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Tchaikovsky$

Roland John Wiley

Print publication date: 2009

Print ISBN-13: 9780195368925

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195368925.001.0001

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(p.487) Appendix C Personalia

(p.487) Appendix C Personalia

Source:
Tchaikovsky
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

N.B. The following names are cited alphabetically in strict transliteration; informal spellings may be used in the elaborations.

  • Al’brekht

    [Albrecht], Karl [Konstantin] Karlovich (1836–1893). Teacher, authority on choral singing, inspector of the Moscow Conservatory (1866–1889), and Tchaikovsky's close friend, for whom he composed a short chorus entitled “Spring,” published in special choral notation; thought lost; its rediscovery was reported in 1993 [425 293–95]. Later, Tchaikovsky brokered Albrecht's retirement from the Moscow Conservatory.

  • Alekseeva

    (née Assier), Ekaterina Andreevna (1805–1882). Sister of Pyotr's mother. An amateur contralto, she tutored Pyotr in singing during his years at the School of Jurisprudence.

  • Al'tani

    [Altani], Ippolit Karlovich (1846–1919). Opera conductor at Kiev and Moscow (chief conductor at the Moscow Bolshoy Theater, 1882–1906). He conducted numerous first performances of Tchaikovsky's operas in Moscow; his indisposition made possible Tchaikovsky's vocational debut as a conductor at the first performance of Cherevichki (January 1887), for which he coached the composer in the rudiments of that art.

  • Apukhtin,

    Aleksey Nikolaevich “Lel” (1840–1893). Russian poet, Tchaikovsky's close, lifelong friend from the School of Jurisprudence; an uncloseted (p.488) homosexual who may have helped to shape Tchaikovsky's response to public mores about homosexuality. Tchaikovsky set several of his poems as songs and was approached by the Grand Duke Konstantin with a proposal to set Apukhtin's “Requiem” in 1893, shortly before Tchaikovsky's death.

  • Artôt

    (Padilla by marriage), Désirée (1835–1907). Belgian mezzo-soprano, trained under Pauline Viardot-Garcia, who performed in Moscow in the 1860s and 1870s. For a time in 1868, she and Tchaikovsky apparently contemplated marriage; they revived their friendship 20 years later in Berlin. Tchaikovsky wrote the op. 65 songs for her.

  • Assier

    [Chaykovskaya], Aleksandra Andreevna (1813–1854). Tchaikovsky's mother.

  • Assier,

    Hendrikh [André] Mikhaylovich (c. 1778–after 1830). Tchaikovsky's maternal grandfather; a porcelain maker from Prussia who in Russia worked as a customs official and a teacher at the Mining Institute [368; 370].

  • Auer,

    Leopol’d Semenovich (1845–1937). Russian violinist, conductor, and pedagogue; professor at the St. Petersburg Conservatory (1868–1917) [19].

  • Aus der Ohe,

    Adèle (1864–1937). German pianist who played Tchaikovsky's First Piano Concerto under the composer's baton in the United States and St. Petersburg.

  • Ave-Lallemant,

    Johann Friedrich Theodor (1806–1890). One of the founders and directors of the Hamburg Philharmonic Society and a supporter of Tchaikovsky's conducting activities in Hamburg; dedicatee of Tchaikovsky's Fifth Symphony.

  • Bakhmetev,

    Nikolay Ivanovich (1807–1891). Director of the Imperial Court Chapel; subject of a lawsuit over the publication of Pyotr's Liturgy, op. 41.

  • Balakirev,

    Miliy Alekseevich (1837–1910). Important Russian composer, pianist, and conductor; leader of the so-called Mighty Handful of nationalist musicians and co-founder of the Free School of Music in St. Petersburg. He encouraged the composition of Tchaikovsky's Romeo and Juliet overture/ fantasia and the Manfred Symphony.

  • Barbier,

    Jules (1825–1901). French dramatist and librettist, from whose play on Joan of Arc Tchaikovsky borrowed for parts of the libretto of his opera The Maid of Orleans.

  • Begichev,

    Vladimir Petrovich (1838–1891). Dramatist; husband of Mariya Shilovskaya; head of repertoire of the Moscow Imperial Theaters from 1864; director of the Moscow Imperial Theaters (1881–1882); commissioned Swan Lake.

  • Bélard.

    Family of hotel proprietors in Paris, with whom Tchaikovsky coordinated communications and business arrangements with the foster parents of his grandnephew Georges-Léon.

  • Belyaev

    [Belaïeff], Mitrofan Petrovich (1836–1904). Organizer of chamber and orchestral concerts in St. Petersburg; founder of a music publishing company of the same name in Leipzig. Tchaikovsky was the recipient of composition prizes from Belaïeff.

  • (p.489) Benardaki,

    Mariya Pavlovna (née Lebroque) (d. 1913). Singer; graduate of the St. Petersburg Conservatory; later, a high society hostess of a Tchaikovsky concert in Paris.

  • Berberova,

    Nina [Antonina?] Nikolaevna (1901–1993). The first biographer of Tchaikovsky to consider the realities of his intimate life.

  • Berger,

    Francesco (1834–1919). Pianist, composer, organizer of Tchaikovsky's conducting concerts in London.

