Coislin 214*



  • Euchê eis adelphopoiêsin

    • —Ho panta pros sôtêrian


Wine harvest

Revocation of an oath


Paris, BN, gr. 330*



  • Euchê eis adelphopoiêsin

    • —Ho poiêsas … ton anthrôpon


For the dead

First cutting of beard


  • Paris, BN,

  • gr. 392*



  • Euchê eis adelphopoiêsin

    • —Ho panta pros sôtêrian


After a meal

For the dead


  • Vatican, Barb. gr. 329*

  • “Barberinum secundum”41

12; Italo-Greek script; origin of prayers Calabria


  • —unidentified first prayer42

    • —Ho poiêsas ton anthrôpon

    • —Ho einteilamenos hêmin



Absence of rain


Vatican, Barb. gr. 345*

12; Southern Italian script


  • Taxis eis to poiêsai adelphous

  • They enter, place their hands on Gospel

  • Etera euchê

    • —Ho poiêsas ton anthrôpon

    • —Ho einteilamenos hêmin



Benediction of eggs and cheese at Easter


Vatican, Barb. gr. 431*

12; Southern Italian script


  • Akolouthia eis adelphopoiêsin

  • Priest places the Gospel on a stand; the brothers place their right hands on it, lit candles in left hand, censing and invocations by deacon, introductory prayers

    • —Ho poiêsas ton anthrôpon

  • They bow to the Gospel and the priest. Dismissal.



Dedication of a church


Vatican, gr. 1552*



  • Euchê eis adelphopoiêsin

    • —Ho en tê kata sarka sou oikonomia

    • —Ho panta pros sôtêrian

  • They kiss the Gospel, each other, and leave.



If something impure has fallen into wine or oil


Vatican, gr. 1554*

12; Italo-Greek47


  • Akolouthia eis adelphôpisian (sic)

  • They enter, carrying candles, they stand until the liturgy is completed, priest asks them to come to the bema with lit candles, censes them; speaks prayers for peace from above, for this holy house, for the two men

    • —Ho en hypsêlois katoikôn

    • —Ho poiêsas ton anthrôpon

    • —Ho einteilamenos hêmin

  • Priest makes an invocation over them and dismisses them.


Prayer when hermit enters a cell


(p.269) 26

Vatican, gr. 1872*

12; Italo-Greek


  • Euchê eis adelphopoiêsin

    • —Ho panta pros sôtêrian

    • —Ho en hypsêlois katoikon


Blessing of oil for the sick

Prayer for the dead


Vatican, gr. 1875*

12; Italo-Greek50


  • Akolouthia eis adelphopoiêsin

  • Priest places the Gospel on the analogion; they place their hands on the Gospel, hold lit candles, are censed by priest and deacon, introductory prayers.51

    • —Ho poiêsas ton anthrôpon

  • They kiss the Gospel, the priest, each other.


Service for kneeling after Pentecost53



Sinai, gr. 1036*



—Ho poiêsas ton anthrôpon

D 147 Gardthausen54

Blessing of a house

For the penitent


Patmos, 10455



  • Euchê etera (!) eis adelphopoiêsin

    • —Kyrie ho theos hêmôn ho en tê kata sarka sou oikonomia

D 156


Hagiasma tôn agiôn Theophanôn


Patmos, 104 (bis)


53r–54r, second time in same ms

  • Euchê eis adelphopoiêsin

    • —Ho panta pros sôtêrian

  • Priest says ektenê, admonishes them, says prayer and blessing. They kiss the Gospel and each other.

D 157

After pollution

NT readings (?)


Athens, Ethnikê Bibliothêkê, 662*

  • 1256 or 13;

  • several hands

  • associated with Constantinople; paper


  • Euchê eis adelphopoiêsin

    • —Ho panta pros sôtêrian

    • —Ho ton choron tôn hagiôn sou apostolôn


Departure of a battle ship

Reconciliation of enemies


Athens, Ethnikê Bibliothêkê 2795

ca. 13


  • Euchê eis adelphopoiêsin

    • —Ho panta pros sôtêrian


(p.270) 32

Athos, Laura 189



  • Euchê eis adelphopoiêsin

  • Invocation

    • —Despota kyrie ho theos hêmôn ho kataxiôsas dia tês epiphaneias tou agiou sou pneumatos synaphthênai tous agious sou apostolous Petrou kai Paulou

    • —Ho panta pros sôtêrian

    • —Ho poiêsas ton anthrôpon

D 179–18059


Eating prohibited foods


Grottaferrata, Gamma beta I* (Euchologion “of Bessarion”)

  • 13;60

  • associated with Constantinople


  • Euchê eis adelphopoiêsin

    • —Ho panta pros sôtêrian

  • Invocation by the priest

    • —Ho ton choron ton agiôn sou apostolôn eklexamenos

  • Arranz61

  • Stassi62

  • Parenti and Velkovska63

Departure of a battle ship

Reconciliation of enemies


Patmos, 105



  • Euchê eis adelphopoiêsin

    • —Ho poiêsas ton anthrôpon

D 160


Liturgy of Saint Basil


St. Petersburg, National Library, gr. 559*

13; Palestine?


