Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
The Ethics of Total ConfinementA Critique of Madness, Citizenship, and Social Justice$

Bruce A. Arrigo, Heather Y. Bersot, and Brian G. Sellers

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780195372212

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195372212.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.oxfordscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2017. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy). Subscriber: null; date: 16 January 2017

(p.260) References

(p.260) References

The Ethics of Total Confinement
Oxford University Press

Bibliography references:

Abrams, L. S., Umbreit, M., & Gordon, A. (2006). Young offenders speak about meeting their victims: Implications for future programs. Contemporary Justice Review, 9(3), 243–256.

Abramsky, S., & Fellner, J. (1999). Ill-equipped: U.S. prisons and offenders with mental illness. New York, NY: Human Rights Watch.

Ackers, T., & Lanier, M. M. (2009). Epidemiological criminology: Coming full circle. Journal of Public Health, 99(3), 397–402.

Acorn, A. E. (2005). Compulsory compassion: A critique of restorative justice. Vancouver, Canada: University of British Columbia.

Adorno, T. (1973). Negative dialectics. New York, NY: Continuum International Publishing Group.

Alaska Department of Public Safety. Sex offender/Child kidnapper registration central registry. Retrieved from http://www.dps.state.ak.us/Sorweb/sorweb.aspx.

Albanese, J. S. (2006). Professional ethics in criminal justice: Being ethical when no one is looking. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

Alexander, M. A. (1999). Sexual offender treatment efficacy revisited. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 11, 101–116.

Allard, P., & Young, M. C. (2002). Prosecuting juveniles in adult court: The practitioner’s perspective. Journal of Forensic Psychology Practice, 2(2), 65–78.

American Psychological Association. (2003). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/ethics/code2002.html.

Andreas, P. (2009). Border games: Policing the U.S.–Mexico divide. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

(p.261) Appelbaum, P. S. (1994). Almost a revolution: Mental health law and the limits of change. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Appelbaum, P. S. (2008). Sex offenders in the community: Are current approaches counterproductive? Psychiatric Services, 59, 325–354.

Aristotle. (1976). Ethics. (J. A. K. Thomson, Trans.). New York, NY: Penguin.

Aristotle. (1998). Nicomachean ethics. London, UK: Dover.

Aristotle. (2000). Nicomachean ethics. (R. Crisp, Trans.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press (Original work composed 4th Century, B.C.E).

Aristotle. (2007). On rhetoric: A theory of civic discourse (G.A. Kennedy, Trans.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press (Original work composed 4th Century B.C.E).

Arrigo, B. A. (1993). Madness, language, and law. Albany, NY: Harrow and Heston.

Arrigo, B. A. (1999). Martial metaphors and medical justice: Implications for law, crime and deviance. Journal of Political and Military Sociology, 27, 307–322.

Arrigo, B. A. (2001). Reviewing graduate training models in forensic psychology: Implications for practice. Journal of Forensic Psychology Practice, 1(1), 9–31.

Arrigo, B. A. (2002a). Punishing the mentally ill: A critical analysis of law and psychiatry. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.

Arrigo, B. A. (2002b). The critical perspective in psychological jurisprudence: Theoretical advances and epistemological assumptions. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 25(1), 151–172.

Arrigo, B. A. (2003a). Psychology and the law: The critical agenda for citizen justice and radical social change. Justice Quarterly, 20(2), 399–444.

Arrigo, B. A. (2003b). Justice and the deconstruction of psychological jurisprudence: The case of competency to stand trial. Theoretical Criminology, 7(1), 55–88.

Arrigo, B. A. (Ed). (2004a). Psychological jurisprudence: Critical explorations in law, crime, and society. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.

Arrigo, B. A. (2004b). The ethics of therapeutic jurisprudence: A critical and theoretical inquiry of law, psychology, and crime. Psychiatry, Psychology, and Law: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 11(1), 23–43.

Arrigo, B. A. (2007). Punishment, freedom, and the culture of control: The case of brain imaging and the law. American Journal of Law and Medicine, 33(3), 457–482.

Arrigo, B. A. (2010a). Identity, international terrorism, and negotiating peace: Hamas and ethics-based considerations from critical restorative justice. British Journal of Criminology, 50(4), 772–790.

Arrigo, B. A. (2010b). De/reconstructing psychological jurisprudence: Strategies of resistance and struggles for justice. International Journal of Law in Context, 6(4): 363–396).

Arrigo, B. A. (in press). Madness, citizenship, and social justice: On the ethics of the shadow and the ultramodern. Law and Literature, 23(2).

Arrigo, B. A., & Bullock, J. L. (2008). The psychological effects of solitary confinement on prisoners in supermax units: Reviewing what we know and recommending what should change. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 52(6), 622–640.

Arrigo, B. A., & Fox, D. (2009). Psychology and law: The crime of policy and the search for justice. In D. Fox, I. Prilleltensky, & S. Austin (Eds.), Critical psychology: An introduction (2nd ed.) (pp. 159–175). London, UK: Sage.

(p.262) Arrigo, B. A., & Milovanovic, D. (2009). Revolution in penology: Rethinking the society of captives. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Arrigo, B. A., & Milovanovic, D. (2010). Introduction: Postmodern and post-structural criminology. In B. A. Arrigo & D. Milovanovic (Eds.). Postmodernist and post-structuralist theories of crime (pp. xi–xxiv). Farnham, Surrey, UK: Ashgate Publishing.

Arrigo, B. A., & Schehr, R. C. (1998). Restoring justice for juveniles: A critical analysis of victim-offender mediation. Justice Quarterly, 15(4), 629–665.

Arrigo, B. A., & Shipley, S. (2001). The confusion over psychopathy (I): Historical considerations. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 45, 325–343.

Arrigo, B. A., & Shipley, S. L. (2005). Introduction to forensic psychology: Issues and controversies in law, law enforcement, and corrections (2nd ed.). Burlington, MA: Elsevier Academic Press.

Baerger, D. R., Griffin, E. F., Lyons, J. S., & Simmons, R. (2003). Competency to stand trial in preadjudicated and petitioned juvenile defendants. The Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 31, 314–320.

Baillargeon, J., Binswanger, I. A., Penn, J. V., Williams, B. A., & Murray, O. J. (2009). Psychiatric disorders and repeat incarcerations: The revolving prison door. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 166, 103–109.

Baldwin, G. (2004). CDPS v. Doe: The Supreme Court’s clarification of whether sex offender registration and notification laws violate convicted sex offenders’ right to procedural due process. Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary, 24, 383–398.

Banks, C. (2008). Criminal justice ethics: Theory and practice (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Bankowski, Z., & Mungham, G. (1976). Images of law. London, UK: Routledge.

Barbaree, H. E., & Marshall, W. L. (Eds.) (2006). The juvenile sex offender (2nd ed.). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

Barcalow, E. (1998). Moral philosophy: Theories and issues. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Bardwell, M. C., & Arrigo, B. A. (2002a). Competency to stand trial: A law, psychology, and policy assessment. The Journal of Psychiatry & Law, 30, 147–269.

Bardwell, M. C., & Arrigo, B. A. (2002b). Criminal competency on trial: The case of Colin Ferguson. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press.

Barvir, A. (2008). When hysteria and good intentions collide: Constitutional considerations of California’s Sexual Predator Punishment and Control Act. Whittier Law Review, 29, 679–706.

Baudrillard, J. (1972). For a critique of the political economy of the sign. St Louis, MO: Telos Press.

Baudrillard, J. (1976). L’exchange symbolique et la mort. Paris, France: Gallimard.

Baudrillard, J. (1983a). Simulations. New York, NY: Semiotext(e).

Baudrillard, J. (1983b). In the shadow of the silent majorities. New York, NY: Semiotext(e).

Bayley, D. H. (2001). Security and justice for all. In H. Strang, & J. Braithwaite, (Eds.) Restorative justice and civil society (pp. 211–221). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

(p.263) Bazemore, G., & Boba, R. (2007). Doing good to make good: Community theory for practice in a restorative justice civic engagement reentry model. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 46(1/2): 25–56.

Beck, U. (1992). Risk society: Towards a new modernity. London, UK: Sage.

Beck, U. (2009). World at risk. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.

Bell, S. (2004). The aftermath of the Lionel Tate Case: Tate v. State: Highlighting the need for a mandatory competency hearing. Nova Law Review. 28 Nova L. Rev. 575.