  • Bernard,

    Nikolay Matveevich (1844–1905). Music publisher in St. Petersburg who commissioned The Seasons and other works from Tchaikovsky for his music journal, Nouvelliste.

  • Bertenson,

    Lev Bernadovich (1850–1929). Physician in St. Petersburg who headed the team of doctors treating Tchaikovsky's last illness; brother of Vasiliy.

  • Bertenson,

    Vasiliy [Basile] Bernardovich (1853–1933). Physician in St. Petersburg who attended Tchaikovsky's last illness; brother of Lev.

  • Bessel’,

    Vasiliy Vasil’evich (1843–1907). Violist, critic, and music publisher of some of Tchaikovsky's early works.

  • Blinov,

    Nikolay Orestovich (1929–1988). Microbiologist who investigated the causes of Tchaikovsky's death [44].

  • Block,

    Julius H. (1858–1934). Thomas Edison's representative in Russia; responsible for the only extant recording of Tchaikovsky's voice [45; 392; 413].

  • Blumenfel’d,

    Feliks Mikhaylovich (1863–1931). Pianist, conductor, and composer; a teacher (from 1885), then professor of the St. Petersburg Conservatory (1897–1905) and the Petrograd Conservatory (1911–1918).

  • Blumenfel’d,

    Stanislav Mikhaylovich (1850–1897). Pianist; director of a music school in Kiev; father of Tatyana Davïdova's son Georges-Léon.

  • Bochechkarov,

    Nikolay L’vovich (d. 1879). A friend of the composer.

  • Bogatïrev

    [Bogatïryov], Semen Semenovich [Semyon Semyonovich] (1890–1961). Music theorist and composer, professor of the Moscow Conservatory. He restored Tchaikovsky's Symphony in E-flat (Symphony no. 7) and was involved in the restoration of the original version of the Second Symphony.

  • Bortnyanskiy,

    Dmitriy Stepanovich (1751–1825). Russian composer of sacred music in the Italian manner. Tchaikovsky labored over a new edition of his sacred concertos.

  • Brandukov,

    Anatoliy Andreevich (1859–1930). Russian and Soviet cellist, conductor, and composer; professor of the Moscow Conservatory (1921–1930). A companion of Tchaikovsky in the late 1880s in his visits to Paris, where he performed Tchaikovsky's music.

  • Brodskiy,

    Adol’f Davïdovich (1851–1929). Violinist and teacher; professor of the Moscow Conservatory (1875–1879), Leipzig Conservatory (1882–1893), and College of Music in Manchester (from 1893); played the first performances of Tchaikovsky's Violin Concerto in Vienna and Moscow.

  • Bryullova

    (née Meyer), Alina Ivanovna (1849–1932). Mother of Nikolay Germanovich Konradi, Modest Tchaikovsky's deaf mute student.

  • (p.490) Bülow,

    Hans von (1830–1894). German pianist and conductor; advocate of Wagner and Brahms. Declared Tchaikovsky's importance in German newspapers, performed his music (notably, the premiere of the First Piano Concerto), and lobbied for his music in Germany.

  • Carnegie,

    Andrew (1835–1919). American steel manufacturer and philanthropist who financed Tchaikovsky's visit to the United States in 1891.

  • Čech,

    Adolf (1841–1903). Czech conductor; principal conductor of the National Theater in Prague (1874–1900); conducted first Czech performances of The Maid of Orleans, act II of Swan Lake, Evgeniy Onegin, and The Queen of Spades.

  • Chayka,

    Fyodor Afanas’evich [in some sources, Afanasiy Chaykovskiy]. One of Pyotr's paternal great-grandfathers; a soldier; father of Pyotr Fyodorovich Chaykovskiy.

  • Chaykovskaya

    (née Milyukova), Antonina Ivanovna (1848–1917). Tchaikovsky's wife.

  • Chaykovskaya

    (née von Berens), Elizaveta Petrovna (d. 1880). Tchaikovsky's aunt, mother of Anna Merkling.

  • Chaykovskaya

    (Popova by marriage), Evdokiya Petrovna (b. 1780). Tchaikovsky's aunt, mother of Anastasiya Vasil’evna Popova, known in the Tchaikovsky family as “Sestritsa.”

  • Chaykovskaya

    (née Denis’eva), Ol’ga Sergeevna (d. 1919 or 1920). Tchaikovsky's sister-in-law, wife of his older brother Nikolay Tchaikovsky.

  • Chaykovskaya

    (née Konshina), Praskov’ya Vladimirovna (1864–1956). Wife of Pyotr's brother Anatoly

  • Chaykovskaya

    (Ol’khovskaya by marriage), Zinaida Il’inichna (1829–1878). Tchaikovsky's half-sister by his father's first marriage.

  • Chaykovskiy,

    Anatoliy [Anatoly] Il’ich (“Tolya,” “Tolichka,” “Anatosha”) (1850–1915). Pyotr's younger brother, twin of Modest; dedicatee of the Six Romances, op. 38. Jurist who attempted to secure Pyotr's divorce and whose appointment as procurator in Tiflis brought Pyotr south to the Caucasus; later, a vice governor in Revel (now Tallinn) and in Nizhnïy-Novgorod and a senator.

