Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Worship Wars in Early Lutheranism Choir, Congregation and Three Centuries of Conflict$

Joseph Herl

Print publication date: 2008

Print ISBN-13: 9780195365849

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2010

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195365849.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.oxfordscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2017. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy). Subscriber: null; date: 26 February 2017

(p.215) APPENDIX 4 The Mass According to the Church Orders

(p.215) APPENDIX 4 The Mass According to the Church Orders

Source:
Worship Wars in Early Lutheranism Choir, Congregation and Three Centuries of Conflict
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

The summary tables below contain information from Lutheran church orders on the presence or absence of the various parts of the mass. Indicated for each part present are its language (Latin or German) and whether it was performed by the priest, the choir, or the entire congregation. All orders listed in the bibliography that are prescriptive in nature and contain an order for mass are represented, for a total of 172 orders. This number includes 61 printed and 32 manuscript orders for territories larger than a city and 39 printed and 40 manuscript orders for cities, villages, and individual parishes. Two orders have been included that are not, strictly speaking, church orders: the Leipzig orders of 1694 and 1710 are actually devotional books intended for the people to read privately during services, but the running commentary on the mass is so detailed that it seems best to include them. Some church orders listed in the bibliography do not contain mass orders and so are not represented in this appendix.

There are substantially more orders from the sixteenth century than from the seventeenth and eighteenth. This is partly because many territories simply reprinted the older orders; but also because manuscript orders from the later centuries are difficult to locate, as the originals are likely to be locked away in archives, and only occasionally has one been printed as part of a historical study. In a few cases a later order has been changed only slightly from an earlier one; in the tables the changes are given in endnotes, and the column heading includes both dates. To save space, later editions of orders with substantially the same liturgical content are not represented here but are identified in appendix 3 and in the bibliography (see part 1 of the bibliography for an explanation of “substantially the same”).

Only masses for Sundays and holy days are represented below. A few church orders have liturgies (usually simplified ones) for weekday masses that are not represented in the tables. For simplicity’s sake, the tables do not report how the service is to be truncated when there are no communicants. If the mass order for villages is in a separate section in the agenda from the order for cities, it is given in a separate column (and counted separately in the total number of orders).

Below the name of each territory or city is given the type of order (PT—printed territorial; PC—printed city, village, or parish; MT—manuscript territorial; MC—manuscript (p.216) city, village, or parish) and its approximate location within sixteenth-century Germany, abbreviated with standard compass directions plus “C” for “central.” The distinction between territorial and city orders is somewhat academic, for some territories were hardly any larger than cities, and some cities had surrounding villages included in their territory. The distinction between printed and manuscript orders is significant only because the printed orders received much greater circulation and to that extent may be deemed more important in history.

The total number of editions represented in the tables in appendix 3 is also given. This figure may be less than the number of editions actually published on account of the “five-year rule” (see the introduction to appendix 3). For the number of editions actually published (and seen by this author), see the bibliography. Orders for which editions appeared in both the sixteenth and subsequent centuries have a number in parentheses following the total number of editions. This represents the number of editions published during the sixteenth century alone and is used in the calculations for the table at the beginning of chapter 4.

Explanation of Abbreviations and Symbols

+ indicates a part of the service sung or spoken by the priest or deacon.

L indicates a part of the service done in Latin; G indicates a part done in German; if the language is not explicitly specified in the church order but is evident with a high degree of probability from context or other evidence, the language indication is placed in parentheses. If the language to be used is less certain, the letter is followed by a question mark (L?).

L/G indicates a part of the service that may be done in either Latin or German; the order (L/G or G/L) is that given in the source.

L-G indicates a part of the service that is done in Latin, then done again in German.

A check mark (✓) indicates a part of the service that either is untexted (e.g., Elevation) or whose language cannot be determined from the source, and Latin or German both seem equally likely.

A cross (×) indicates a part of the service whose omission is explicitly directed in the source.

