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Infant Perception and CognitionRecent Advances, Emerging Theories, and Future Directions$
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Lisa Oakes, Cara Cashon, Marianella Casasola, and David Rakison

Print publication date: 2010

Print ISBN-13: 9780195366709

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195366709.001.0001

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Perceptual Constraints on Implicit Memory for Visual Features: Statistical Learning in Human Infants

Perceptual Constraints on Implicit Memory for Visual Features: Statistical Learning in Human Infants

Chapter:
(p.111) 6 Perceptual Constraints on Implicit Memory for Visual Features: Statistical Learning in Human Infants
Source:
Infant Perception and Cognition
Author(s):

Richard N. Aslin

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195366709.003.0006

Younger and Cohen established a “statistical” approach to visual category formation by asking whether infants are sensitive to the correlations among features in five-feature objects. Their results provided compelling evidence that feature correlations are not extracted efficiently until after seven months of age. Fiser and Aslin elaborated on this statistical learning approach by characterizing which statistics are used to bind adjacent elements in multi-element scenes. A key question confronting a statistical learning approach is how infants extract just the right statistics from the vast array of potential statistics available in even simple visual stimuli, rather than being overwhelmed by the task of computing both relevant and irrelevant statistics. This chapter reviews five constraints on statistical learning: Gestalt cues, a hierarchy of stimulus salience, a first-in bias that blocks subsequent statistical learning, limited working memory, and the spatial scale at which stimulus features are accessible during a single fixation.

Keywords:   infant category learning, statistical learning, visual category formation, Gestalt cues, stimulus salience, first-in bias, spatial scale

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