  • Akolouthia eis adelphopoiêsin

  • They approach the stand, invocations,

  • hyper ton doulon tou theou … kai tês en Christôi adelphotêtos

  • hyper tou amisêtous kai askandalistous …

    • —Ho panta pros sôtêrian

  • bow to Gospel and kiss it, the priest, each other

    • —Despota kyrie ho theos hêmôn ho ton choron tôn agiôn sou mathêtôn kai apostolon

D 19064

Hairclipping of child

Prayer for those who have polluted themselves in contact with infidels, esp. Muslims


Vatican, Barb. gr. 293*

13; Calabria


  • Taxis kai akolouthia eis adelphopoiêsin

    • —Ho panta pros sôtêrian


Release from an oath

Officium in ponderatione

  • Euchê etera

    • —Ho kataxiôsas dia tês epiphaneias

(p.271) 37

Vatican, Barb. gr. 443*

13; Otranto


  • Akolouthia eis adelphopoiêsin

  • Invocations

    • —Ho poiêsas ton anthrôpon66


Before a meal

Fragment of Vita of Andrew the Apostle


Vatican, gr. 1840*

13; Southern Italy


  • Euchê eis adelphopoiêsin

    • —Ho panta pros sôtêrian

    • —Ho poiêsas ton anthrôpon


Blessing of a house



Grottaferrata, Gamma beta VI*

13 or 14


  • Euchê eis adelphopoiêsin

    • —Kyrie ho theos hêmon … tous agious sou mathêtous kai apostolous krinein … . homonian dôrise tous doulous sou tonde kai tonde


Gospel of John in Latin


Sinai, gr. 960*



  • Euchê eis adelphopoiêsin

    • —Ho panta pros sôtêrian

D 196 Gardthausen70

Blessing of a house



Sinai, gr. 966*

13 or 14; Southern Italy71


  • Akolouthia kai taxis eis adelphopoiêsin

  • Those who wish to become brothers walk up to the priest. He places the Gospel on the stand. The first brother places his hand on the Gospel, and the second on the hand of the brother. The priest signs them with the sign of the cross. Invocation.

    • —Ho poiêsas ton anthrôpon

    • —Ho panta pros sôtêrian

    • —Ho dia tês aphatou sou oikonomias kataxiôsas adelphous kalesai

    • —Ho endoxazomenos en boulê agiôn

    • —Ho en hypsêlois katoikôn

  • They kiss the Gospel and one another.

D 215 Gardthausen72

Prayer for second marriage


(p.272) 42

Sinai, gr. 971*

13–14; paper


  • Euchai eis adelphou poiêsin

    • —Ho poiêsas ton anthrôpon

    • —Ho panta pros sôtêrian

    • —Ho en hypsêlois katoikôn

D 251 Gardthausen74

Veiling of a nun



Sinai, gr. 982*

13 or 14; Eastern paper, different hands, including one dated 1470


  • Taxis ginomenê eis adelphopoiêsian

  • Priest brings them to the cancella, places the right hand of the younger on the Gospel book, then right hand of the older, they hold lit candles, invocations76

D 237 Gardthausen77

Reopening of a church after use by heretics

Prayers for emperors and empire


Grottaferrata, Gamma beta III*

14 (after 1347); Calabria


  • Taxis, invocations

    • —Ho en hypsistois katoikôn

    • —Ho poiêsas ton anthrôpon

    • —Ho panta pros sôtêrian




St. John, Trogir, Croatia

1394, Latin

Bray 126–13379


Athos, Laura Beta 7 (127)

13 or 14


Euchê eis adelphopoiêsin

D 365 Eustratiades80

Hair clipping of child

Pollution of holy wine or oil


Sinai, gr. 981*

  • 14?

  • 16?; paper


  • Euchê eis adelphopoiêsin

    • —Ho panta pros sôtêrian

    • —Ho en tê kata sarka sou oikonomia

  • They embrace each other and depart.