Bentham, J., & Mill, J. S. (1973). The utilitarians. New York, NY: Anchor Press (Original work published 1789).

Bernstein, E., & Gilligan, C. (1990). Unfairness and not listening: Converging themes in Emma Willard girls’ development. In C. Gilligan, N. P. Lyons, & T. J. Hanmer (Eds.), Making connections: The relational worlds of adolescent girls at Emma Willard School (pp. 147–161). Cambridge, MA and London, UK: Harvard University Press.

Bersot, H. Y., & Arrigo, B. A. (2010). Inmate mental health, solitary confinement, and cruel and unusual punishment: An ethical and justice policy inquiry. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Criminology, 2(3), 1–82.

Bersot, H. Y., & Arrigo, B. A. (2011). The ethics of mechanical restraints in prisons and jails: A preliminary inquiry from psychological jurisprudence. Journal of Forensic Psychology Practice Special Double Issue, 11(2–3), 232–265.

Bielefeldt, H. (2003). Symbolic representation in Kant’s practical philosophy. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Birgden, A. (2004). Therapeutic jurisprudence and sex offenders: A psycho-legal approach to protection. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 16(4), 351–364.

Birgden, A. (2007). Serious Sex Offenders Monitoring Act 2005 (Vic): A therapeutic jurisprudence analysis. Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, 14(1), 78–95.

Bishop, D., & Frazier, C. (2000). Consequences of transfer. In J. Fagan, & F. E. Zimring. (Eds.). The changing borders of juvenile justice (pp. 227–276). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Bogard, W. (1996). The simulation of surveillance: Hypercontrol in telematic society. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.

Boldt, R., & Singer, J. (2006). Juristocracy in the trenches: Problem-solving judges and therapeutic jurisprudence in drug treatment courts and unified family courts. Maryland Law Review, 65(1), 82–99.

Bonner, R., & Vandecreek, L. D. (2006). Ethical decision making for correctional mental health providers. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 33(4), 542–564.

Bonnie, R. (1992). The competence of criminal defendants: A theoretical reformulation. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 10, 291–316.

Bonnie, R., & Grisso, T. (2000). Adjudicative competence and youthful offenders. In T. Grisso & R. Swartz (Eds.), Youth on Trial (pp. 73–103). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Bonta, J., & Gendreau, P. (1995). Reexamining the cruel and unusual punishment of prison life. Law and Human Behavior, 14(4), 347–372.

Braithwaite, J. (1989). Crime, shame and reintegration. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

(p.264) Braithwaite, J. (2002). Restorative justice and therapeutic jurisprudence. Criminal Law Bulletin, 38(2), 244–262.

Braithwaite, J. (2006). Doing justice intelligently in civil society. Journal of Social Issues, 62(2), 393–409.

Braswell, M., Fuller, J., & Lozoff, B. (2001). Corrections, peacemaking, and restorative justice: Transforming individuals and institutions. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing Co.

Briggs, C., Sundt, J., & Castellano, T. (2003). The effect of supermaximum security prisons on aggregate levels of institutional violence. Criminology, 41(4), 1341–1376.

Brink, D. O. (2004). Immaturity, normative competence, and juvenile transfer: How (not) to punish minors for major crimes. Texas Law Review, 82, 1555–1585.

Brown, R. B., & Brown, S. J. (2003). Statutory interpretation: The search for legislative intent. Washington, DC: National Institute for Trial Advocacy.

Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2000). Sexual assault of young children as reported to law enforcement: Victim, incident, and offender characteristics. No. NCJ 182990. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.

Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2005). National crime victimization survey, 2004. No. NCJ 210647. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.

Butler, J. (1992). Contingent foundations: Feminism and the question of postmodernism. In J. Butler & J. W. Scott (Eds.), Feminists theorize the political (pp. 3–21). London, UK: Routledge.

Cahn, S. M. (2009). Exploring ethics: An introductory anthology. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Capeheart, L., & Milovanovic, D. (2007). Social justice: Theories, issues and movement. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Carson, D. (2003). Therapeutic jurisprudence and adversarial injustice: Questioning limits. Western Criminology Review, 4(2), 124–133.

Catalano, S. (2005). National Crime Victimization Survey: Criminal victimization, 2004. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics.

Chan, H. C., & Heide, K. M. (2009). Sexual homicide: A synthesis of literature. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 10(1), 31–54.

Chappell, T. (Ed.). (2006). Values and virtues: Aristotelianism in contemporary ethics. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Christie, N. (1981). Limits to pain. Oxford, UK: Martin Robertson & Co.

Cicourel, A. V. (1981). Notes on the integration of micro- and macro-levels of analysis. In K. D. Knorr-Cetina & A. V. Cicourel (Eds.), Advances in social theory: Towards an integration of micro- and macro-Sociologies (pp. 51–80). London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Cohen, F. (2008). Penal isolation: Beyond the seriously mentally ill. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 53(8), 1017–1047.

Coker, D. (2006). Restorative justice, Navajo peacemaking, and domestic violence.” Theoretical Criminology, 10(1), 67–85.

Conrad, C. S. (1998). Jury nullification: The evolution of a doctrine. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press.

Corlett, J. A. (2008). Responsibility and punishment (3rd ed.). The Netherlands: Springer.

Corriero, M. A. (2006). Judging children as children: A proposal for a juvenile justice system. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.

(p.265) Darley, J., Fulero, S., Haney, C., & Tyler, T. (2002). Psychological jurisprudence: Taking psychology and law into the twenty-first century. In J. R. P. Ogloff (Ed.), Taking psychology and law into the twenty-first century, (pp. 35–59). New York, NY: Springer.

Dawson, R. O. (2000). Judicial waiver in theory and practice. In J. Fagan, & F. E. Zimring. (Eds.) The changing borders of juvenile justice. (pp. 45–81). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Delanty, G. (2006). The cosmopolitan imagination: Critical cosmopolitanism and social theory. British Journal of Sociology, 57(1), 25–47.

Delanty, G. (2009). The cosmopolitan imagination: The renewal of critical social theory. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Deleuze, G., & Guattari, F. (1984). Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism and schizophrenia. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.

Deleuze, G., & Guattari, F. (1987). A thousand plateaus: Capitalism and schizophrenia. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.

Deming, A. (2006). Sex offender civil commitment program demographics and characteristics. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers, Chicago, IL.

Deming, A. (2008). Sex offender civil commitment programs: Current practices, characteristics, and resident demographics. Journal of Psychiatry & Law, 36(3), 439–461.

Derrida, J. (1973) Speech and other phenomena. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.

Derrida, J. (1977). Of grammatology. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Derrida, J. (1978). Writing and difference. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Dignan, J., & Marsh, P. (2001). Restorative justice and family group conferences in England: Current state and future prospects. In G. Maxwell & A. Morris (Eds.), Restorative justice for juveniles (pp. 85–101). Oxford, UK: Hart Publishing.

Doren, D. M. (2002). Evaluating sex offenders: A manual for civil commitments and beyond. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Douard, J. (2007). Loathing the sinner, medicalizing the sin: Why sexually violent predator statutes are unjust. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 30, 36–48.

Dreisbach, C. (2008). Ethics in criminal justice. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Irwin.

Durose, M. R., Langan, P. A., & Schmitt, E. L. (2003). Recidivism of sex offenders released from prison in 1994. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics.

Duwe, G., & Goldman, R. A. (2009). The impact of prison-based treatment on sex offender recidivism: Evidence from Minnesota. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 21(3), 270–307.

Dyer-Witherford, N. (1999). Cyber-Marx. Chicago, IL: University of Illinois Press.

Easterbrook, F. H. (1994). Text, history, and structure in statutory interpretation. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 17(1), 61–70.

Ecclestone, C. E. J., Gendreau, P., & Knox, C. (1974). Solitary confinement of prisoners: An assessment of its effects on offenders’ personal constructs and andrenocortical activity. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 6, 178–191.

Edwards, R. G. (2009). Profiling the sexually violent predator: An examination of the current literature regarding candidacy for surgical castration. Mind Matters: The Wesleyan Journal of Psychology, 4, 17–26.

(p.266) Edwards, W., & Hensley, C. (2001). Contextualizing sex offender management legislation and policy: Evaluating the problem of latent consequences in community notification laws. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 45(1), 83–101.

