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Tchaikovsky$

Roland John Wiley

Print publication date: 2009

Print ISBN-13: 9780195368925

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195368925.001.0001

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(p.454) (p.455) Appendix A Calendar

(p.454) (p.455) Appendix A Calendar

Source:
Tchaikovsky
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

(p.456) (p.457) (p.458) (p.459) (p.460) (p.461) (p.462) (p.463)

Year

Age

Life

Contemporary Events

1840

Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky born at Votkinsk, in the Urals, son of Ilya Petrovich Tchaikovsky, a mining engineer, and his wife, Alexandra Andreyevna Tchaikovskaya

Death of Paganini; Schumann (30) marries Clara Wieck (20); Lermontov writes A Hero of Our Time; Great Britain is ascendant in the industrial revolution; Napoleon's ashes are returned to Paris; China is in the midst of the Opium War; Cherubini is aged 80, Auber 58, Meyerbeer 49, Rossini 48, Donizetti 43, Berlioz 37, Glinka 36, Men - delssohn 31, Chopin 30, Liszt 29, Wagner, Verdi and Dargomïzhsky 27, Gounod 22, Dostoevsky 19, Lalo 17, Smetana and Bruckner 16, Johann Strauss, Jr. 15, Lev Tolstoy 12, Anton Rubinstein 11, Hans von Bülow 10, Brahms and Borodin 7, St.-Saëns, César Cui, and Nikolay Rubinstein 5, Mussorgsky 1

1841

1

Pyotr's sister Alexandra “Sasha” is born on 29 December

Schumann's “song year”; birth of Dvorˇák; Wagner composes The Flying Dutchman

1842

2

Death of Cherubini; birth of Massenet; Gogol publishes Dead Souls; building of railway service between St. Petersburg and Moscow begins

1843

3

Pyotr's brother Ippolit born on 10 April

Birth of Grieg; Britain annexes the Sind

1844

4

Fanny Dürbach joins the Tchaikovsky family as governess to the children

Births of Rimsky-Korsakov, Ilya Repin, and Nietzsche; electric telegraph opens between Wash- ington and Baltimore; Marx meets Engels

1845

5

Birth of Fauré; premieres of Wagner's Tannhäuser, Mendelssohn's Violin Concerto

1846

6

Premieres of Berlioz's La damnation de Faust, Schumann's Second Symphony

1847

7

Deaths of Felix Mendelssohn and Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel

1848

8

The family leaves Votkinsk, visits Moscow and St. Petersburg

Death of Donizetti; antimonarchical revolutionary uprisings throughout Europe; Marx publishes The Communist Manifesto; Cavour effects the political reorganization of the Piedmont

1849

9

Family moves to Alapaevsk; Anastasia Petrova, to whom Pyotr dedicated his first surviving music, joins the family as the children's governess.

Death of Chopin; Britain conquers the Punjab, the last important Indian territory outside British control; the California gold rush begins

1850

10

Modest and Anatoly Tchaikovsky are born; Pyotr is enrolled in the preparatory division of the School of Jurisprudence in St. Petersburg; Nikolay Vakar dies

Death of Wordsworth; the Bach Gesellschaft is founded

1851

11

Birth of d’Indy; premiere of Verdi's Rigoletto; Great Exhibition in London

1852

12

Pyotr's parents move back to St. Petersburg; he enters the School of Jurisprudence

The Bach Gesellschaft begins the systematic publication of Bach's works

1853

13

Russia's war with Turkey initiates the Crimean War; the first railway line is opened in India

1854

14

Pyotr's mother dies; he writes down his first surviving composition, the “Anastasia Waltz”; contemplates an opera, Hyperbole

Birth of Janácˇek; Liszt composes A Faust Symphony; Wagner finishes Das Rheingold

1855

15

Pyotr begins the study of piano with Rudolf Kündinger

Emperor Nikolay I dies; Sevastopol falls;Alexander II ascends the Russian throne; aluminum is introduced to the public at the Paris Exhibition; the Panama Railway opens

1856

16

Takes up the study of Italian and singing with Luigi Piccioli

Births of Sergey Taneyev, Sigmund Freud; the Treaty of Paris ends the Crimean War

1857

17

Death of Glinka; birth of Elgar

1858

18

Birth of Puccini; the East India Company transfers the administration of India to the British Parliament

1859

19

Pyotr graduates from the School of Jurisprudence, joins the civil service in the Ministry of Justice

