Culture, Emotion, and Expression
This chapter describes the major research findings from our program of research on culture, emotion, and expression over the past thirty years, covering both studies examining the judgment of emotional stimuli across cultures (judgment studies) as well as studies examining the production of emotional expressions across cultures (production studies). Within both sets of studies, the chapter reports aspects of emotional expressions that are panculturally universal, as well as those that are culture-specific. The chapter presents new evidence demonstrating the likely biological innateness of an archaic, evolutionarily evolved, pancultural emotion system. Considering the existence of both universal, biologically based aspects as well as culture-specific aspects of emotional expressions, the chapter presents a theoretical framework describing the cultural calibration of the biologically-innate, evolutionarily evolved system to account for universality and cultural differences.
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