  • Chaykovskiy,

    Georgiy Nikolaevich [Georges-Léon] (1883–1940). Tatyana Davï-dova's son, adopted by Nikolay Il’ich Tchaikovsky and his wife, Olga.

  • Chaykovskiy,

    Il’ya Petrovich (1795–1880). Tchaikovsky's father; a mining engineer in the towns of Votkinsk and Alapaevsk; later, director of the Technological Institute in St. Petersburg [164].

  • Chaykovskiy,

    Ippolit Il’ich “Polya” (1843–1927). Tchaikovsky's younger brother; a maritime officer (later, major general of the admiralty); editor of the composer's diaries (1923).

  • Chaykovskiy,

    Modest Il’ich “Modya” (1850–1916). Pyotr's younger brother, twin of Anatoly; dedicatee of the piano pieces, op. 40. Pyotr's first comprehensive biographer, first director of the Tchaikovsky Home-Museum at (p.491) Klin, and an important figure in Russian letters; a playwright and librettist, particularly of The Queen of Spades and Iolanta.

  • Chaykovskiy,

    Nikolay Il’ich (1838–1911). Tchaikovsky's elder brother, a mining engineer and railroad administrator; adoptive father of Tatyana Davïdova's child Georges-Léon.

  • Chaykovskiy,

    Pyotr Fyodorovich (1745–1818). Tchaikovsky's paternal grandfather.

  • Chaykovskiy,

    Pyotr Petrovich (1788–1871). Tchaikovsky's paternal uncle. From the end of 1854 to the autumn of 1857, Pyotr Petrovich's family and Tchaikovsky's family lived together.

  • Cui.

    See Kyui.

  • Dahlhaus,

    Carl (1928–1989). German musicologist, editor, and theorist.

  • Damrosch,

    Walter (1862–1950). American composer and conductor; Tchaikovsky's advocate in the United States; encouraged his visit to New York to conduct at the opening of the (Carnegie) Music Hall in 1891.

  • Dannreuther,

    Edward (1844–1905). British pianist who suggested improvements in Tchaikovsky's First Piano Concerto.

  • Davïdov

    [Davydov], Karl Yul’evich (1838–1889). Cellist, composer, and conductor; director of the St. Petersburg Conservatory (1876–1886). Davïdov supplied Tchaikovsky with the libretto that the composer adapted for Mazepa.

  • Davïdov,

    Lev Vasil’evich (1837–1896). Son of the Decembrist Vasily Davïdov; husband of Pyotr's sister Aleksandra; supervisor of family estates at Kamenka and Verbovka in the Ukraine.

  • Davïdov,

    Vladimir L’vovich “Bob” (1872–1906). Tchaikovsky's nephew, dedicatee of The Children's Album, op. 39, and the Sixth Symphony, op. 74 In his later years, Pyotr developed a strong affection for Davïdov and made him a major beneficiary of his will [371].

  • Davïdov,

    Yuriy L’vovich (1876–1965). Tchaikovsky's nephew; agronomist; curator of the Tchaikovsky Home-Museum at Klin (1945–1962). Some of his memoirs of Tchaikovsky, written decades after the fact, have been discredited.

  • Davïdova

    [Chaykovskaya], Aleksandra Il’inichna “Sasha” (1842–1891). Tchaikovsky's sister, wife of Lev Davïdov, matriarch of the Davïdov estate at Kamenka.

  • Davïdova,

    Tatyana L’vovna “Tanya” (1861–1887). Tchaikovsky's niece, daughter of his sister Aleksandra and Lev Davïdov.

  • Davïdova

    [Butakova by marriage], Vera Vasil’evna (1848–1923). Sister of Tchaikovsky's brother-in-law Lev Davïdov; apparently, the object of Pyotr's affections at Hapsal in the summer of 1867; dedicatee of the Souvenir de Hapsal, op. 2.

  • de Lazari

    [stage surname Konstantinov], Konstantin Nikolaevich (1838–1903). Singer and dramatic actor in the theaters of Moscow and St. Petersburg.

  • Détroyat,

    Pierre Léonce (1829–1898). French journalist and opera librettist; developed various opera topics for Tchaikovsky to compose for Paris, principally La courtisane; ou, Sadia.

  • (p.492) Diémer,

    Louis (1843–1919). French pianist and pedagogue; friend of Tchaikovsky and advocate of his music in Paris.

  • Donaurov,

    Sergey Ivanovich (1838–1897). Friend of Tchaikovsky in the 1870s; author, translator, official censor of dramatic works.

  • Door,

    Anton (1833–1919). Pianist and professor at the Moscow Conservatory in Tchaikovsky's early years; settled later in Vienna.

  • Drigo,

    Riccardo (1846–1930). Italian composer and conductor; principal conductor of the Imperial Ballet in St. Petersburg (1886–1920).

  • Dürbach,

    Fanny (1822–1895). Tchaikovsky's first governess (1844–1848), who preserved the written compositions of Tchaikovsky the child and was a principal source of anecdotes about his early life [72 100; 228; 232].

  • Erdmannsdörfer,

    Max (1848–1905). Nikolay Rubinstein's successor as conductor of the Moscow branch of the Russian Musical Society. Conducted many first performances of Tchaikovsky's orchestral works [37].