Eldridge, K. (2009). Remembering “Little Tacoma Boy,” 20 years later. Retrieved from www.komonews.com/news/45571582.

Elsner, A. (2004). Gates of injustice: The crisis in America’s prisons. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Fabian, J. M. (2003). Kansas v. Hendricks, Crane and beyond: “Mental abnormality,” and “sexual dangerousness:” Volitional vs. emotional abnormality and the debate between community safety and civil liberties. William Mitchell Law Review, 29, 1367–1373.

Fabian, J. M. (2009). To catch a predator, and then commit him for life: Analyzing the Adam Walsh Act’s Civil Commitment Scheme under 18 U.S.C. § 4248. Retrieved from http://www.criminaljustice.org/public.nsf/01c1e7698280d20385256d0b00789923/7d37f12e9ce73ac1852575860069b99b?OpenDocument.

Fagan, J., & Zimring, F. E. (Eds.). (2000). The changing borders of juvenile justice: Transfer of adolescents to the criminal court. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.

Failer, J. L. (2002). Who qualifies for rights: Homelessness, mental illness, and civil commitment. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Farrelly, C., & Solum, L. B. (Eds.). (2008). Virtue jurisprudence. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

Federal Bureau of Prisons Guidelines. (2008). Washington, DC: Federal Bureau of Prisons.

Feld, B. C. (2001). Race, youth violence, and the changing jurisprudence of waiver. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 19, 3–22.

Feld, B. C. (2003). Competence, culpability, and punishment: Implications of Atkins for executing and sentencing adolescents. Hofstra Law Review, 32(1), 463–552.

Feld, B. C. (2004). Juvenile transfer. Criminology & Public Policy, 3(4), 599–603.

Fellner, J. (2006). A corrections quandary: Mental illness and prison rules. Harvard Civil Rights & Civil Liberties Law Review, 41(2), 391–415.

Finkel, N. J. (1995). Commonsense justice: Jurors’ notions of the law. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Finkel, N. (1996). Culpability and commonsense justice: Lessons learned betwixt murder and madness. Notre Dame Journal of Law, Ethics & Public Policy, x(1), 11–64.

Finkel, N. J. (1997). Commonsense justice, psychology, and the law: Prototypes that are common, sensible, and not. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 3(2/3), 461–489.

Finkel, N. (2000a). Commonsense justice and jury instructions: Instructive and reciprocating connections. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 6(3), 591–628.

Finkel, N. (2000b). Is justice just us? A symposium on the use of social science to inform the substantive criminal law: Commonsense justice, culpability, and punishment. Hofstra Law Review, 28, 669–705.

Finkel, N., Harre, R., & Lopez, J. R. (2001). Commonsense morality across cultures: Notions of fairness, justice, honor and equity. Discourse Studies, 3(1), 5–27.

(p.267) Finkelhor, D., & Dziuba-Leatherman, J. (1994). Children as victims of violence: A national survey. Pediatrics, 94, 413–420.

Fortney, T., Levenson, J., Brannon, Y., & Baker, J. N. (2007). Myths and facts about sexual offenders: Implications for treatment and public policy. Sex Offender Treatment, 2(1), 1–17.

Foucault, M. (1965). Madness and civilization: A history of insanity in the age of reason. New York, NY: Vintage.

Foucault, M. (1972). The archaeology of knowledge. New York, NY: Pantheon.

Foucault, M. (1977). Discipline and punish: The birth of a prison. New York, NY: Pantheon.

Foucault, M. (1980). Power/knowledge: Selected interviews and other writings, 1972–1977. London, UK: Harvester.

Foucault, M. (2003). Abnormal: Lectures at the College de France, 1974-1975. (V. Marchetti, & A. Salomoni, Trans.). New York, NY: Picador.

Fox, D. R. (1993). Psychological jurisprudence and radical social change. American Psychologist, 48, 234–241.

Fox, D. R. (2001). A critical-psychology approach to law’s legitimacy. Legal Studies Forum, 25, 519–538.

Freeman, N., & Sandler, J. (2009). The Adam Walsh Act: A false sense of security of an effective public policy initiative? Criminal Justice Policy Review, 26, 12–23.

Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York, NY: Continuum International Publishing Group.

Frierson, R. L., Dwyer, R. G., Bell, C. C., & Williamson, J. L. (2008). The mandatory registration of juvenile sex offenders and commitment of juveniles as sexually violent predators: Controversies and recommendations. In L. T. Flaherty (Ed.), Adolescent psychiatry (Vol. 30) (pp. 55–61). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis Group.

Fromm, E. (1994). Escape from freedom. New York, NY: Henry Holt & Company (originally published in 1941).

Gagliardi, G., Lovell, D., Peterson, P., & Jemelka, R. (2004). Forecasting recidivism in mentally ill offenders released from prison. Law & Human Behavior, 28(2), 133–155.

Gainey, R. R., Payne, B. K., & O’Toole, M. (2000). The relationship between time in jail, time on electronic monitoring, and recidivism: An event history analysis of a jail-based program. Justice Quarterly, 17, 733–752.

Gallagher, C. A., Wilson, D. B., Hirschfield, P., Coggeshall, M. B., & Mackenzie, D. L. (1999). A quantitative review of the effects of sex offender treatment on recidivism. Corrections Management Quarterly, 3, 19–29.

Garfinkel, H. (1956). Conditions of successful degradation ceremonies. American Journal of Sociology, 61, 420–424.

Gendreau, P., & Bonta, J. (1984). Solitary confinement is not cruel and unusual punishment: People sometimes are! Canadian Journal of Criminology, 26, 467–478.

Gendreau, P., Freedman, N. L., Wilde, J. S., & Scott, G. D. (1972). Changes in EEG alpha frequency and evoked response latency during solitary confinement. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 79(1), 54–59.

Gido, R. L., & Dalley, L. (Eds.). (2009). The mental health issue of women across the criminal justice system. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

(p.268) Gilligan, C. (1982). In a different voice: Psychological theory and women’s development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Gilligan, C., Lyons, N. P., & Hanmer, T. J. (1990). Making connections: The relational worlds of adolescent girls at Emma Willard School (pp. 147–161). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Gladwell, M. (2005). Blink: The power of thinking without thinking. New York, NY: Little, Brown and Company.

Glaser, B. (2003). Therapeutic jurisprudence: An ethical paradigm for therapists in sex offender treatment programs. Western Criminology Review, 4(2), 143–154.

Goffman, E. (1961). Asylums: Essays on the social situation of mental patients and other inmates. Garden City, NY: Anchor Books.

Gordon, B. (2005). Neuroscience and the law: Brain, mind, and the scales of justice. Chevy Chase, MD: The Dana Foundation.

Grady, M. D., & Brodersen, M. (2009). In their voices: Perspectives of incarcerated sex offenders on their treatment experiences. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 15(4), 320–345.

Grassian, S. (1983). Psychopathological effects of solitary confinement. American Journal of Psychiatry, 140(11), 1450–1454.

Gray, F. C. (1973). Prison discipline in America. Montclair, NJ: Patterson Smith. (Original work published 1847).

Grisso, T. (2000). Forensic clinical evaluations related to waiver of jurisdiction. In J. Fagan & F. E. Zimring (Eds.), The changing borders of juvenile justice (pp. 321–352). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Grisso, T. (2003). Evaluating competencies: forensic assessments and instruments (2nd ed). New York, NY: Plenum Publishers.

Grisso, T., Steinberg, L., Woolard, J., Cauffman, E., Scott, E., Graham, S., Lexcen, F., Ruppucci, N. D., & Schwartz, R. (2003). Juveniles’ competence to stand trial: A comparison of adolescents’ and adults’ capacities as trial defendants. Law and Human Behavior, 27(4), 333–363.

Grisso, T., (2006). Adolescents’ decision making: A developmental perspective on constitutional provisions in delinquency cases. New England Journal on Criminal and Civil Confinement, 32, 3–14.

Grisso, T., & Schwartz, R. G. (Eds.). (2000). Youth on trial: A developmental perspective on juvenile justice. Chicago, IL, and London, UK: University of Chicago Press.

Habermas, J. (1975). Legitimation crises. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.

Habermas, J. (1984). The theory of communicative action. Vol. 1: Reason and the rationalization of society. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.

