Cultural Frames of Children’s Learning Beliefs
This chapter reviews research on Western and East Asian cultural learning models as an important source of influence on children's developing learning beliefs. The Western learning model emphasizes mind-orientation (e.g., ability, exploration, and creativity) whereas the East Asian learning model stresses a virtue-orientation (e.g., diligence, persistence, and concentration). Significant gaps exist between research on cultural learning models and research on the developmental processes by which children come to hold their learning beliefs. Structural versus content commonalities (e.g., theory of mind, learning purposes, and socialization) and differences (e.g., earlier awareness of attentiveness among East Asian children) are examined to shed light on how both structural and content elements are needed for research. Specific ways to create a bridge between cultural insights and developmental research are proposed.
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