A blank space indicates a part of the service not mentioned in the source.

A letter in square brackets indicates a part of the service virtually certain to have been done but which is not explicitly indicated in the order.

A raised circle to the left of a letter (oL) indicates a part of the service explicitly assigned to the choir; a raised circle to the right (Go) indicates a part of the service explicitly assigned to the congregation.

Lowered circles are used only in connection with the Agnus Dei. A lowered circle to the left of a letter (oL) indicates that the Agnus is sung before the distribution of communion; a lowered circle to the right (Go) indicates that it is sung after com-munion; and a lowered circle directly below (G) indicates that it is sung during communion. If nothing is indicated in this pos+ition, the place of the Agnus Dei cannot be determined.

Italics indicate a part of the service that may be omitted if desired or that is sung only on certain festivals.

Raised numbers refer to notes at the end of the appendix.

References to the Salutation are omitted; it may be sung before any collect and at the beginning of the Preface.

Minor deviations from the usual mass order, such as when the Verba precede the Sanctus, are not noted.

Extraliturgical figural and organ music mentioned in the sources is not noted.

(p.217)

APPENDIX 4 The Mass According to the Church Orders

(p.218)

APPENDIX 4 The Mass According to the Church Orders

(p.219)

APPENDIX 4 The Mass According to the Church Orders

(p.220)

APPENDIX 4 The Mass According to the Church Orders

(p.221)

APPENDIX 4 The Mass According to the Church Orders

(p.222)

APPENDIX 4 The Mass According to the Church Orders

(p.223)

APPENDIX 4 The Mass According to the Church Orders

(p.224)

APPENDIX 4 The Mass According to the Church Orders

(p.225)

APPENDIX 4 The Mass According to the Church Orders

(p.226)

APPENDIX 4 The Mass According to the Church Orders

(p.227)

APPENDIX 4 The Mass According to the Church Orders

(p.228)

APPENDIX 4 The Mass According to the Church Orders

(p.229)

APPENDIX 4 The Mass According to the Church Orders

(p.230)

APPENDIX 4 The Mass According to the Church Orders

(p.231)

APPENDIX 4 The Mass According to the Church Orders

(p.232)

APPENDIX 4 The Mass According to the Church Orders

(p.233)

APPENDIX 4 The Mass According to the Church Orders

(p.234)

APPENDIX 4 The Mass According to the Church Orders

(p.235)

APPENDIX 4 The Mass According to the Church Orders

(p.236)

APPENDIX 4 The Mass According to the Church Orders

(p.237)

APPENDIX 4 The Mass According to the Church Orders

(p.238)

APPENDIX 4 The Mass According to the Church Orders

(p.239) Notes to Appendix 4

  1. 1. A confession and absolution are done with the people.

  2. 2. Preceded by a psalm and corporate confession.

  3. 3. The text of a “Latin” Kyrie is actually in Greek.

  4. 4. The Gloria and Et in terra are typically omitted during Lent (and sometimes Advent) even where this is not indicated.

  5. 5. The Alleluia is sung “with the melody rhymed according to the German psalm.”

  6. 6. On high feasts and sometimes during their seasons, the Sequence is typically performed with a German version sung by the congregation placed between phrases of the Latin sung by the choir.

  7. 7. In some orders the Gospel is omitted because it is read from the pulpit before the sermon.

  8. 8. The pulpit service is rarely given in full in the sources, as it was done similarly all over Germany and was therefore well known. An outline is given in chapter 2.

  9. 9. The sermon follows the communion.

  10. 10. The Sanctus is indicated only when it is sung after the Preface or the Verba. When the German Sanctus is sung during the communion distribution, it is counted under “psalm(s) or hymn(s) during communion.”

  11. 11. The Our Father is never omitted, but occasionally it may appear only as a paraphrase within the exhortation to communicants.

  12. 12. The Elevation may be omitted if the people have been instructed as to its true meaning.

  13. 13. After the communion and before the collect the priest speaks the Nunc dimittis in German.