Hall, M. A., & Wright, R. F. (2008). Systematic content analysis of judicial opinions. California Law Review, 96, 63–122.

Hampton, J. (2001). Mens Rea. In P. Leighton, & J. Reiman, (Eds.), Criminal Justice Ethics (pp. 50–72). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Hancock, B. W., & Sharp, P. M. (2004). Public policy, crime, and criminal justice. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Haney, C. (2003). Mental health issues in long-term solitary and “supermax” confinement. Crime & Delinquency, 49(1), 124–156.

Haney, C. (2009). The social psychology of isolation: Why solitary confinement is psychologically harmful. Prison Service Journal, 181(1), 12–20.

(p.269) Haney, C., & Lynch, M. (1997). Regulating prisons of the future: A psychological analysis of supermax and solitary confinement. New York University Review of Law and Social Change, 23, 477–570.

Hanson, R. K., (2005). The validity of Static-99 with older sex offenders. Retrieved from www.sppc-psepc.gc.ca/publictions/Corrections/20050630.

Hanson, R. K., Gordon, A., Harris, A. J. R., Marques, J. K., Murphy, W. D., & Quinsey, V. L. (2002). First report on the collaborative outcome data project on the effectiveness of psychological treatment for sex offenders. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 14, 169–194.

Hanson, R. K. & Morton-Bourgon, K. E. (2005). The characteristics of persistent sex offenders: A meta-analysis of recidivism studies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73(6), 1154–1163.

Hardt, M., & Negri, A. (1994). Labor of Dionysus. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.

Hardt, M., & Negri, A. (2004). Multitude: War and democracy in the age of empire. New York, NY: Penguin Press.

Harris, A. J. R., & Hanson, R. K. (2004). Sex offender recidivism: A simple question. Ottawa, Canada: Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness (No. 2204–03).

Harvard Law Review. (2008). The impact of the prison litigation reform act on correctional mental health litigation. Harvard Law Review, 121, 1145–1155.

Henriques, Z. W. (2001). The path of least resistance: Sexual exploitation of female offenders as an unethical corollary to retributive ideology and correctional practice. In J. Kleinig & M. L. Smith, (Eds.), Discretion, community, and correctional ethics (pp. 193–201). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Henry, S., & Milovanovic, D. (1996). Constitutive criminology: Beyond postmodernism. London, UK: Sage.

Hildebrand, M., de Ruiter, C., & de Voger, V. (2004). Psychopathy and sexual deviance in treated rapists: Association with sexual and nonsexual recidivism. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 16, 1–24.

Hobbes, T. (1996). Leviathan (R. Tuck, Ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press (Original work published 1651).

Holsti, O. R. (1969). Content analysis for the social sciences and humanities. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.

Hudson, B. (2003). Justice and the risk society: Challenging and reaffirming “justice” in late modernity. London, UK: Sage.

Huigens, K. (1995). Virtue and inculpation. Harvard Law Review, 108(7), 1423–1480.

Hurley, M. H. (2009). Restorative practices in institutional settings and at release: Victim wrap around programs. Federal Probation, 73(1), 16–22.

Huss, M. T., Tomkins, A. J., Garbin, C. P., Schopp, R., & Killian, A. (2006). Battered women who kill their abusers: An evaluation of commonsense notions, cognitions, and judgments. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 21(8), 1063–1080.

Jackson, R. L., & Hess, D. T. (2007). Evaluation of civil commitment of sex offenders: A survey of experts. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 19(4), 425–448.

Jacob Wetterling Resource Center. (2010). Retrieved from www.jwrc.org.

James, D., & Glaze, L. (2006). Mental health problems of prison and jail inmates. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, NCJ-195670.

(p.270) Janus, E. S. (2004). Closing Pandora’s box: Sexual predators and the politics of sexual violence. Seton Hall Law Review, 34(4), 1233–1253.

Janus, E. S. (2006). Failure to protect: America’s sexual predator laws and the rise of the preventive state. Ithaca, NY, and London, UK: Cornell University Press.

Janus, E. S., & Bolin, B. (2008). An end-game for sexually violent predator laws: As-applied invalidation. Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law, 6(25), 24–49.

Janus, E. S., & Logan, W. A. (2003). Substantive due process and the involuntary confinement of sexually violent predators. Connecticut Law Review, 35, 341–342.

Janus, E. S., & Prentky, R. (2003). Forensic use of actuarial risk assessment with sex offenders: Accuracy and accountability. American Criminal Law Review, 40, 1443–1499.

Johnson, R. (2002). Hard time (3rd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Kant, I. (2002). Groundwork for the metaphysics of morals. In T. E. Hill, Jr. & A. Zweig, (Eds.). (A. Zweig, Trans.) Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press (Original work published 1785).

Karp, D. R., & Clear, T. (2002). The community justice frontier: An introduction. In D. Karp & T. Clear (Eds.), What is community justice? (pp. ix–xvi). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Karp, D. R., Sweet, M., Kirshenbaum, A. & Bazemore, G. (2004). Reluctant participants in restorative justice? Youthful offenders and their parents. Contemporary Justice Review, 7(2), 199–216.

Katner, D. R. (2006). The mental health paradigm and the MacArthur study: Emerging issues challenging the competence of juveniles in delinquency systems. American Journal of Law & Medicine. 32(4), 503–583.

Kilty, J. M. (2006). Under the barred umbrella: Is there room for a women-centered self-injury policy in Canadian corrections? Criminology & Public Policy, 5(1), 161–182.

King, K., Steiner, B., & Breach, S. R. (2008). Violence in the supermax: A self-fulfilling prophecy. The Prison Journal, 88(1), 144–168.

KlaasKids Foundation. (2004). Megan’s Law by state. Retrieved from www.klaaskids.org/pg-legmeg.htm.

Kleinig, J., & Smith, M. L. (2001). Discretion, community, and correctional ethics. New York, NY: Rowman & Littlefield.

Knorr-Cetina, K. D. (1981). Introduction: The micro-sociological challenge of macro-sociology: Towards a reconstruction of social and methodology. In K. D. Knorr-Cetina & A.V. Cicourel (Eds.), Advances in social theory and methodology: Towards an integration of macro- and micro-sociologies (pp. 1–47). London, UK: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Kupchik, A. (2006). Judging juveniles: Prosecuting adolescents in adult and juvenile courts. New York, NY, and London, UK: New York University Press.

Kupers, T. (1999). Prison madness: The mental health crisis behind bars and what we must do about it. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Kupers, T. (2008). What to do with survivors? Coping with the long-term effects of isolated confinement. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 35(8), 1005–1016.

Kurki, L., & Morris, N. (2001). Supermax prisons. In M. H. Tonry (Ed.), Crime and justice: A review of the research (pp. 385–424). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Kurlychek, M. C., & Johnson, B. D. (2004). The juvenile penalty: A comparison of juvenile and young adult sentencing outcomes in criminal court. Criminology, 42(2), 485–517.

(p.271) Lacan, J. (1977). Ecrits: A selection. New York, NY: W. W. Norton.

Lacan, J. (1981). The four fundamental concepts of psychoanalysis. New York, NY: W. W. Norton.

Lacan, J. (1985). Feminine sexuality. New York, NY: W. W. Norton.

LaCombe, D. (2008). Consumed with sex: The treatment of sex offenders in risk society. British Journal of Criminology, 48, 55–74.

LaFond, J. Q. (2005). Preventing sexual violence: How society should cope with sex offenders. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

LaFond, J. Q. (2008). Sexually violent predator laws and the liberal state: An ominous threat to individual liberty. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 31, 158–171.

Lamb, H. R., & Weinberger, L. E. (1998). Persons with severe mental illness in jails and prisons: A review. Psychiatric Services, 49(4), 483–492.

Lanier, M. M. (2010). Epidemiological criminology (EpiCrim): Definition and application. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Criminology, 2(1), 63–103.

Lave, T., & McCrary, J. (2009). Assessing the crime impact of sexually violent predator laws. CELS 2009 4th Annual Conference on Empirical Legal Studies Paper. Retrieved from http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1443718.

Leighton, P., & Reiman, J. (2001). Criminal justice ethics. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Letourneau, E. J., & Borduin, C. M. (2008). The effective treatment of juveniles who sexually offend: An ethical imperative. Ethics & Behavior, 18(2–3), 286–306.

