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Dopamine Handbook$
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Leslie Iversen, Susan Iversen, Stephen Dunnett, and Anders Bjorklund

Print publication date: 2009

Print ISBN-13: 9780195373035

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: February 2010

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195373035.001.0001

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Progression of Parkinson’s Disease Revealed by Imaging Studies

Progression of Parkinson’s Disease Revealed by Imaging Studies

Chapter:
(p.445) 9.3 Progression of Parkinson’s Disease Revealed by Imaging Studies
Source:
Dopamine Handbook
Author(s):

David J. Brooks

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195373035.003.0031

This chapter discusses imaging studies of Parkinson's disease (PD). Imaging dopaminergic function with positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon computed emission tomography (SPECT) or changes in the expression of a PD-related profile (PDRP) with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET currently remain the best biomarkers for monitoring disease progression. These measurements correlate significantly with clinical disability in PD and are able to detect preclinical dysfunction. However, the modalities cannot be regarded as surrogate markers as they do not correlate well with clinical outcome in practice, and may well be directly influenced by medication changes. While structural changes in PD substantia nigra can be detected with transcranial sonograpy (TCS), the associated hyperechogenicity does not appear to alter as patients clinically deteriorate. Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is valuable for detecting progressive brain atrophy in PD patients who developed later dementia, but currently is unable to detect nigral volume changes.

Keywords:   Parkinson's disease, transcranial sonography, brain imaging, positron emission tomography, magnetic resonrance imaging

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