Kaplan finds demonstratives puzzling. He offers only one theory of indexicals; once the right distinctions are made, the facts about the semantics of indexicals are “obvious and incontrovertible.” The case is otherwise with demonstratives. He says at the end of his discussion in “Afterthoughts”: “There is something I'm not understanding here, and it may be something very fundamental about the subject matter of logic.” This chapter develops a version of Kaplan's Directing Intentions Theory and argues in its favor, and indicates how this version might help with the logical problems that vex Kaplan.
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