Levenson, J. S. (2004). Reliability of sexually violent predator civil commitment criteria in Florida. Law and Human Behavior, 28(4), 357–368.

Levenson, J. S. (2003). Factors predicting recommendations for civil commitment of sexually violent predators under Florida’s Jimmy Ryce Act. Dissertation Abstracts International, 64(3). (UMI No. AAT3085817).

Levenson, J. S., & Cotter, L. P. (2005). The impact of sex offender residency restrictions: 1,000 feet from danger or one step from absurd? International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 49, 168–174.

Levenson, J. S., & Morin, J. W. (2004). Factors predicting selection of sexual offenders for civil commitment. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 50(6), 609–629.

Levinas, E. (1987). Time and the other. Pittsburgh, PA: Duquesne University Press.

Levinas, E. (2004). Otherwise than being. Pittsburgh, PA: Duquesne University Press.

Levine, M. (2000). The family group conference in the New Zealand children, young persons, and their families act of 1989 (CYP&F): review and evaluation. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 18, 517–556.

Lieb, R. (1996). Community notification laws: A step toward more effective solutions. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 11(2), 298–300.

Lippke, R. L. (2004). Against supermax. Journal of Applied Philosophy, 21(2), 109–124.

Lobel, J. (2008). Prolonged solitary confinement and the Constitution. Journal of Constitutional Law, 11(1), 115–138.

Logan, W. A. (2006). Constitutional collectivism and ex-offender residence exclusion zones. Iowa Law Review, 92, 1–41.

(p.272) Losel, F., & Schmucker, M. (2005). The effectiveness of treatment for sex offenders: A comprehensive meta-analysis. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 1, 117–146.

Lovell, D. (2008). Patterns of disturbed behavior in a supermax population. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 35(8), 985–1004.

Lovell, D., Cloyes, K., Allen, D., & Rhodes, L. (2000). Who lives in super-maximum custody? A Washington State study. Federal Probation, 64(2), 33–38.

Lovell, D., Johnson, L. C., & Cain, K. C. (2007). Recidivism of supermax prisoners in Washington State. Crime & Delinquency, 53(4), 633–656.

Louw, D., Strydom, C., & Esterhuyse, K. (2005). Prediction of violent behavior: Professionals’ appraisals. Criminal Justice, 5(4), 379–406.

Lynd, H. M. (1958). On shame and the search for identity. London, UK: Routledge.

Lyon, D. (Ed.) (2006). Theorizing surveillance: The panoptic and beyond. Cullompton, Devon, UK: Willan Press.

MacIntyre, A. (2007). After virtue: A study in moral theory (3rd ed.). Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.

MacKenzie, D. L. (2006). What works in corrections: Reducing the criminal activities of offenders and delinquents. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.

McCold, P. (2004). Paradigm muddle: The threat to restorative justice posed by its merger with community justice.” Contemporary Justice Review, 7(1), 13–35.

McConville, B., & Kelly, D. C. (2007). Cruel and unusual? Defining the conditions of confinement in the mentally ill. The Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 35(4), 533–534.

McDonald, D. L. (2004). Smith v. Doe: Judicial deference towards the legislative intent behind a broad, punitive civil law betrays the core principles of the ex post facto clause. Maryland Law Review, 63, 369–400.

McGarrell, E. F. (2001). Restorative justice conferences as an early response to young offenders. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

McGarrell, E. F., & Hipple, N. K. (2007). Family group conferencing and re-offending among first-time juvenile offenders: The Indianapolis Experiment. Justice Quarterly, 24(2), 221–246.

McGarrell, E. F., Olivares, K., Crawford, K., & Kroovand, N. (2000). Returning justice to the community: the Indianapolis juvenile restorative justice experiment. Indianapolis, IN: Hudson Institute Crime Control Policy Center.

McGuire, J. (2000). Can the criminal law ever be therapeutic? Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 18, 413–426.

Mears, D. P. (2006). Evaluating the effectiveness of supermax prisons. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Justice Policy Center.

Mears, D. P., & Watson, J. (2006). Towards a fair and balanced assessment of supermax prisons. Justice Quarterly, 23(2), 232–270.

Melton, G. B. (1990). Law, science, and humanity: The normative foundation of social science in law. Law and Human Behavior, 14, 315–332.

Melton, G. B. (1992). The law is a good thing (psychology is, too). Human rights in psychological jurisprudence. Law and Human Behavior, 16, 381–398.

(p.273) Melton, G. B., & Saks, M. J. (1986). The law as an instrument of socialization and social structure. In G. B. Melton (Ed.), The law as a behavioral instrument (pp. 235–277). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska.

Mercado, C. C., Schopp, R. F., & Bornstein, B. H. (2003). Evaluating sex offenders under sexually violent predator laws: How might mental health professionals conceptualize the notion of volitional impairment? Aggression and Violent Behavior, 10(1), 289–309.

Mercuro, N., & Medema, S. G. (1998). Law and economics: From Posner to post-modernism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Mill, J. S. (1989). On liberty and other writings. (S. Collini, Ed). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press (Original work published 1859).

Mill, J. S. (1957). Utilitarianism (O. Piest, Ed.). Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill Educational Publishing (Original work published 1861).

Miller, R. D. (2003). Chemical castration of sex offenders: Treatment or punishment? In B. J. Winick & J. Q. LaFond (Eds.), Protecting society from sexually dangerous offenders: Law, justice, and therapy (pp. 249–263). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Mortensen, M. L. (2006). GPS monitoring: An ingenious solution to the threat pedophiles pose to California’s children. Journal of Juvenile Law, 27, 17–32.

Mossman, D. (2006). Critique of pure risk assessment or, Kant meets Tarasoff. University of Cincinnati Law Review, 75, 523–609.

Mulligan, S. (2009). From retribution to repair: Juvenile justice and the history of restorative justice. University of La Verne Law Review, 31, 139–149.

Naday, A., Freilich, J. D., & Mellow, J. (2008). The elusive data on supermax confinement. The Prison Journal, 88(1), 69–93.

National Center for Missing and Exploited Children. (2007). Registered sex offenders in the United States per 100,000 population. Retrieved from www.missingkids.com/enUS/documents/sex-offender-map.pdf

Negri, A. (1984). Marx beyond Marx. New York, NY: Bergin and Garvey.

Nietzsche, F. W. (1966). Beyond good and evil: Prelude to a philosophy of the future (New Ed.) (Walter Kaufmann, Ed.). New York, NY: Vintage. (originally published in 1886).

Noddings, N. (2003). Caring: A feminine approach to ethics and moral education (2nd Ed.). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Norman-Eady, S. (2006). Castration of sex offenders. Connecticut General Assembly. Retrieved from www.cga.ct.gov/2006/rpt/2006-R-0183.htm.

Noroian, P., & Saleh, F. M. (2006). Residency restrictions for convicted sex offenders: State law imposing residency restrictions for convicted sex offenders is not unconstitutional, given their presumed dangerousness. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 34(3), 422–425.

Oakes, L. (2008, June 9). Locked in limbo: Civil commitment for people convicted of sex offenses. Minneapolis Star Tribune, p. 1A.

Oberlander, L. B., Goldstein, N. E., & Ho, C. N. (2001). Preadolescent adjudicative competence: Methodological considerations and recommendations for practice standards. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 19, 545–563.

Office of Program Policy Analysis & Government Accountability (OPPAGA). (2008). The delays in screening sexually violent predators increase costs; (p.274) Treatment facility security enhanced. Report No. 08–10. Retrieved January 18, 2010, from www.oppaga.state.fl.us/reports/pdf/0810rpt.pdf.

O’Hara, E. A., & Robbins, M. M. (2009). Using criminal punishment to serve both victim and social needs. Law and Contemporary Problems, 72, 199–217.

Ogloff, J. R. P. (2002). Two steps forward and one step backward: The law and psychology movement(s) in the 20th century. In J. R. P. Ogloff (Ed.), Taking psychology and law into the twenty-first century, (pp. 1–34). New York, NY: Springer.

O’Keefe, M. L. (2008). Administrative segregation from within: A corrections perspective. The Prison Journal, 88(1), 123–143.

Olver, M. E., & Wong, S. C. P. (2006). Psychopathy, sexual deviance, and recidivism among sex offenders. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 18(1), 65–82.

Olver, M. E., Wong, S. C. P., & Nicholaichuck, T. P. (2009). Outcome evaluation of high-intensity inpatient sex offender treatment program. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 24(3), 522–536.