D 343 Gardthausen82


Hairclipping of child


  • Paris, BN,

  • gr. 324*



  • Euchê eis adelphopoiêsin

    • —Ho panta pros sôtêrian

    • —Ho ton choron tôn agiôn sou apostolôn

  • Euchê allê

    • —Ho poiêsas ton anthrôpon


Woman in childbed

Sowing seed

(p.273) 48

Athens, Ethnikê Bibliothêkê, 2724



  • Euchê eis adelphopoiian

  • Priest places Gospel book on the cancella; one brother, then the other place their hands on it; priests makes the sign of the cross over their heads;

    • —Ho panta pros sôtêrian

    • —Ho enischysas tois hagiois sou mathêtais kai apostolois

    • —Ho poiêsas ton anthrôpon



Athos, Konstamonites, 19 (20)

14 or 15; paper


  • Euchê eis adelphopoiêsin

    • —Ho panta pros sôtêrian

  • D 498

  • Lampros85


Prayer of John Chrysostom, before reading or listening to a reading


Athos, Panteleemon, 364

15; paper


  • Akolouthia eis adelphopoiêsin

  • Extensive prayers; NT readings

    • —Ho poiêsas ton anthrôpon

    • —Ho synathroisas tous agious sou mathêtas

  • Priest makes them join hands

    • —Ho en tê kata sarka sou oikonomia

    • —Ho panta pros sôtêrian

  • Blessing, they kiss

D 569 Lampros86


Churching of a woman


Athos, Pantokrator, 149

15; paper


Akolouthia eis adelphopoiêsin

  • D 489

  • Lampros87

Second marriage

Pollution of holy wine or oil


Athos, Xeropotamou, 51

15 or 16


Eis adelphopoiêsin

  • D 659

  • Lampros88

Prayer for kneeling

None (last entry in ms)


Jerusalem, Metochion tou Taphou, 182 (8), now in Athens89



  • Akolouthia eis adelphopoiêsin

  • Admonitions from NT; invocations for the two

    • —Ho poiêsas ton anthrôpon

  • D 466–67

  • Papadopoulos-Kerameus90


Pollution of holy wine or oil

  • (p.274) They join right hands

    • —Ho en tê kata sarka sou oikonomia

    • —Ho synathroisas tous agious sou apostolous

    • —Ho panta pros sôtêrian

  • They kiss the Gospel and one another, then leave, after admonishments by the priest.


Patmos, 703



Akolouthia eis adelphopoiêsin

D 920



Sinai, gr. 972*

15; paper


  • Euchê eis adelphopoiêsin

    • —Ho panta pros sôtêrian

D 578 Gardthausen91

After eating polluted food

Prayer for penitent


Athos, Philotheou, 164

15 or 16; paper


Euchê eis adelphopoiêsin

  • D 661

  • Lampros92

Hairclipping of child

Baptism of child


Sinai, gr. 977*

before 1516; paper; bilingual Greek and Arabic93


  • Euchê eis adelphou poiesin

    • —Ho poiêsas ton ouranon … kai ton anthrôpon95

D 710 Gardthausen96

Prayers during a procession out of fear



Athos, Laura, Omega 129 (1941)

1522; copied by Petros, priest and protopapas, of Karpasia (Karpathios); paper


Akolouthia eis to poiêsai adelphopoiêsin

D 747 Eustratiades97

Second marriage



Jerusalem, Metochion tou panagiou taphou, 789 (615, 757), now in Athens98

1522; copied by monk Manuel from Chandax in Crete, offered to Andrew, cleric at Hagia Sophia; paper


  • Akolouthia eis adelphopoiêsin

  • Priest places the Gospel on the stand, three (!) men place hands on Gospel, priest binds them (with a stole), they carry lit candles

    • —Ho panta pros sôtêrian

    • —Ho poiêsas ton ouranon99

    • —Ho ton choron tôn agiôn sou apostolôn

D 743–744

Second marriage

Prayer before someone takes communion

(p.275) The brothers kiss, and receive communion. After the Gospel reading, the liturgy may be celebrated, if the brothers request it. In this case, the “recently made brothers” should be mentioned in the invocation.