Premiere of Gounod's Faust; Darwin publishes The Origin of Species

1860

20

Pyotr's sister Alexandra marries Lev Davïdov, moves to his estate at Kamenka in the Ukraine

Births of Mahler, Hugo Wolf, Chekhov

1861

21

Travels to Western Europe as a translator during the summer; takes his first course in music theory in the autumn

Russian serfdom is abolished; the American Civil War begins; proclamation of the kingdom of Italy; Britain annexes Lagos as a Crown colony

1862

22

Enters the St. Petersburg Conservatory

Births of Debussy, Walter Damrosch; premiere of Verdi's La Forza del destino (in St. Petersburg);Tolstoy begins writing War and Peace; Turgenev writes Fa- thers and Sons; Otto von Bismarck becomes chief minister of Prussia, makes his “blood and iron” speech; the “Wanderers” revolt against the St. Petersburg Academy of Art

1863

23

Resigns from active service in the Ministry of Justice; begins study with Anton Rubinstein

Wagner conducts in Russia; Abraham Lincoln issues the U.S. Emancipation Proclamation; birth of Mascagni

1864

24

Composes The Storm, an overture to Ostrovsky's play

Death of Meyerbeer; birth of Richard Strauss; Dostoevsky publishes Notes from the Underground

1865

25

First public performance of Tchaikovsky's Characteristic Dances, conducted by Johann Strauss, Jr.; graduates from St. Petersburg Conservatory

Lincoln is assassinated; births of Sibelius and Glazunov; premiere of Wagner's Tristan und Isolde; American Civil War ends

1866

26

Moves to Moscow; begins teaching music theory; debuts as professional composer with the revised Overture in F; Moscow Conservatory opens in September; composes the First Symphony

Births of Busoni and Satie; Dostoevsky publishes Crime and Punishment; first transatlantic cable is laid; British foreign investment reaches £500 million

1867

27

Begins The Voevoda; flirtation with Vera Davïdova in Hapsal; composes the Souvenir de Hapsal, op. 2; greets Berlioz during his visit to Moscow

Marx publishes first volume of Das Kapital; United States purchases Alaska from Russia; the British North America Act creates the dominion of Canada;Alfred Nobel granted a patent in Great Britain for dynamite

1868

28

First serious engagement with Balakirev and the Mighty Hand- ful; finishes The Voevoda; composes Fatum; flirtation with Désirée Artôt leads to some thought of marriage; writes his first music review; his op. 1 is published

Death of Rossini; premiere of Wagner's Die Meistersinger; Disraeli becomes prime minister of Great Britain

1869

29

Premiere of The Voevoda; composes Romeo and Juliet and op. 6 songs; composes the opera Undine

Death of Dargomïzhsky; birth of Gandhi; opening of the Suez Canal; the transcontinental rail- way across United States opens

1870

30

Visits Vladimir Shilovsky in Germany; is caught up in the turmoil of the Franco-Prussian War; revises Romeo and Juliet; Undine is rejected in St. Petersburg; begins The Oprichnik

Franco-Prussian War begins; birth of Lenin; First Vatican Council affirms the principle of papal infallibility as Rome is being occupied; refrigeration is introduced on trains and ships

1871

31

Tchaikovsky's benefit concert in March features the First String Quartet; he obtains separate living quarters for the first time

Death of Auber; premiere of Verdi's Aïda; Paris capitulates in the Franco-Prussian War; proclamation of the German Empire under Kaiser Wilhelm I; Rome becomes the capital of a united Italy

1872

32

Takes up music criticism in earnest, finishes The Oprichnik; composes the Second Symphony; first signs of serious discontent with Moscow; his nephew Vladimir “Bob” Davïdov is born

Births of Scriabin and Vaughan Williams; internal self- government in South Africa begins

1873

33

Composes The Tempest, the piano pieces opp. 19 and 21, incidental music to Ostrovsky's The Snow Maiden; as critic, engages César Cui in polemic; tours Europe in the summer; suicide of Eduard Zak

Birth of Rachmaninov;Tolstoy begins Anna Karenina

1874

34

Composes Vakula the Smith, the Second String Quartet, the First Piano Concerto; The Oprichnik is staged; his newspaper criticism shows discontent for Moscow; Nikolay Rubinstein critiques First Piano Concerto; reviews Hans von Bülow, who begins to praise him in print

Births of Schönberg and Ives; premiere of Musorgsky's Boris Godunov; birth of Guglielmo Marconi, inventor of the radio