O’Malley, P. (Ed.) (1998). Crime and the risk society. Surrey, UK: Ashgate Press.

O’Malley, P. (2004). Risk, uncertainty, and government. London, UK: The Glasshouse Press.

Padgett, K., Bales, W., & Blomberg, T. (2006). Under surveillance: An empirical test of the effectiveness and consequences of electronic monitoring. Crime and Public Policy, 5(1), 201–232.

Palermo, G. B. (2009). Sexual predator law or preventive detention? Call if for what it is. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 53(4), 371–372.

Parker, L. (2005). RSVP: Restorative justice in a county jail. Retrieved from http://www.restorativejustice.org/editions/2005/december05/rsvp/.

Pastore, A. L., & Maguire, K. (Eds.). (2007). Sourcebook of criminal justice statistics. Albany, NY: Hindelang Criminal Justice Research Center.

Pavlich, G. (2006). Paradoxes of restorative justice. London, UK: Glasshouse Press.

Perlin, M., & Dlugacz, H. (2008). Mental health issues in jails and prisons. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press.

Perlin, M. L., Gould, K. K., & Dorfman, D. D. (1995). Therapeutic jurisprudence and the civil rights of institutionalized mentally disabled persons: Hopeless oxymoron or path to redemption. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 1(1), 80–119.

Perlin, M. L. (2000). The hidden prejudice: Mental disability law on trial. Washington, DC: APA Press.

Perlin, M. L. (2007). Recent criminal legal decisions: Implications for forensic mental health experts. In A. M. Goldberg (Ed.), Forensic psychology: Emerging topics and expanding roles (pp. 333–359). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Petracca, M. R. (2006). Banished! New Jersey’s municipalities’ unconstitutional trend of banishing sex offenders. Seton Hall Legislative Journal, 31, 253–268.

Petrila, J. (2008). Because they do horrible things: Fear, science, and the erosion of civil liberties in sexually violent predator proceedings. Journal of Psychiatry & Law, 36(6), 359–363.

(p.275) Phillips, S., & Grattet, R. (2000). Judicial rhetoric, meaning-making, and the institutionalization of hate crime law. Law & Society Review, 34(3), 567–606.

Pizarro, J., & Stenius, V. M. K. (2004). Supermax prisons: Their rise, current practices, and effect on inmates. The Prison Journal, 84(2), 248–264.

Pizarro, J. M., & Narag, R. E. (2008). Supermax prisons: What we know, what we do not know, and where we are going. The Prison Journal, 88(1), 23–42.

Polizzi, D. (2008). Restore to what?: Restorative justice and the social construction of the offender. International Journal of Restorative Justice, 4(2), 80–98.

Polizzi, D., & Lanier, M. M. (2010). The social construction of crime as dis-ease: Epidemiological criminology from a phenomenological perspective. American Society of Criminology Annual Conference (San Francisco, CA, November 17–20).

Pollock, J. M. (2007). Ethical dilemmas and decisions in criminal justice, (5th Ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.

Posner, R. (2008). How judges think. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Poythress, N., Lexcen, F. J., Grisso, T., & Steinberg, L. (2006). The competence-related abilities of adolescent defendants in criminal court. Law and Human Behavior, 30(1), 75–92.

Prentky, R. A., Janus, E., Barbaree, H., Schwarts, B. K., & Kafka, M. P. (2006). Sexually violent predators in the courtroom: Science on trial. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 12(4), 357–393.

Presser, L. (2004). Justice here and now: A personal reflection on the restorative and community justice paradigms. Contemporary Justice Review, 7(1), 101–106.

Price, J. T. (2005). Reconciling morality and moral responsibility in the law: A due process challenge to the inconsistent mental responsibility standards at play in criminal insanity defenses and sexually violent predator civil commitment hearings. Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly, 32, 987–1014.

Quinney, R. (1991). The way of peace: On crime, suffering, and service. In R. Quinney, & H. Pepinsky (Eds), Criminology as peacemaking (pp. 3–13). Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

Rainville, G. A., & Smith, S. K. (2003). Juvenile felony defendants in criminal courts: Survey of 40 counties, 1998. U.S. Department of Justice. Bureau of Justice Statistics. United States.

Rand, A. (1964). The virtue of selfishness. West Bangal, India: Signet Press.

Randolph, A. R. (1994). Dictionaries, plain meaning, and context in statutory interpretation. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 17(1), 71–78.

Rawls, J. (1971). A theory of justice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Rayburn Yung, C. (2007). Banishment by a thousand laws: Residency restrictions of sex offenders. Washington University Law Review, 85, 101–160.

Rebman, C. (1999). The Eighth Amendment and solitary confinement: The gap in protection from psychology consequences. DePaul Law Review, 49(1), 567–586.

Redding, R. E., & Frost, L. E. (2001). Adjudicative competence in modern juvenile court. The Virginia Journal of Social Policy and the Law, 9, 353–409.

Reid, W. H., Wise, M., & Sutton, B. (1992). The use and reliability of psychiatric diagnosis in forensic settings. Clinical Forensic Psychiatry, 15(3), 529–537.

(p.276) Reiman, J. (2007). The rich get richer and the poor get prison (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Renzema, M. (2003). Electronic monitoring’s impact on reoffending. Retrieved from www.campbellcollaboration.org/doc-pdf/elecmon.pdf.

Rhodes, L. (2004). Total confinement: Madness and reason in the maximum security prison. Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press.

Rhodes, L. (2005). Pathological effects of the supermaximum prison. American Journal of Public Health, 95(10), 1692–1695.

Ristroph, A. (2008). Criminal law: State intentions and the law of punishment. Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 98, 1353–1406.

Ritchie, J., & Spencer, L. (2002). Qualitative data analysis for applied policy research. In A. M. Huberman & M. B. Miles (Eds.), The qualitative researcher’s companion (pp. 305, 307). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Riveland, C. (1999). Supermax prisons: Overview and general considerations. Longmont, CO: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Corrections.

Robbers, M. L. P. (2009). Lifers on the outside: Sex offenders and disintegrative shaming. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 53(1), 5–28.

Roche, D. (2006). Dimensions of restorative justice. Journal of Social Issues, 62(2), 217–238.

Rodriguez, N. (2005). Restorative justice, communities, and delinquency: Whom do we reintegrate? Criminology and Public Policy, 4, 103–330.

Romano, S. M. (1996). If the SHU fits: Cruel and unusual punishment at California’s Pelican Bay state prison. Emory Law Journal, 45(3), 1089–1138.

Ross, W. D. (1930). The right and the good. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press.

Rossiter, M. J. (2006). Transferring children to adult criminal court: How to best protect our children and society. La Verne Law Review, Inc. 27 J. Juv. L. 123.

Rousseau, J. J. (1968). The social contract. Translated by M. Cranston. New York, NY: Penguin Classics (Original work published 1762).

Ryan, E. P., & Murrie, D. C. (2005). Competence to stand trial and young children is the presumption of competence valid? Journal of Forensic Psychology Practice, 5(1), 89–102.

Ryba, N. L., Cooper, V. G., & Zapf, P. A. (2003). Assessment of maturity in juvenile competency to stand trial evaluations: A survey of practitioners. Journal of Forensic Psychology Practice, 3(3), 23–45.

Saks, E. R. (2002). Refusing care: Forced treatment and the rights of the mentally ill. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Schehr, R. C., & Milovanovic, D. (1999). Conflict mediation and the postmodern. Social Justice, 25(1), 208–232.

Schma, W., Kjervik, D., & Petrucci, C. (2005). Therapeutic jurisprudence: Using the law to improve the public’s health. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 33(4), 59–63.

Schneider, J. E. (2008). A review of research findings related to the civil commitment of sex offenders. Journal of Psychiatry & Law, 36(3), 463–483.

Schopp, R. F., Scalora, M. J., & Pearce, M. (1999). Expert testimony and professional judgment: Psychological expertise and commitment as a sexual predator after Hendricks. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 5, 120–174.

(p.277) Schwartz, B. K. (2003). Correctional psychology: Practice, programming, and administration. Kingston, NJ: Civic Research Institute.

Scott, C. (2004). Judging in a therapeutic key: Therapeutic jurisprudence and the courts. The Journal of Legal Medicine, 25, 377–388.