Karditsa, Monastery of Korone, 8

1563; Leukara, Cyprus; lay congregation


  • Euchê eis adelphopoiian

    • —Ho panta pros sôtêrian


Names of 24 Elders before the Throne of Christ

Readmission of those who had been forced to apostatize


Athens, Ethnikê Bibliothêkê, 2064

16; formerly in the library of the Gymnasium in Thessaloniki; prior owners included a priest and a psaltês; paper


  • Euchê eis adelphopoiêsin

    • —Ho panta pros sôtêrian

    • —Ho poiêsas ton ouranon kai tên gên kat’eikona sou kai homoiôsin101

  • Dismissal, they kiss the Gospel book

  • Panagou

  • Politis102

Last rites (to f. 240), ff. 241–242 are empty

Blessing of a House


Athos, Panteleemon, 780



Akolouthia eis adelphopoiêsin

D 831 Lampros103


Commemoration of the dead


Athos, Konstamonites, 60 (63)

16; paper


  • Akolouthia eis adelphopoiêsin

  • Introductory prayers

    • —Ho panta pros sôtêrian

    • —Ho poiêsas ton anthrôpon

    • —Kyrie ho dia stomatos lalêsas Dauid tô doulô sou: idou de ti terpnon

  • They kiss each other. Dismissal.

  • D 854–855

  • Lampros104

On a woman who has had a miscarriage



Athos Kutlumousiou, 341

16; paper


Akolouthia eis adelphopoiêsin

D 953 Lampros105

Service of Holy Water at Epiphany

Virgin voyage of a ship


Athos Kutlumousiou, 358

16; paper


  • Akolouthia eis adelphopoiêsin

    • —Ho panta pros sôtêrian

    • —Ho poiêsas ton anthrôpon

    • —Ho dia stomatos Dauid

D 925 Lampros106

Second marriage

Burial of a priest

(p.276) 66

Sinai, gr. 989*

before 1554; monastic use; paper107


  • Taxis ginominê [sic] eis adelphopoiêsin

  • Invocation

    • —Ho kataxiôsas dia tês epiphoitêseos tou agiou sou pneumatos sunaphthênai tous agious sou apostolous

    • —Ho panta pros sôtêrian

    • —Ho en tê kata sarka sou oikonomia

  • Invocations. They kiss the Gospel and each another.

D 897 Gardthausen109

Death of a priest

Prayers of a spiritual father for a deceased


Athens, National Library, 94

1542 (dated by colophon)


Euchê eis adelphopoiêsin

D 787–88110

Holy Oil

Jerusalem, Patriarchal Library, 568111



Euchê eis adelphopoiêsin

D 948

Blessing of wine

Beginning of sowing season


Euchologion, Rome



Akolouthia eis adelphopoiian pneumatikên (p.277) (p.278) (p.279) (p.280) (p.281) (p.282)

(1) The manuscript once belonged to the Dominican Convent of San Marco in Florence.

(2) A. Jacob, “Les euchologes du fonds Barberini grec de la Bibliothèque Vaticane,” Didaskalia 4 (1974), 131–222, at 154–57, for a description of the ms. For content, he refers to Strittmatter.

(3) Strittmatter, “The ‘Barberinum S. Marci’ of Jacques Goar,” 331. See also G. Baldanza, “Il rito del matrimonio nell’Euchologio Barberini 366: Analisi della sua visione teologica,” Ephemerides liturgicae 93 (1979), 316–51.

(4) Parenti and Velkovska, L’eucologio Barberini gr. 336, 199–200.

(5) Even at a very cursory glance, this manuscript seems to represent the tradition of the Patriarchal Church in Constantinople. One prayer on fol. 31v bears the marginal annotation “of Patriarch Germanos.” Another prayer on fol. 38v is for the occasion “when the Patriarch blesses the waters in the palace.” It is classified as representing “eastern origin,” by G. Baldanza, “Rito del matrimonio,” 317.

(6) V. Gardthausen, Catalogus codicum graecorum Sinaiticorum (Oxford, 1886), 204.

(7) The manuscript is composed of three parts of different euchologia of the tenth century.

(8) Passarelli, L’eucologio cryptense Gamma beta VII, 130–33.

(9) S. Parenti, L’eucologio manoscritto Gamma beta IV della Biblioteca di Grottaferrata (Rome, 1994), 55–56.

(10) Panagou, Hê adelphopoiêsê, 121; A. Rocchi, Codices Cryptenses seu Abbatiae Cryptae Ferratae (Tusculo, 1883), 262–63 (has a description of the codex, without mention of the adelphopoiesis ritual).

(11) Dmitrievskij, 31, erroneously states that the prayer begins on fol. 85r.

(12) Gardthausen, Catalogus, 205. Baldanza, “Rito del matrimonio,” 317, identifies the liturgical content as being of Palestinian origin with Constantinopolitan sources.

