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Tempests, Poxes, Predators, and PeopleStress in Wild Animals and How They Cope$
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John C. Wingfield and L.Michael Romero

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9780195366693

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: December 2015

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195366693.001.0001

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Responses to Natural Perturbations

Responses to Natural Perturbations

Tempests—Weather and Climate Events

(p.309) 8 Responses to Natural Perturbations
Tempests, Poxes, Predators, and People

L. Michael Romero

John C. Wingfield

Oxford University Press

Weather has profound influences on behavior and facultative physiological and endocrine mechanisms have evolved to cope with this type of environmental perturbation. Other factors, such as territory or home range quality, access to shelter and food, social status, body condition, parasite infection and injuries, all contribute to allostatic load, the daily expenditure required to go about daily and seasonal routines. Human disturbance, through exploitation of natural resources, urbanization, pollution, and global climate change, is an additional source of extreme environmental modification and it is not surprising that many organisms are struggling to cope. This chapter proposes that the concepts of allostasis, allostatic load, and allostatic overload may provide a framework to understand how individuals cope with normal environmental perturbations such as heat, cold, wind, drought, and rain.

Keywords:   weather, endocrine mechanisms, climate change, allostasis, allostatic load, environment, heat, cold, wind, drought, rain

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