  • Fedorov,

    Pavel Stepanovich (1803–1879). Russian dramatist; head of repertoire in the St. Petersburg Imperial Theaters (1853–1879). Tchaikovsky composed music (lost) for one of his plays.

  • Fet

    (Shenshin), Afanasiy Afanas’evich (1820–1892). Celebrated Russian poet, whose verses provided a number of song texts for Tchaikovsky.

  • Figner

    (née Mey), Medeya Ivanovna (1859–1952). Soprano; artist of the Maryinsky Theater in St. Petersburg (1887–1912); wife of Nikolay Figner; created the roles of Lise in The Queen of Spades and the title role in Iolanta.

  • Figner,

    Nikolay Nikolaevich (1857–1918). Russian tenor; artist of the Maryinsky Theater in St. Petersburg (1887–1897); director of the opera company at the Narodnïy Dom in St. Petersburg (1910–1915); husband of Medea Figner. He created the roles of Hermann in The Queen of Spades and Vaudémont in Iolanta.

  • Fitingof-Shel’

    [Fitinhof-Schell], (Baron) Boris Aleksandrovich (1829–1901). Composer and memoirist; claimed that Tchaikovsky consulted him on how to compose ballet music [122].

  • Fitzenhagen,

    Karl Friedrich Wilhelm (1848–1890). German cellist; professor of the Moscow Conservatory from 1870; radically revised Tchaikovsky's Variations on a Rococo Theme, of which he is dedicatee.

  • Flerov

    [Flyorov], Sergey Vasil’evich (1841–1901). Journalist and music critic called “Ignotus.” Provided Tchaikovsky with a translation of Hoffmann's “The Nutcracker and the Mouse-King” in Rome in 1882.

  • Galler,

    Konstantin Petrovich (1845–1888). Music critic, composer, collector of folk songs.

  • Gallet,

    Louis Marie Alexandre (1835–1898). French writer; librettist of Sadia, Tchaikovsky's unrealized opera for Paris.

  • Gerard,

    Vladimir Nikolaevich (1839–1903). Tchaikovsky's classmate at the School of Jurisprudence, later an important jurist; he delivered an oration at Tchaikovsky's funeral.

  • (p.493) Gerke,

    Anton Avgustovich (1812–1870). Russian pianist and professor at the St. Petersburg Conservatory (1862–1870), where he taught Pyotr.

  • Gerke,

    Avgust Antonovich (1844–1917). Pianist; member of the direction of the Russian Musical Society in St. Petersburg; according to the court-of-honor theory, complicit in Tchaikovsky's death for supplying him with poison.

  • Gleason,

    Frederick Grant (1848–1903). American organist, composer, and teacher; in the 1880s, critic for the Chicago Tribune. Approached Tchaikovsky to conduct at the World's Columbian Exhibition in Chicago in 1894.

  • Golitsïn,

    (Prince) Aleksey Vasil’evich (1832–1901). A friend of Pyotr; owner of Trostinets, the estate where Pyotr translated Gevaert's Traité général d’instrumentation and composed op. 76, the overture to The Storm, in the summer of 1864.

  • Gubert

    [Hubert], Nikolay Al’bertovich (1840–1888). Pyotr's schoolmate at the St. Petersburg Conservatory; later, his colleague and director of the Moscow Conservatory (1881–1883).

  • Guitry,

    Lucien-Germain (1860–1925). Actor of the French drama company of the Mikhaylovsky Theater in St. Petersburg. Tchaikovsky wrote the incidental music to Hamlet for him.

  • Halíĭ,

    Karel [Halir, Carl] (1859–1909). Czech violinist; soloist to Tchaikovsky's conducting on tour.

  • Hanslick,

    Eduard (1825–1904). Czech-born music critic, active primarily in Vienna. He heaped notorious epithets on Tchaikovsky's early music.

  • Hubert,

    Nikolay See Gubert, Nikolay Al’bertovich.

  • Ippolitov-Ivanov,

    Mikhail Mikhaylovich (1859–1935). Composer and conductor, active in Tiflis (Tbilsi) before moving to Moscow, where he became professor (from 1893) then director (from 1905) of the Moscow Conservatory [165].

  • Ivanov,

    Lev Ivanovich (1834–1901). Russian dancer and balletmaster (from 1885) in the St. Petersburg Imperial Theaters. Ivanov prepared the dances for Mazepa and restaged act II of Swan Lake for a performance in Tchaikovsky's memory in 1894.

  • Jacobi,

    Nikolay Borisovich (1839–1902). Jurist and public prosecutor who allegedly instigated the court of honor against Tchaikovsky.

  • Jurgenson.

    See Yurgenson.

  • Kashkin,

    Nikolay Dmitrievich (1839–1920). Tchaikovsky's friend; a professor of theory and music history at the Moscow Conservatory (1866–1908); an important music critic and advocate of Tchaikovsky's music; a chronicler of musical life in Moscow, including reminiscences of Pyotr published in 1896 and 1920. Those of 1920 are the sole source of some colorful anecdotes whose accuracy has been called into question [142; 437].

  • Keiser,

    Mariya Karlovna (d. 1831). First wife of Ilya Petrovich Chaykovskiy Mother of Zinaida Chaykovskaya (later, Ol’khovskaya by marriage), Pyotr's half sister.