(13) This manuscript was taken from the library of the Monastery of St. Catherine in the Sinai in 1850 by Porphyrios Uspenskij. A. Jacob, “L’euchologe de Porphyre Uspenski;” Koumarianos, Il codice 226, 101.

(14) Jacob, “Prière pour les troupeaux de l’Euchologe Barberini,” 11ff, note 43, on the role of Strategios as the patron of the manuscript.

(15) J. Duncan, Coislin 213: Euchologe de la Grande Eglise (Rome, 1983), 60–61. Dated 1027, and owned by Strategios, priest at Hagia Sophia in Constantinople and in the patriarchal chapels, this is the earliest euchologion that carries a date. Duncan asserts (xvii–xviii) that it ranks in importance after Barb. gr. 336, but before the “codex Bessarionis” (Grottaferrata Gamma beta 1) of the eleventh century. For a partial edition of the second half of the manuscript, see J. M. Maj, SJ, “Coislin 213: Eucologio della grande chiesa,” PhD diss., Pontificio Istituto Orientale, Rome, 1995.

(16) Arranz, L’eucologio costantinopolitano, 355–56.

(17) Jacob, “Prière pour les troupeaux,” 1, for the regional origin, and assuming a twelfth-century date.

(18) Rocchi, Codices Cryptenses, 244–49.

(19) Gardthausen, Catalogus, 205.

(20) A. Jacob, “Les sacraments de l’ancien euchologe constantinopolitain (1),” OCP 48 (1982), 284–335, at 305–09, argues that some prayers in this manuscript are of Constantinopolitan origin, although the simple script seems to indicate that it was produced for either an individual or a church of meager means.

(21) On the complex issue of the origin of the prayers in this manuscript, whether Italo-Greek or Constantinopolitan, and the scholarly disagreements on this question, see Jacob, “Prière pour les troupeaux,” 15, notes 57 and 58.

(22) R. Nahtigal, Euchologium Sinaiticum (Ljubljana, 1941–42), 20. Nahtigal’s study includes comparison material of several manuscripts in Serbia. I am grateful to Georgi Parpulov for his assistance with this part of my study.

(23) Gardthausen, Catalogus, 205, with a thirteenth-century date. Dmitrievskij dates the codex to the eleventh or twelfth century.

(24) Baldanza, “Rito del matrimonio,” 317, identifies the liturgical content as being of “Eastern” origin with Constantinopolitan sources.

(25) Gardthausen, Catalogus, 206.

(26) P. Canart, Codices Vaticani graeci: Codices 1745–1962 (Vatican City, 1970), 189–90: there are commemorations on several fols. (83v, 84v, 96v, 99v) of living and dead people, men and women. Some of them were priests, others officials in Apulia and Sicily, including, according to Canart, King Roger of Sicily.

(27) Ibid., 182–90. Canart indicates an Italo-Greek origin for the script, while Strittmatter asserts that the codex is of Constantinopolitan origin. At a certain point in its history, it must have been accessible to Westerners, as suggested by the marginal annotations of names in Latin and Greek script on fol. 124v. The liturgy of John Chrysostom in this codex is similar to that in Grottaferrata Gamma beta II and Bod. Auct. E 5.13 (Canart, Codices Vaticani graeci, 182).

(28) Gardthausen, Catalogus, 208–09.

(29) There are several marginal annotations in Arabic. A.-A. Thiermeyer, “Das Euchologion Ottoboni gr. 434 (12. Jahrhundert),” PhD diss. (Thesis ad lauream), Pontificio Istituto Orientale, Rome, 1992, 56, suggests a provenance from a Palestinian colony in South Italy. For the date, see p. 57. There are marginal invocations by bishop Abraam on fols. 12v and 21v.

(30) Thiermeyer, “Euchologion Ottoboni gr. 434,” Greek text, 376–77. For a dating to the thirteenth century, see A. Feron and F. Battaglini, Codices manuscripti graeci Ottoboniani Bibliothecae Vaticanae (Rome, 1903), 240–41.

(31) Fol. 165r has three crosses above the line, indicating for ritual gestures for the priest: eulogêson. … charisai. … pistin.

(32) A. Jacob, “Un euchologe du Saint-Sauveur ‘in lingua Phari’ de Messine: Le Bodleianus Auct. E.5.13,” Bulletin de l’institut historique belge de Rome 50 (1980), 283–364. The manuscript is datable, on paleographical grounds, to the first half of the twelfth century, in the decades after Roger II of Sicily founded the monastery (288).

