Molecular Pharmacology of the Dopamine Receptors
Dopamine receptors are rhodopsin-like seven-transmembrane receptors (also called G protein-coupled receptors) that mediate the central and peripheral actions of dopamine. Dopamine receptors are most abundant in pituitary and brain, particularly in the basal forebrain, but are also found in the retina and in peripheral organs such as the kidney. Stimulation of dopamine receptors modulates natriuresis in the kidney, as well as cell division and hormone synthesis and secretion in the pituitary. Brain dopamine receptors regulate movement and locomotion, motivation, and working memory. Five subtypes of mammalian dopamine receptors have been identified that are divided into D1-like (D1, D5) or D2-like (D2, D3, D4) subgroups. The D1-like receptors couple primarily to the Gs family of G proteins (Gs and Golf), whereas the D2-like receptors couple primarily to the Gi/o family. This chapter discusses the molecular pharmacology of the five dopamine receptor subtypes.
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