  • (p.494) Kireyev,

    Sergey Aleksandrovich (1845–1888). A student at the School of Juris prudence for whom Pyotr admitted a strong if not lasting affection.

  • Klimenko,

    Ivan Alexandrovich (1841–1914). Architect; a friend of Pyotr from the early 1860s in St. Petersburg. Klimenko was among the first to recognize Tchaikovsky's greatness as a composer; he left anecdotal, humorous recollections of Pyotr [199; 200; 201].

  • Klindworth,

    Karl (1830–1916). German pianist, conductor, and composer; professor at the Moscow Conservatory (1868–1884). Together with Hans von Bülow, Klindworth is largely responsible for the dissemination of Tchaikovsky's music in Germany.

  • Kondrat’ev

    [Kondratiev], Nikolay Dmitrievich (1832–1887). Friend of Pyotr; landowner whose estate, Nizï, in the Kharkov region Tchaikovsky visited regularly in the 1870s. Tchaikovsky traveled across Asia and Europe to attend Kondratiev during his final illness in 1887.

  • Konradi,

    Nikolay Germanovich (1868–1923). Deaf mute student of Modest Tchaikovsky, for whom, early in Modest's tutelage, Pyotr conceived a powerful affection, possibly contributing, in the autumn of 1876, to his resolve to marry.

  • Kotek

    [Kotik], Iosif Iosifovich (1855–1885), on rare occasion referred to by the first name Eduard. Violinist; graduate of the Moscow Conservatory; object of Pyotr's special affection around the time of his marriage. Kotek was present during and involved in the composition of Tchaikovsky‘s Violin Concerto.

  • K.R.

    See Romanov, Konstantin Konstantinovich.

  • Kramer,

    H. Pseudonym by which Tchaikovsky occasionally signed himself.

  • Kündinger,

    Rudolf Vasil’evich (1832–1913). German-born pianist and pedagogue who lived in Russia from 1850; gave Pyotr piano lessons and took him to orchestral concerts in 1855–1858.

  • Kyui

    [Cui], Tsezar’ [César] Antonovich (1835–1918). Russian composer and critic; member of the Mighty Handful; by training, a professor of fortification. Pyotr's persistent adversary among critics.

  • Larosh

    [Laroche], German [Hermann] Avgustovich (1845–1904). Pyotr's friend from his days at the St. Petersburg Conservatory, though the friendship could be tempestuous; an important critic (disdainful of program music); contributed great insights into Pyotr's music and the occasional negative assessment of it; sometime professor at the Moscow and St. Petersburg conservatories; wrote about Pyotr's years at the St. Petersburg Conservatory in Modest Tchaikovsky's biography of Pyotr [38; 70; 103; 184].

  • Laub,

    Ferdinand (1832–1875). Czech violinist and pedagogue; professor of the Moscow Conservatory (1866–1874). Tchaikovsky's Third String Quartet is dedicated to Laub's memory.

  • Laube,

    Heinrich Wilhelm Julius (1841–1910). German conductor, notably in Hamburg; conducted Tchaikovsky's music with his own orchestra at concerts at the Pavlovsk Railway Station near St. Petersburg (1888–1891).

  • (p.495) Lavrovskaya,

    Elizaveta Andreevna [Princess Tserteleva by marriage] (1845–1919). Russian contralto who sang in Moscow and St. Petersburg (1868–1891); suggested to Tchaikovsky that he write an opera on the story of Pushkin's Evgeniy Onegin.

  • Lomakin,

    Gavriil Yakimovich (1812–1885). Russian choral conductor, composer, and pedagogue; with Mily Balakirev founded the Free Music School in St. Petersburg. Pyotr studied with him at the School of Jurisprudence.

  • Mackar,

    Felix (1837–1903). Founder of a music publishing firm in Paris, who bought from Jurgenson the rights to sell Tchaikovsky's works in France and Belgium. An important advocate of Tchaikovsky's music in Paris.

  • Mamanov,

    Nikolay N. One of the physicians attending Tchaikovsky during his final illness.

  • Meck,

    Nadezhda Filaretovna von (1831–1894). Wealthy, somewhat eccentric widow of a railroad magnate who became Tchaikovsky's patron and with whom he conducted an extensive and revealing correspondence (1876–1890), arguably the most important in his life.

  • Menter,

    Sophie (1846–1918). German pianist; student of Liszt; professor of the St. Petersburg Conservatory (1883–1887); friend of Tchaikovsky. Tchaikovsky orchestrated her (possibly Liszt's) “Hungarian Gypsy Songs” in 1892.

  • Merkling

    (née Chaykovskaya), Anna Petrovna “Anya” (1830–1911). Pyotr's first cousin and confidante; daughter of Pyotr Petrovich Tchaikovsky and his wife Elizaveta Petrovna; Merkling was an important correspondent outside the immediate family.

  • Meshcherskiy,

    (Prince) Vladimir Petrovich (1839–1911). Writer and publisher; editor of the newspaper Grazhdanin (Citizen); friend of Pyotr from the School of Jurisprudence.

  • Mighty Handful.

    The corporate identity of five Russian nationalist composers (hence their other nickname, “The Five”) in the 1860s: Mily Balakirev (the leader), César Cui, Modest Musorgsky, Alexander Borodin, and Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov.