(33) For the date, see S. Parenti, “Un eucologio poco noto del Salento El Escorial X.IV.13,” Studi sull’Oriente Cristiano 15 (2011), 157–97, at 158, who follows the dating by André Jacob.

(34) This prayer for peace, love, and unanimity “in this spiritual brotherhood” between two men, is not attested elsewhere.

(35) G. de Andrés, Catálogo de los códices griegos de la Real Biblioteca de El Escorial, vol. 2: Códices 179–420 (Madrid, 1965), 344–46.

(36) Parenti, “Un eucologio poco noto,” 181–82. He identifies Sinai 966 as a close parallel in content to this manuscript.

(37) R. Devreesse, Catalogue des manuscrits grecs, vol. 2: Le fonds Coislin (Paris, 1945), 195–96.

(38) In this manuscript, both the recto and the verso of a folio carry their own number.

(39) H. Omont, Inventaire sommaire des manuscrits grecs de la Bibliothèque Nationale (Paris, 1898), 34.

(40) Ibid., 40.

(41) The prayers printed in Goar, Euchologion, 708–09, derive from this codex, but are not rendered with great accuracy.

(42) The first prayer is not preserved in its entirety, as fol. 116 is cut off. The subsequent prayers carry the numbers 2 and 3.

(43) A. Jacob, “Les euchologes du fonds Barberini,”, 131–222, at 153. This is Goar’s “Barberinum secundum,” Ibid., 154.

(44) Ibid., 159. Some of these folia are palimpsests.

(45) Ibid., 185. The manuscript has several marginal annotations of names in Greek and Latin (Lukas the monk inscribes himself in Latin, fol. 30r, and in Greek, fol. 66v). On fol. 22r there is an invocation by a monk of the community of Elias Spelaitoes (in Greek: monachos tou osiou patros hêmôn ilia tou spêleou).

(46) C. Giannelli, Codices Vaticani graeci: Codices 1485–1683 (Vatican City, 1950), 131–34.

(47) Ibid., 139: many prayers are accompanied by marginal annotations in Italian written in Greek letters. The prayers for adelphopoiesis are identified thus: ouphisziou kouandou se phannou phrati szourati (i.e., officio quando si fanno frati giurati), referring to the office for making “sworn brothers.” According to the notice on f. IIr, this manuscript was a gift of the Cardinal of Ascoli.

(48) Ibid., 135–44.

(49) Canart, Codices Vaticani graeci, p. 422–6.

(50) Baldanza, “Rito del matrimonio,” 317.

(51) The introductory invocations end by asking God “That your servants, NN and NN, be blessed with a blessing of the spirit, let us pray to the Lord. That their love be preserved without hatred and without scandal, throughout their life, let us pray to the Lord. That they may be granted all that they ask towards their salvation and that they may receive the enjoyment of the eternal good things, let us pray to the Lord. That the Lord may grant them faith without shame, love without deceit, so that they and all of us may be saved from all sorrow and anger: may God have mercy on us.”

(52) Canart, Codices Vaticani graeci, 431–34.

(53) Ibid., 432, indicates that the preceding prayers are those found in Goar, Euchologion, 597–604, which is the liturgy for Pentecost.

(54) Gardthausen, Catalogus, 219.

(55) Although, according to Dmitrievskij, this is a dated codex, it does not appear in A. D. Kominis, Pinakes chronologêmenôn Patmiakôn kodikôn (Athens, 1968).

(56) A. I. Sakkelion, Katalogos tôn cheirographôn tês ethnikês bibliothêkês tês Hellados (Athens, 1892), 123.

(57) P. L. Kalaitzidis, “To hyp’ arithm. 662 cheirografo-euchologio tês Ethnikês Bibliothêkês tês Hellados,” 51, mentions the prayer for adelphopoiesis, but does not provide the text.

(58) Panagou, Hê adelphopoiêsê, 188. This manuscript is not covered in any printed catalog.

(59) Information based on Dmitrievskij. A search for this shelf mark in Eustratiades’s catalog turns up no result. S. Eustratiades, Katalogos tôn kodikôn tês megistês Lauras (Paris, 1925), 32, does, however, mention manuscript Gamma 7, of the twelfth century, which has the same number of folia as Dmitrievskji’s Laura 189. Eustratiades further notes that the prayers and rituals in this manuscript differ significantly from the printed versions.