Scott, E. S. (2000). Criminal responsibility in adolescence: Lessons from developmental psychology. In T. Grisso & R. Swartz (Eds.), Youth on trial (pp. 291–324). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Scott, C. L., & Gerbasi, J. B. (2003). Sex offender registration and community notification challenges: The Supreme Court continues its trend. Journal of the Academy of Psychiatry and the law, 31(4), 494–501.

Scott, E. S. & Grisso, T. (2005). Developmental incompetence, due process, and juvenile justice policy. North Carolina Law Review. 83 N.C.L. Rev. 793.

Scott, C. L. & Holmberg, T. (2003). Castration of sex offenders: Prisoners’ rights versus public safety. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 31, 502–509.

Scranton, P. (2007). Power, conflict, and criminalization. London, UK: Routledge.

Seto, M. C. (2008). Pedophilia and sexual offending against children: Theory, assessment, and intervention. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Sellers, B. G., & Arrigo, B. A. (2009). Developmental maturity, adjudicative competence, and adolescent transfer: An ethical and justice policy inquiry. The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 99(2), 435–488.

Sen, A. (2011). The idea of justice. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

Shalev, S. (2008). A sourcebook on solitary confinement. London, UK: Manheim Centre for Criminology.

Shalev, S. (2009). Inside a supermax. Prison Service Journal, 181(1), 21–25.

Shaylor, C. (1998). “It’s like living in a black hole”: Women of color and solitary confinement in the prison industrial complex. New England Journal of Criminal and Civil Confinement, 24(2), 385–416.

Shichor, David. (2006). The meaning and nature of punishment. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.

Shipley, S., & Arrigo, B. A. (2001). The confusion of psychopathy (II): Implications for forensic (correctional) practice. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 45, 407–419.

Siegel, D. Juror nullification. Whole Earth Review 72 (1991): 45. Expanded Academic ASAP. Retrieved from http://find.galegroup.com.ezproxy.lib.usf.edu/gtx/infomark.do?&contentSet=IACDocuments&type=retrieve&tabID=T002&prodId=EAIM&docId=A11255646&source=gale&srcprod=EAIM&userGroupName=tamp59176&version=1.0.

Simon, J. (2009). Governing through crime: How the war on crime transformed American democracy and created a culture of fear. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Slobogin, C. (1995). Therapeutic jurisprudence: Five dilemmas to ponder. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 1, 193–219.

Slobogin, C. (2006). Minding justice: Laws that deprive people with mental disability of life and liberty. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Slote, M. (1985). Common-sense morality and consequentialism. London, UK: Routludge & Kegan Paul.

(p.278) Small, M. (1993). Advancing psychological jurisprudence. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 11(1), 3–16.

Smith, D. G. (2008). The constitutionality of civil commitment and the adequacy of treatment. Boston College Law Review, 49, 1383–1429.

Snyder, H. N., & Sickmund, M. (2006). Juvenile offenders and victims: 2006 national report. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency.

Solum, L. B. (2008). Natural justice: An aretaic account of the virtue of lawfulness. In C. Farrelly & L. B. Solum (Eds.), Virtue jurisprudence (pp. 167–192). New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

Sparks, R. (2008). Differences in legal and medical standards in determining sexually violent predator status. Law and Psychology Review, 32, 175–189.

Sreenivasan, S., Weinberger, L. E., & Garrick, T. (2003). Expert testimony in sexually violent predator commitments: Conceptualizing legal standards of “mental disorder” and “likely to reoffend.” Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 31(4), 471–485.

Steinberg, L., & Cauffman, E. (2000). A developmental perspective on jurisdictional boundary. In J. Fagan & F. E. Zimring (Eds.), The changing borders of juvenile justice. (pp. 379–404). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Steinberg, L. (2003). Juveniles on trial: MacArthur Foundation study calls competency into question. Criminal Justice, 18(3), 20–25.

Steinberg, L., & Schwartz, R. G. (2000). Developmental psychology goes to court. In T. Grisso & R. Swartz (Eds.), Youth on trial (pp. 9–31). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Steinbock, B. (1995). Megan’s Law: A policy perspective. Criminal Justice Ethics, 14(2), 4–9.

Steiner, B. & Wright, E. (2006). Assessing the relative effects of state direct file waiver laws on violent juvenile crime: Deterrence or irrelevance? The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 96(4), 1451–1477.

Steiner, B., Hemmens, C., & Valerie Bell, V. (2006). Legislative waiver reconsidered: General deterrent effects of statutory exclusion laws enacted post-1979. Justice Quarterly, 23(1), 34–59.

Sterba, J. P. (2003). Social and political philosophy: Classical western texts in feminist and multicultural perspectives (3rd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thompson Learning.

Strang, H., & Braithwaite, J. (Eds.). (2001). Restorative justice and civil society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Sullivan, D., & Tifft, L. (2005). Restorative justice: Healing the foundations of our everyday lives (2nd Ed.). Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.

Sykes, G. M. (1958). Society of captives: A study of maximum security prison. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Tekle-Johnson, A. (2009). In the zone: Sex offenders and the ten-percent solution. Iowa Law Review, 94, 607–662.

Telsavaara, T. V. T., & Arrigo, B. A. (2006). DNA evidence in rape cases and the Debbie Smith Act: Forensic practice and criminal justice implications. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 50(5), 487–505.

Tewksbury, R. (2005). Collateral consequences of sex offender registration. Journal of Contemporary Justice, 21(1), 67–81.

(p.279) Tewksbury, R., & Lees, M. (2006). Consequences of sex offender registration: Collateral consequences and community experiences. Sociological Spectrum, 26(3), 309–334.

Tewksbury, R., & Lees, M. (2007). Perception of punishment: How registered sex offenders view registries. Crime and Delinquency, 53(3), 380–407.

Thomas, J., Leaf, M., Kazmierczak, S., & Stone, J. (2006). Self-injury in correctional settings: “Pathology” of prisons or of prisoners? Criminology & Public Policy, 5(1), 193–202.

Tifft, L.L., & Sullivan, D. (2005). Needs-based anarchist criminology. In S. Henry & M. Lanier (Eds.). The essential criminology reader (pp. 259–277). Boulder, CO: Westview.

Toch, H. (2001). The future of supermax confinement. The Prison Journal, 81(3), 376–388.

Toch, H. (2003). The contemporary relevance of early experiments with supermax reform. The Prison Journal, 83(2), 221–228.

Tonry, M. (2004). Thinking about crime: Sense and sensibility in American penal culture. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Toutant, C. (2005, November 21). Zoning out sex offenders. New Jersey Law Journal, p. 1A.

Trivits, L., & Reppucci, N.D. (2002). The application of Megan’s Law to juveniles. American Psychologist, 57, 690–704.

Turner, E., & Rubin, S. (2002). Once a sex offender … always a sex offender. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 17(2), 32–44.

Umbreit, M. S., Coates, R. B., & Armour, M. (2006). Victims of severe violence in mediated dialogue with offenders: The impact of the first multi-site study in the U. S. International Review of Victimology, 13(1), 27–48.

Van Ness, D., & Heetderks Strong, K. (2007). Restorative justice: An introduction to restorative justice. Cincinnati, OH: Lexis/Nexis Anderson.

Vaux, R. (1826). Notices of the original and successive efforts to improve the discipline of the prison at Philadelphia, and to reform the criminal code of Pennsylvania: With a few observations on the penitentiary system. Philadelphia, PA: Kimber and Sharpless.

Vess, J., Murphy, C., & Arkowitz, S. (2004). Clinical and demographic differences between sexually violent predators and other commitment types in a state forensic hospital. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology, 15, 669–681.

Veysey, B. M., Zgoba, K., & Dellasandro, M. (2008). A preliminary step towards evaluating the impact of Megan’s Law: A trend analysis of sexual offenses in New Jersey from 1985 to 2005. Justice Research and Policy, 10(2), 1–18.

Viljoen, J. L., & Grisso, T. (2007). Prospects for remediating juveniles’ adjudicative incompetence. Psychology, Public Policy and Law, 13(2), 87–114.

Vollum, S., & Hale, C. (2002). Electronic monitoring: A research review. Corrections Compendium, 27, 1–26.

Wakefield, H. (2006). The vilification of sex offenders: Do laws targeting sex offenders increase recidivism and sexual violence? Journal of Sexual Offender Civil Commitment: Science and the Law, 1, 141–149.