  • Nápravnik,

    Eduard Francevič (1839–1916). Composer and celebrated conductor of the St. Petersburg branch of the Russian Musical Society (1869–1891) and other concerts and of opera in the St. Petersburg Imperial Theaters (1869–1916). He conducted many first performances of Tchaikovsky's music and was the dedicatee of The Maid of Orleans. Tchaikovsky regularly accepted Nápravnik's advice concerning the practical revision of operas [191; 268].

  • Nápravnik,

    Vladimir Eduardovich (1869–1948). Son of Eduard; secretary to the direction of the Russian Musical Society; an important correspondent of Tchaikovsky in the composer's later years.

  • Ol’khovskiy,

    Viktor Ivanovich. Poet, correspondent, and librettist of the 14-year-old Pyotr's project for an opera, Hyperbole.

  • Orlova

    (née Shneyerson), Aleksandra Anatol’ievna (b. 1911). Musicologist; publicized outside Russia the theory of Tchaikovsky's death by suicide.

  • (p.496) Ostrovskiy,

    Aleksandr Nikolaevich (1823–1886). Celebrated Russian dramatist, with whom Pyotr collaborated in Moscow, notably on the opera The Voevoda and the play The Snow Maiden.

  • Pachulski,

    Genrikh [Pakul'skiy Genrikh Al’bertovich] (1859–1921). Pianist and composer, professor of the Moscow Conservatory. Brother of Wladislaw Pachulski.

  • Pachulski,

    Wladislaw [Pakul'skiy, Vladislav Al’bertovich] (d. 1919). Son of a forester on Nadezhda von Meck's estate; later, her house violinist and son-in-law. At Meck's request, Tchaikovsky critiqued his compositions; he relayed messages to Tchaikovsky about Meck after the formal cessation of their correspondence.

  • Pal’chikova,

    Mariya Markovna (d. 1888). Tchaikovsky's first music teacher.

  • Palechek,

    Iosif Iosifovich [Osip Osipovich] (1842–1915). Bass singer; régisseur; leader of the opera chorus of the Maryinsky Theater, St. Petersburg. He prepared detailed production synopses of some of Tchaikovsky's operas, which were used as the bases for stagings outside St. Petersburg.

  • Pavlovskaya,

    Emilia Karlovna (1856–1935). Soprano of the Russian Imperial Theaters who created various roles in Tchaikovsky's operas; his correspondent.

  • Petipa,

    Marius Ivanovich (1818–1910). Dancer and choreographer; balletmaster (from 1862) and first balletmaster (from 1870) of the St. Petersburg Imperial Theaters. Collaborated with Tchaikovsky on The Sleeping Beauty.

  • Petrova,

    Anastasiya Petrovna (1824–1893). Pyotr's second childhood governess (1849–1850), who readied him for the entrance examinations to the preparatory division of the School of Jurisprudence. Dedicatee of Pyotr's first surviving composition, the “Anastasia Waltz” (1854) [440; 441].

  • Piccioli,

    Luigi (1812–1868). Teacher of singing in St. Petersburg who tutored Pyotr in Italian language and opera in the later 1850s.

  • Pogozhev,

    Vladimir Petrovich (1851–1935). Military officer and jurist; official of the direction of the Imperial Theaters (from 1881); involved with the production of Tchaikovsky's theater works in St. Petersburg.

  • Pollini,

    Bernhard (1838–1897). Impresario; conductor of an opera theater in Hamburg; from 1890, held rights in German-speaking countries to several of Tchaikovsky's stage works.

  • Popova,

    Anastasiya Vasil’evna “Sestritsa” (1807–1894). Daughter of Pyotr's father's sister. She lived with the Tchaikovsky family at Votkinsk and Alapaevsk and, later, with Sasha and Lev Davïdov at Kamenka.

  • Posokhova,

    Anastasiya Stepanovna (b. 1756 or 1760). Pyotr's paternal grandmother; wife of Pyotr Fyodorovich Tchaikovsky and the daughter of a voevoda, a garrison supervisor in the town of Kungera in the Perm region.

  • Pryanishnikov,

    Ippolit Petrovich (1847–1921). Baritone (the first Lionel in The Maid of Orleans, the first Mazepa in St. Petersburg); régisseur; pedagogue; opera impresario (mostly in Kiev) for whom Tchaikovsky conducted opera in Moscow in April 1892 [290; 317].

  • (p.497) Rachinskiy,

    Sergey Aleksandrovich (1836–1902). Professor of botany at Moscow University; proposed the epigraph that served as a program for Tchaikovsky's Fatum; and suggested opera subjects to him.

  • Rahter,

    Daniel Fedorovich (1828–1891). Tchaikovsky's publisher in Hamburg; owner of the music firm A. Bittner in St. Petersburg [224].

  • Razumovskiy,

    (Father) Dmitriy Vasil’evich (1818–1889). Orthodox priest who performed Tchaikovsky's marriage ceremony and who later assisted him in matters of church singing; Pyotr's colleague at the Moscow Conservatory and an important scholar in his own right [162].

  • Reno,

    Morris. President of the Music Hall Company of New York, he was involved with Tchaikovsky's invitations to conduct in the United States.