(60) S. Parenti and E. Velkovska, “A Thirteenth-Century Manuscript of the Constantinopolitan Euchology: Grottaferrata I, Alias of Cardinal Bessarion,” Bollettino della Badia Greca di Grottaferrata 3, no. 4 (2007), 175–96, at 187, advocate a thirteenth-century date for the script of the codex and the prayers it contains.

(61) Arranz, L’eucologio costantinopolitano, 355–56.

(62) Stassi, “L’eucologio Gamma beta 1,” 127.

(63) Parenti and Velkovska, “Thirteenth-Century Manuscript of the Constantinopolitan Euchology,” prove that the association of this manuscript with Cardinal Bessarion and the Council of Florence is not attested prior to the seventeenth century.

(64) In 1901, Dmitrievskij noted that the manuscript was owned by the head of the Russian mission in Jerusalem. It must since then have been moved to St. Petersburg. Dmitrievskij’s notice may point to a Palestinian origin of the manuscript. This is confirmed by the notes kept in the National Library of Russia in St. Petersburg, according to which the manuscript was found by Kapustin in Palestine, then presented to St. Petersburg.

(65) Jacob, “Les euchologes du fonds Barberini,” 143. This codex is of very small size and the script poorly legible. The entire codex is a palimpsest.

(66) This is added in a later, more cursive hand, at the end of a quire, so that the text ends abruptly at the bottom of the folio. It is possible that these prayers are a later addition, since they are not included in the index on two paper leaves (fols. Ir–IIr) that end with a dedication by “the most humble and useless servant Franciscus ho Arkoudios” to Cardinal Franciscus Barberini.

(68) Canart, Codices Vaticani graeci, 294–7.

(69) Rocchi, Codices Cryptenses, 255–57. The text is on the bottom half of a fly-leaf.

(70) Gardthausen, Catalogus, 205. Dmitrievskij dates this codex to the thirteenth century. Baldanza, “Rito del matrimonio,” 317, identifies its content as being of “eastern origin.”

(71) The southern Italian origin of the manuscript is evident from the presence of the liturgy for the commemoration of King Roger (Robert) of Sicily (1101–1154) and his successor, King William. The manuscript is partly palimpsest, partly double-palimpsest.

(72) Gardthausen, Catalogus, 206. Dmitrievskij dates this codex to the thirteenth century.

(73) Dmitrievskij, 251, erroneously states that the prayer is found on fols. 93–96v.

(74) Gardthausen, Catalogus, 208.

(75) Dmitrievskij erroneously states that the prayers for adelphopoiesis are found on fol. 61v.

(76) This is the end of a quire, and the text of the prayer(s) is missing. The text on the next folio begins acephalous.

(77) Gardthausen, Catalogus, 213. Dmitrievskij dates this codex to the thirteenth century.

(78) Rocchi, Codices Cryptenses, 249–51. This manuscript is the euchologion Cryptoferrantense Falascae used by Goar. On its date see S. Parenti, “Per la datazione dell’ Eucologio Gamma beta III di Grottaferrata,” Segno e Testo 7 (2009), 239–43.

(79) O. A. Zaninović, “Dva latinska spomenika,” 713–24. This was unavailable to me.

(80) Eustratiades, Katalogos tôn kôdikôn, 13.

(81) Dmitrievskij, 343, states that the prayer begins on fol. 203v, but this is an error.

(82) Gardthausen, Catalogus, 213. Dmitrievskij dates this codex to the fourteenth century.

(83) Omont, Inventaire sommaire, 33.

(84) Panagou, Hê adelphopoiêsê, 190. This manuscript is not covered in any printed catalog.

(85) S. P. Lampros, Catalogue of the Greek Manuscripts on Mount Athos, vol. 1 (Cambridge, 1895), 38.

(86) S. P. Lampros, Catalogue of the Greek Manuscripts on Mount Athos, vol. 2 (Cambridge, 1900), 365, who notes that the ritual following that of adelphopoiesis, beginning on fol. 18v, is for the blessing and naming of a child on the day of his or her birth.

(87) Lampros, Catalogue, 1: 108.

(88) Ibid., 202.

(89) On the history of this collection and the difficulty of identifying manuscripts in their current location, see D. Reinsch, in P. Moraux, D. Harlfinger, D. Reinsch, J. Wiesner, Aristoteles Graecus. Die griechischen Manuskripte des Aristoteles, Peripatoi 8 (Berlin, 1976), 12–13.

(90) A. Papadopoulos-Kerameus, Hierosolymitikê Bibliothêkê êtoi katalogos tôn en tais Bibliothêkais tou agiôtatou apostolikou te kai katholikou orthodoxou patriarchikou thronou tôn Hierosolymôn kai pasês Palaistinês apokeimenôn hellenikôn cheirographôn (St. Petersburg, 1899; repr. Brussels, 1963), 4: 152, referring to folia 56r to 58r.