Walker, S. (2007) Sense and nonsense about crime and drugs: A policy guide (6th Ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Co.

(p.280) Ward, T. (2007). On a clear day you can see forever: Integrating values and skills in sex offender treatment. Journal of Sexual Aggression, 13(3), 187–201.

Way, B., Miraglia, R., Sawyer, D., Beer, R., & Eddy, J. (2005). Factors related to suicide in New York state prisons. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 28(3), 207–221.

Websdale, N. S. (1996). Predators: The social construction of “stranger-danger” in Washington State as a form of patriarchal ideology. Women & Criminal Justice, 7(2), 43–68.

Weidman, M. M. (2004). The culture of judicial deference and the problem of supermax prisons. UCLA Law Review, 51(5), 1505–1554.

Weinberger, L. E., Sreensivasan, S., Garrick, T., & Osran, H. (2005). The impact of surgical castration on sexual recidivism risk among sexually violent predatory offenders. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 33, 16–36.

Wexler, D. B. (2008a). Two decades of therapeutic jurisprudence. Tuoro Law, Review, 24(1), 17–29.

Wexler, D. B. (Ed.). (2008b). Rehabilitating layers: Principles of therapeutic jurisprudence for criminal law practice. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press.

Wexler, D. B., and Winick, B. J. (Eds.). (1996). Law in a therapeutic key: Developments in therapeutic jurisprudence. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press.

Wilkins, K. B. (2003). Sex offender registration and community notification laws: Will these laws survive? University of Richmond Law Review, 37, 1245–1278.

Williams, C. R. (2008). Predictive efficacy and the preventive detention of dangerous sexual offenders: Contributions from nonlinear dynamic systems theory. Critical Criminology, 16, 185–196.

Williams, C. R., & Arrigo, B. A. (2002). Law, psychology, and the “new sciences”: Rethinking mental illness and dangerousness. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 46(1), 6–29.

Williams, C. R., & Arrigo, B. A. (2004). Theory, justice, and social change: Theoretical integrations and critical applications. New York, NY: Springer.

Williams, C. R. & Arrigo, B. A. (2008). Ethics, crime, and criminal justice. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Winick, B. J. (1997). Therapeutic jurisprudence applied: Essays on mental health law. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press.

Winick, B. J., & Wexler, D. B. (Eds.). (2003). Judging in a therapeutic key: therapeutic jurisprudence and the courts. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press.

Winick, B. J., & Wexler, D. B. (2006). The use of therapeutic jurisprudence in law school clinical education: Transforming the criminal law clinic. Clinical Law Review, 13, 605–632.

Wright, R. G. (2008). Sex offender post-incarceration sanctions: Are there any limits? New England Journal on Criminal and Civil Confinement, 34, 17–50.

Wynn, J. R., & Szatrowski, A. (2004). Hidden prisons: Twenty-three-hour lockdown units in New York state correctional facilities. Pace Law Review, 24(2), 497–526.

Zehr, H., & Toews, B. (Eds.). (2004). Critical issues in restorative justice. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.

Zevitz, R. G., & Farkas, M. A. (2000). Sex offender community notification: Assessing the impact in Wisconsin. Washington, DC: Department of Justice. Retrieved from http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/179992.pdf.

(p.281) Zimring, F. E. (2000). The punitive necessity of waiver. In J. Fagan & F. E. Zimring (Eds.), The changing borders of juvenile justice, (pp. 207–224). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Zinger, I., & Wichmann, C. (1999). The psychological effects of 60 days in administrative segregation. (Research Report R85). Ottawa, ON: Correctional Services of Canada.

Zinger, I., Wichmann, C., & Andrews, D. A. (2001). The psychological effects of 60 days in administrative segregation. Canadian Journal of Criminology, 43(1), 47–83.

Zureik, E., & Salter, M. B. (Eds.). (2006). Global surveillance and policing: Borders, security, and identity. Cullompton, Devon, UK: Willan Press.


Alaska Sess. Laws 41 § 1 (1994).

Iowa Code § 692A.2A.

N.M. Stat. Ann. § 32A.


Adnan v. Santa Clara Co. Dept. of Corr., 2002 LEXIS 28368 (N.D. Cal. 2002).

Brazill v. State, 845 So.2d 282 (Fla. App. 2006).

Coker v. Georgia, 433 U.S. 584 (1977).

Coleman v. Wilson, 912 F.Supp. 1282 (E.D. Cal. 1995).

Comer v. Stewart, 230 F.Supp.2d 1016 (D. Ariz. 2002).

Connecticut Dept. of Public Safety v. Doe, 538 U.S. 1 (2003).

Dantzler v. Beard, 2007 LEXIS 21309 (W.D. Pa. 2007).

Davenport v. DeRobertis, 653 F.Supp. 649 (N.D. Ill. 1987).

Dawson v. Kendrick, 572 F.Supp. 1252 (S.D. W.Va. 1981).

Doe v. Miller, 405 F.3d 700 (8th Cir. 2005).

Doe v. Tandeske, 361 F.3d 594 (2004).

Dusky v. United States, 362 U.S. 402 (1960).

Farmer v. Brennan, 511 U.S. 825 (1994).

Giano v. Kelly, 2000 LEXIS 9138 (W.D.N.Y. 2000).

Goff v. Harper, 1997 LEXIS 24186 (S.D. Iowa 1997).

Goff v. Harper, 59 F.Supp.2d 910 (S.D. Iowa 1999).

Gonzales v. Tafoya, 2001 NMCA 25, 130 N.M. 341, 24 P.3d 776 (N.M. App. 2001).

Helling v. McKinney, 509 U.S. 25 (1993).

Jackson v. Indiana, 406 U.S. 715 (1972).

Jones ‘El v. Berge, 164 F.Supp.2d 1096 (W.D. Wis. 2001).

In re Causey, 363 So.2d 472 (La. 1978).

Kane v. Winn, 319 F.Supp.2d 162 (D. Mass. 2004.

Kansas v. Crane, 534 U.S. 407 (2002).

Kansas v. Hendricks, 117 S. Ct. 2027 (1997).

(p.282) Kennedy v. Mendoza-Martinez, 372 U.S. 144 (1963).

Laaman v. Helgemoe, 437 F.Supp. 269 (D. N.H. 1977).

Libby v. Commissioner of Corr., 385 Mass. 421 (1982).

Madrid v. Gomez, 889 F.Supp. 1146 (N.D. Cal. 1995).

M.D. v. State, 701 So.2d 58 (Ala. Crim. App. 1997).

Otis v. State, 355 Ark. 590, 142 S.W.3d 615 (Ark. 2004).

Pearson v. Fair, 935 F.Supp.2d 401 (D. Mass. 1989).

People v. Hana, 443 Mich. 202,504 N.W.2d 166 (Mich. 1993).

Redden v. Ricci, 2008 LEXIS 95000 (D.N.J. 2008).

Rennie v. Klein, 653 F.2d 836 (3d Cir. 1981).

Rhodes v. Chapman, 452 U.S. 337 (1981).

Roper v. Simmons, 543 U.S. 551 (U.S. 2005).

Ruiz v. Estelle, 503 F.Supp. 1265 (S.D. Tex. 1980).

Ruiz v. Johnson, 37 F.Supp. 855 (S.D. Tex. 1999).

Scarver v. Litscher, 434 F.3d 972 (7th Cir. 2006).

Seling v. Young, 531 U.S. 250 (2001).

Smith v. Doe, 538 U.S. 84 (2003).

Stanford v. Kentucky, 492 U.S. 361 (1989).

State v. McCracken, 260 Neb. 234, 615 N.W.2d 902 (Neb. 2000).

State v. Nevels, 235 Neb. 39, 453 N.W.2d 579 (Neb. 1990).

Tillery v. Owens, 719 F.Supp. 1256 (W.D. Pa. 1989).

Torres et al. v. Commissioner of Corr. et al., 611 N.E.2d 200 (Mass. 1998).

Tate v. State, 864 So.2d 44 (Fla. App. 2003).

United States v. Comstock, 130 S. Ct. 1949(2010).

Vasquez v. Frank, 2006 LEXIS 30395 (7th Cir. 2006).

Williams v. State, 96 Ark. App. 160, 239 S.W.3d 44 (Ark. App. 2006).