Tensions between Adat (Custom) and Agama (Religion) in the Music of Lombok
This chapter provides a comprehensive look at the coming and growth of Islam, its splinter into traditionalist (here meaning nominal Muslims who embrace adat traditional customs/laws) and orthodox camps, and the accompanying evolutions in music over centuries on the island of Lombok, just east of Bali and once under the control of Balinese rajas. Central for the declining Waktu Telu (traditionalists) and rising Waktu Lima (modernist Muslims) among the Sasak population are the styles considered halal (global forms) and haram (gamelans), and the prohibitions attempted by religious leaders. The regional government has been a major player in establishing policies to preserve and guide the development of both traditional and Islamic music, and to formulate regional cultural/ethnic identity by decontextualizing traditional music, promoting its status as inoffensive cultural display and thus halal, and fostering new religious music to help modernize and nationalize a localized populace.
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