  • Romanov,

    (Grand Duke) Konstantin Konstantinovich (1858–1916). Poet who signed himself “K.R.” and provided texts for Tchaikovsky's op. 63 songs; an important correspondent of the composer on the aesthetics of poetry and the setting of words to music [244].

  • Romanov,

    (Grand Duke) Konstantin Nikolaevich (1827–1892). President of the Russian Musical Society; father of the Grand Duke Konstantin Konstantinovich; dedicatee of Tchaikovsky's opera The Oprichnik and the Third String Quartet.

  • Rubinshteyn

    [Rubinstein], Anton Grigor’evich (1829–1894). Eminent pianist and composer; brother of Nikolay; founder and first director of the Russian Musical Society in St. Petersburg and the St. Petersburg Conservatory; Pyotr's principal composition teacher [25; 26].

  • Rubinshteyn

    [Rubinstein], Nikolay Grigor’evich (1835–1881). Russian pianist, conductor, and pedagogue; brother of Anton; founder and first director of the Moscow Conservatory; responsible for many first performances of Tchaikovsky's works. He is the “great artist” memorialized in the dedication of Tchaikovsky's Piano Trio, op. 50 [27; 134; 179; 180; 185; 186].

  • Sack.

    See Zak.

  • Safonov,

    Vasiliy Il’ich (1852–1918). Pianist, conductor, professor, then director (1889–1905) of the Moscow Conservatory. Quarreled with Tchaikovsky over the appointment of Anatoly Brandukov as professor of cello after the death of Wilhelm Fitzenhagen; they were ultimately reconciled. Safonov conducted the read-through of Tchaikovsky's Sixth Symphony at the Moscow Conservatory before the composer conducted the first public performance in St. Petersburg.

  • Samarin,

    Ivan Vasil’evich (1817–1885). Russian actor, dramatist, and pedagogue. He produced the first staging of Evgeniy Onegin with students of the Moscow Conservatory and devised Onegin's closing lines in the opera.

  • Sapel’nikov,

    Vasiliy L’vovich (1868–1940). Russian pianist; student of Sophie Menter, who made concert tours with Tchaikovsky as conductor.

  • Shenshin,

    Dmitri Semenovich (1828–1897). Major-general; one of Tchaikovsky's creditors in Moscow.

  • (p.498) Shilovskaya

    (née Verderezhskaya), Mariya Vasil’evna (1830–1879). Singer; wife of Vladimir Begichev (after her first marriage to Stepan Shilovsky); hostess of a Moscow salon that Pyotr frequented in his early years there. He was tutor to her sons, Vladimir and Konstantin Shilovsky.

  • Shilovskiy,

    Konstantin Stepanovich (1849–1893). Actor, poet, musician; brother of Vladimir; assisted Tchaikovsky in the formulation of the libretto of Evgeniy Onegin.

  • Shilovskiy,

    Vladimir Stepanovich [Count Vasil’ev-Shilovskiy] (1852–1893). Pyotr's sometime student, with whom he developed a long and occasionally tempestuous friendship; brother of Konstantin. Shilovsky composed the Entr’acte before act II of Tchaikovsky's The Oprichnik.

  • Shlïkov,

    Aleksandr Aleksandrovich [also known as Pyotr Fedorovich Simonov and as Bol’kov]. Attorney for and, later, common-law husband of Tchaikovsky's wife, Antonina.

  • Shobert

    [Schobert] (née Assier), Elizaveta Andreevna (b. 1823). Half sister of Pyotr's mother. She lived with the Tchaikovsky family for a time in Alapaevsk (1849–1852) and they with her in St. Petersburg in 1858 after Pyotr's father lost his capital in a bad investment.

  • Shpazhinskaya

    (née Porokhontseva), Yuliya Petrovna (d. 1919). Pianist, aspiring writer. Wife of Ippolit Shpazhinsky

  • Shpazhinskiy,

    Ippolit Vasil’evich (1848–1917). Dramatist. Librettist of Tchaikovsky's opera The Enchantress.

  • Sieger,

    Friedrich. German writer on music and critic, director of the Frankfurt Museum Society, which sponsored concerts.

  • Siloti

    [Ziloti], Aleksandr Il’ich (1863–1945). Pianist, conductor, professor of the Moscow Conservatory. Tchaikovsky conferred with Siloti on various editorial matters, controversially on the first two piano concertos; he arranged The Sleeping Beauty for two hands [251].

  • Sinopov,

    P. Pseudonym by which Tchaikovsky occasionally signed himself.

  • Sofronov,

    Aleksey Ivanovich “Alyosha” (1859–1925). Pyotr's principal servant and the arranger of his domestic affairs from 1871, especially the preparation of the composer's homes in later life; beneficiary of Pyotr's will; brother of Mikhail. After Pyotr's death, Sofronov sold to Modest Tchaikovsky and Bob Davïdov the house at Klin, which became the composer's Home-Museum.

  • Sofronov,

    Mikhail Ivanovich (1848–1932). Brother of Aleksey; Pyotr's house servant for a time in the 1870s.

  • Sollogub,

    (Count) Vladimir Aleksandrovich (1814–1882). Russian writer and dramatist; author of the libretto Tchaikovsky set in the opera Undine (1869).