(91) Gardthausen, Catalogus, 208.

(92) Lampros, Catalogue, 1: 162.

(93) According to the colophon on f. 477v, dated 1516, the hieromonk Arsenios the Syrian, of the Holy Mountain of Sinai, stipulated that, after his death, this manuscript should become the possession of the monastery. The manuscript was designed for bi-lingual use in Greek and Arabic, arranged in two columns.

(94) Dmitrievskij, p. 710, erroneously states that the prayer begins on f. 277r.

(95) For a very similar text of the prayer, see Jerusalem, Metochion tou panagiou taphou 789 (no. 59) and Athens, Ethnikê Bibliothêkê 2064 (no. 61), below. I suspect that this is simply a variant of Prayer A, Ho poiêsas ton anthrôpon kat’eikona sou kai homoiôsin (“Who created man in your image and likeness”), as it continues with the same words. The scribe must have misread the nomen sacrum for anthrôpon (anon) as the nomen sacrum for ouranon (ounon) and then augmented it with the familiar formula kai tên gên, to generate the non-sensical formula Ho poiêsas ton ouranon kai tên gên kat’eikona sou kai homoiôsin (“Who made heaven and earth in your image and likeness”).

(96) Gardthausen, Catalogus, p. 211–2.

(97) Lampros, Catalogue, 2: 358.

(98) No. 789 in the catalog of Papadopoulos-Kerameus, Hierosolymitikê Bibliothêkê, vol. 5 (St. Petersburg, 1915; repr. Brussels, 1963), 278, with reference to fols. 291v–294v.

(99) An additional invocation of George, Demetrius, Theodore, perhaps reflecting that this is a ritual for three men? For a very similar text of this prayer, see Sinai, gr. 977 (no. 57) and Athens, National Library, 2064 (no. 61).

(100) Constantinides and Browning, Dated Greek Manuscripts from Cyprus, 346. The manuscript was copied on November 26, 1563 by the priest Georgios Nikephoros, son of the priest Chariton, in a village in the bishopric of Leukara in Cyprus. I have not seen the text of this prayer, which strikes me as unusually long in this manuscript.

(101) Panagou, Hê adelphopoiêsê, does not give the text of this prayer. His reference on 194, n. 407, to Goar, 707, is an error. Compare the similar formula in Sin. gr. 977 (no. 57) and Jerusalem, Metochion to panagiou taphou, 789 (no. 59).

(102) Panagou, Hê adelphopoiêsê, 193–94; L. Politês, Katalogos cheirographôn tês Ethnikês Bibliothêkês tês Hellados, ar. 1857–2500 (Athens, 1991), 104–05.

(103) Lampros, Catalogue, 2: 432.

(104) Lampros, Catalogue, 1: 40.

(105) Ibid., 1: 311.

(106) Ibid., 1: 312.

(107) According to the colophon on fol. 315r, this euchologion was bequeathed to the Monastery of Mount Sinai by the hieromonk Ioannikios, who died on September 24, 1554.

(108) Dmitrievskij’s statement that the prayers for adelphopoiesis are found on fols. 311r–313v is an error.

(109) Gardthausen, Catalogus, p. 215.

(110) Dmitrievskij, no. 103, p. 787–8, refers to Athens, National Library 94. This is an error, as I found out during a visit to the Manuscript Reading Room of the Ethnikê Bibliothêkê in Athens, November 2010. The codex that is currently labeled as number 94 is a lectionary, and does not contain an euchologion. The catalog by I. Sakkelion, Katalogos tôn cheirographôn, 153 indicates that ms. 848 formerly had the number 94. But this manuscript is equally disappointing, as it contains largely sacramental liturgies and lessons from the New Testament, and no prayers for adelphopoiesis.

(111) Cod. 568 of the Library of the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate in Jerusalem, originally part of the collection of S. Sabas, which I consulted in July 2010, does not contain these prayers.


(1) Boswell, Same-Sex Unions, 372–74 and ix–x. I have not been able to check on Boswell, 374, note 19, which refers to an article by Sreckovic who mentions two fifteenth-century manuscripts in Belgrade, Serbia.

(2) An updated list of manuscripts containing the prayers for adelphopoiesis can be found on my website at http://www.byzneo.univie.ac.at/mitarbeiter/akademisches-personal/rapp-claudia/ and on academia.edu.