1875

35

Discontent with Moscow increases; sends the First Piano Concerto to Bülow for its first performance (Boston, October); composes the Third Symphony, songs opp. 27–28; wins a competition for setting Vakula the Smith; begins to compose Swan Lake

Birth of Ravel; premiere of Carmen; death of Bizet

1876

36

Composes the Third String Quartet, Marche slave, Francesca da Rimini, Variations on a Rococo Theme; hears Carmen and The Nibelung's Ring for the first time; abandons music criticism; fiery infatuation with Nikolay Konradi, Modest's deaf mute student, brings on a resolve to marry; Vakula the Smith is staged; meets Lev Tolstoy; receives his first letter from Nadezhda von Meck

Telephone is invented; premiere of Brahms's First Symphony; the first Bayreuth Festival; Custer is defeated at the Battle of the Little Big Horn

1877

37

Composes the Fourth Symphony and Evgeniy Onegin over the course of the year; Swan Lake staged in February; acknowledges a passion for (student) violinist Josef Kotek as he looks for a suitable marriage partner; he chooses Antonina Milyukova in May and marries her in July; retires to Kamenka (without his wife) for the ummer, probably conceives a divorce strategy; feigns illness to cover an escape to Western Europe, abandoning his teaching post in Moscow; Sasha Davïdova initiates a bitter dispute with Pyotr and Anatoly, who press for Antonina's banishment; they finally prevail in November; Pyotr travels to Italy at the end of the year

Russia declares war against Turkey over Slav nationalism in the Balkans; the Turkish fortress at Plevna falls;Thomas Edison invents the phonograph; Henry Morton Stanley returns from his journey down the Congo River

1878

38

(Unsuccessfully) attempts legal avenues of divorce; Pyotr returns to Moscow Conservatory in September, but resigns in October; develops his affinities with Meck; visits Florence in November to be near her; finishes Evgeniy Onegin; composes the Violin Concerto, Piano Sonata (op. 37a), Children's Album, op. 40 piano pieces, songs of op. 38, and the Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom; decides on The Maid of Orleans as his next opera

Nikolay Rubinstein conducts the first performance of the Fourth Symphony in Moscow (February) and other works at the World Exhibition in Paris

1879

39

Composes The Maid of Orleans, First Suite, Second Piano Concerto; Evgeniy Onegin is staged by students; a lawsuit regarding the Liturgy is initiated; a period of nomadic travel begins, interrupted by summers at Kamenka; the Meck relationship achieves a vicarious intimacy; the two matchmake a marriage of one of his nieces with one of her sons; revises the Second Symphony

First edition of Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians; Dostoevsky begins The Brothers Karamazov; birth of Stalin; Thomas Edison demonstrates the carbon filament lamp; Bismarck initiates a series of alliances aimed at determining European political alignments

1880

40

Tchaikovsky's father dies; the Meck correspondence begins to dwindle; he lets pass his best prospect for a divorce, based on Antonina's pregnancy; his sister's health begins to fail; he prepares The Maid of Orleans for production; composes Capriccio Italien, op. 46 duets, op. 47 songs, Serenade for Strings, and 1812

Meck finances a performance of the Fourth Symphony in Paris; birth of Ernest Bloch; death of Offenbach

1881

41

Livelihood is affected by threats to Meck's business and the death of Nikolay Rubinstein; his sister and his niece Tatyana (“Tanya”) descend into morphine addiction; appeals to the tsar for a loan; Jurgenson prevails in the lawsuit over the Liturgy; Pyotr agrees to edit the sacred works of Dmitry Bortnyansky; Onegin and The Maid of Orleans are staged professionally;Antonina gives birth to a daughter; in Vienna, Adolf Brodsky gives the first performance of the Violin Concerto

Alexander III assassinated; birth of Bartók; Repin paints Musorgsky's portrait; deaths of Musorgsky and Dostoevsky

1882

42

Finishes Piano Trio; begins to disengage with Kamenka as a residence; finishes composing and begins scoring Mazepa; composes the All-Night Vigil

Birth of Stravinsky; death of Darwin; premiere of Wagner's Parsifal

1883

43

In Paris, attends to the detoxification of Tatyana Davïdova and the birth of her son until mid-May; completes Mazepa; composes a March and a Cantata for Alexander III's coronation, then the Second Suite and op. 54 songs later in the year; niece Anna Davïdova marries Meck's son Nikolay