  • Solov’ev

    [Solovyov], Nikolay Feopemptovich (1846–1916). Composer; professor of the St. Petersburg Conservatory; critic generally ill disposed toward Tchaikovsky's music.

  • Stasov,

    Vladimir Vasil’evich (1824–1906). Art expert, publicist, critic, defender of the Mighty Handful.

  • (p.499) Steinbok-Fermor,

    Aleksandr Vladimirovich. According to the court-of-honor theory of Tchaikovsky's death, the object of the composer's affections, which triggered the events leading to his suicide.

  • Strauss,

    Johann, Jr. (1825–1899). Austrian composer (the so-called Waltz King) who conducted at the Pavlovsk Railway Station near St. Petersburg from 1856 to 1865; conducted the first known public performance of an orchestral work by Tchaikovsky, the “Characteristic Dances,” which was later revised and included in the opera The Voevoda.

  • Taffanel,

    Paul Claude (1844–1908). French flautist; conductor of the Paris Conservatory Concerts (1890–1893) and at the Opéra (1892–1908); appeared in Moscow as a flautist at Tchaikovsky's invitation.

  • Taneev

    [Taneyev], Sergey Ivanovich (1856–1915). Student and, later, professor and director of the Moscow Conservatory (1885–1889); pianist and composer; Tchaikovsky's close friend. He prepared a number of Tchaikovsky's compositions for posthumous publication, including a duet from Romeo and Juliet (music based on the overture/fantasia), the Andante and Finale for Piano and Orchestra, and several smaller works.

  • Tarnavich,

    (Father) Aleksandr Danilovich (1843–1923). Village priest at Kamenka, from whom Pyotr sought information about the text of the All-Night Vigil.

  • Tchaikovskaya.

    See Chaykovskaya.

  • Tchaikovsky.

    See Chaykovskiy

  • Tkachenko,

    Leontiy Grigor’evich (1857–1921). Mentally disturbed young man whom Tchaikovsky assisted (unsuccessfully) to develop an artistic career.

  • Tolstoy,

    Aleksey Konstantinovich (1817–1875). Russian poet and dramatist; provided the largest number of song texts of any poet whom Tchaikovsky set.

  • Tolstoy,

    (Count) Lev [Leo] Nikolaevich (1828–1910). Outstanding Russian novelist and writer, whom Tchaikovsky met in 1876 and engaged in a brief correspondence.

  • Vakar,

    Modest Alekseyevich. Friend of Ilya Petrovich Tchaikovsky who housed Pyotr as a student in his first years of school in St. Petersburg.

  • Vakar,

    Nikolay Modestovich (d. 1850). Son of Modest Vakar, whose death from scarlet fever may have been attributable to the 10-year-old Pyotr as a carrier of the illness into the Vakar home.

  • Vakar,

    Platon Alekseyevich (1826–1899). An important jurist in the Russian government; brother of Modest Vakar.

  • Val'ts

    [Valts, Waltz], Karl Fedorovich (1846–1929). Machinist and decorator of the Moscow Bolshoy and Maly theaters; occasional librettist of opera and ballet [402].

  • Verinovskiy,

    Ivan Aleksandrovich “Bomba” (d. 1886). Artillery officer for whom Pyotr developed strong feelings on his trip to Tiflis in 1886; Verinovsky committed suicide soon after Tchaikovsky's departure.

  • Viardot

    [Viardot-Garcia], Michelle Ferdinande Pauline (1821–1910). Eminent French mezzo-soprano, teacher of singing, and composer; trained under (p.500) her father, Manuel Garcia, Liszt, and Reicha; sister of Maria Malibran. Tchaikovsky studied the autograph of Don Giovanni in her home in Paris.

  • Voitov,

    Aleksandr (d. 1966). Numismatist at the Russian Museum in Leningrad; unofficial historian of the School of Jurisprudence, who conveyed the court-of-honor theory of Tchaikovsky's death between generations, from Nikolay Jacobi's widow to the Soviet musicologist Alexandra Orlova.

  • Vsevolozhskiy,

    Ivan Aleksandrovich (1835–1909). Director of the Imperial Theaters (1881–1899), who commissioned operas and ballets from Tchaikovsky.

  • Wolff,

    Hermann (1845–1902). Founder of an artists’ agency in Berlin (1881); helped arrange Tchaikovsky's tours abroad.

  • Yurgenson

    [Jurgenson], Pyotr Ivanovich (1836–1903). Founder of the music publishing company of that name, based in Moscow; Tchaikovsky's principal publisher.

  • Zak

    [Sack], Eduard (1854–1873). Student of Tchaikovsky at the Moscow Conservatory, toward whom the composer exhibited strong feelings and whose early suicide he lamented.

  • Zaremba,

    Nikolay Ivanovich (1821–1879). Music theorist and composer; Pyotr's teacher at the St. Petersburg Conservatory, of which he was later director.

  • Zet,

    Yuliy Ivanovich. Pianist and impresario; Tchaikovsky's agent; involved with arranging his foreign tours.

  • Zverev,

    Nikolay Sergeevich (1832–1893). Tchaikovsky's colleague at the Moscow Conservatory; professor of piano who taught (among others) Sergey Rachmaninov