This chapter deals with Nāgārjuna’s critique of the notion of causation. It first discusses the interdependence of cause and effect, followed by an analysis of the critique of the four ways of causal production: self-production, production from another object, production from itself and another object, and causeless production. A second set of arguments Nāgārjuna presents against causation deal with the possible relations between cause and effect: cause and effect being successive, overlapping or simultaneous. The chapter concludes with a brief discussion of Nāgārjuna’s thought on time.
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