Coronation of Alexander III; deaths of Wagner and Marx; Fabian Society founded in London

1884

44

Premieres of Mazepa in Moscow and St. Petersburg; composes the Third Suite, the Concert Fantasia, op. 57 songs, three cherubic hymns; receives the Order of St. Vladimir, Fourth Class, at an audience with the emperor; complaints of illness increase; letters take on a philosophical tone; writes unusual alphabet codes in diaries; premiere of Evgeniy Onegin in the St. Petersburg Imperial Theaters; visits the dying Josef Kotek in Davos; makes preparations in Paris for the return of grandnephew Georges- Léon to Russia; desire for a permanent home increases

Birth of Boris Asafiev; premiere of Massenet's Manon; death of Smetana

1885

45

Rents a house at Maydanovo; revises Vakula as Cherevichki; composes Manfred; begins The Enchantress; elected director of the Russian Musical Society in Moscow; Hans von Bülow conducts first performance of the Third Suite

Birth of Alban Berg; Repin paints Ivan the Terrible with his Murdered Son; Gottlieb Daimler patents a high-speed internal combustion engine; Berlin Act formalizes decisions of colonial powers about claims to territory in Africa; organization of the Indian National Congress; Mark Twain publishes Huckleberry Finn

1886

46

Experiences a period of heightened religious feeling; increased complaints about his health; drafts his will; continues work on The Enchantress; visits Tiflis; meets Verinovsky; in Paris, meets several luminaries in the musical world; agrees to write a new ballet; pre- pares for his conducting debut

Death of Liszt; the first Home Rule Bill (for Ireland) is introduced in the British Parliament

1887

47

Premiere of Cherevichki initiates his conducting career; death of Tatyana Davïdova; his own illness continues; attends the dying Nikolay Kondratiev at Aachen; conducts the premiere of The Enchantress; arranges Mozartiana and composes the Pezzo capriccioso; begins a conducting tour of Western Europe

Death of Borodin; birth of Nadia Boulanger; premiere of Verdi's Otello; the United States acquires Pearl Harbor

1888

48

Continues his first conducting tour; learns of his annuity from the emperor, with whom is he granted an audience; takes a new home in Frolovskoe; composes Fifth Symphony, Hamlet Overture; agrees to compose Sadia, on a libretto by Détroyat and Gallet, for Paris, and The Sleeping Beauty for St. Petersburg

Wilhelm II becomes emperor of Germany

1889

49

Makes second foreign conducting tour; engagements in Moscow, and in St. Petersburg for the 50th anniversary jubilee of Anton Rubinstein; composes The Sleeping Beauty

Births of Adolf Hitler, Jean Cocteau; Rimsky-Korsakov conducts at the World Exhibition in Paris; premiere of Mahler's First Symphony

1890

50

Premiere of The Sleeping Beauty; goes to Florence to compose The Queen of Spades; the break with Nadezhda von Meck; premiere of The Queen of Spades

Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft founded; premiere of Borodin's Prince Igor, completed by Rimsky-Korsakov and Glazunov; Bismarck dismissed; premiere of Cavalleria Rusticana

1891

51

Suffers difficulties of concentration, caused by doubts of imperial favor; death of Sasha Davïdova; travels to United States for the opening of the Music Hall in New York; the final stage of the Meck relationship; begins work on the Symphony in E-flat

Birth of Prokofiev; construction on the Trans-Siberian Railway is begun; British foreign investment reaches £2,000 million

1892

52

Conducts in Warsaw, Hamburg, Moscow (for the Pryanishnikov Opera); renews acquaintance with his childhood governess, Fanny Dürbach; completes Iolanta and The Nutcracker, both first performed in December; moves into his last home, at Klin; continues work on the Symphony in E-flat

Death of Lalo; births of Honegger and Milhaud; premiere of I Pagliacci; dancer Vladimir Stepanov publishes a treatise on movement notation, which is taken up by the Imperial Russian Ballet

1893

53

Conducts in Odessa, Moscow; composes the Sixth Symphony, op. 72 piano pieces, op. 73 songs; visits England; receives honorary doctorate at Cambridge; conducts there and in London; conducts premiere of Sixth Symphony; falls ill on 21 October, dies on

Deaths of Alexander III, Gounod, Apukhtin; premiere of Verdi's Falstaff; Labor Party founded in England; Franco-Russian alliance takes effect; Gandhi moves to South Africa