  14. 14. Followed by the Benedicamus Domino and three verses of Es woll uns Gott genädig sein.

  15. 15. Preceded by the Benedicamus Domino.

  16. 16. Preceded by the Benedicamus Domino.

  17. 17. The Nunc dimittis is sung.

  18. 18. Preceded by the singing of Alma redemptoris mater.

  19. 19. In villages where Latin is not possible the people may sing a German Christian hymn to begin the mass. Where the Introit, etc., is already sung in German it may remain.

  20. 20. Followed by a prayer for grace and the Holy Spirit and a brief hymn.

  21. 21. Inasmuch as the Kyrie is sung three times, it would be good to sing it once in each of Greek, Latin, and German (presumbably the Greek and Latin would be the same!).

  22. 22. The common prayer for the needs of all Christendom and the emperor is said here.

  23. 23. If there are no scholars the Alleluia is not done.

  24. 24. Sung to the rhymed German version so that one may sing along.

  25. 25. “A lesson” is read here, not necessarily the Gospel.

  26. 26. The people and choir alternate verses on the Nicene Creed while the communicants assemble in the chancel.

  27. 27. The Preface and Sanctus may remain even if there are no scholars, for “one enjoys singing such a thing” (“me wolde denne susse gerne singen”).

  28. 28. A silent Our Father is done at the end of the exhortation.

  29. 29. A German hymn is sung in places where there are insufficient resources for performing in Latin.

  30. 30. A confession and comfortable words (“Trostspruch”) are done with the people.

  31. 31. The choir sings the Introit while the priest reads the Confiteor. Then the Introit Aus tiefer Not or another psalm is sung. At times the choir or people sing the antiphon Veni sancte spiritus/Komm, heiliger Geist in place of the Introit.

  32. 32. Sung if there is no choir to sing an introit.

  33. 33. Preceded by the Benedictus.

  34. 34. Preceded by the choir singing Veni sancte spiritus on high feasts or Komm, heiliger Geist on other days.

  35. 35. The Et in terra may be omitted in winter.

  36. 36. Sermon held on Fridays.

  37. 37. The people and choir alternate verses on the Nicene Creed while the communicants assemble in the chancel.

  38. 38. A German hymn is sung in place of the Offertory.

  39. 39. Sung immediately following the exhortation to communicants. Followed by the Pax Domini in Latin or German.

  40. (p.240)
  41. 40. Sung in Latin during the communion distribution and in German when the communion is done.

  42. 41. Preceded by the Benedicamus Domino in Latin.

  43. 42. The printed order for 1537 is supplemented by a manuscript order of the same year that gives additional details concerning the service.

  44. 43. The German Benedictus is sung, then a Latin Introit may be sung where there are good scholars.

  45. 44. Preceded by a corporate confession and absolution.

  46. 45. Either the mass order ends here, or Richter does not reprint those portions dealing with communion.

  47. 46. Followed by a corporate confession and absolution.

  48. 47. Followed by a corporate confession and absolution and a Collect. In 1545 the absolution is replaced with the comfortable words.

  49. 48. The direction given is simply that the priest “holds the Lord’s Supper in German,” which presumably includes at least the Our Father and the Verba.

  50. 49. This order was slightly revised in 1572, but the differences are not significant and so are not reported here.

  51. 50. Preceded by the sermon and the singing of the Litany.

  52. 51. Apparently a German translation of the Latin introit is sung. In villages, the order should be kept as closely as possible, but a (German) psalm may be sung in place of the Introit, the Et in terra, the Alleluia and the Sequence.

  53. 52. In villages: first a Latin Introit or German psalm, then Kyrie, Allein Gott (both of which may be omitted), Collect, Epistle, German psalm, Gospel, sermon, exhortation to communicants, Our Father, Verba, (communion), collect, benediction.

  54. 53. The directions are for the schoolmaster to sing the Introit, Kyrie, etc.; but there is no question that what is meant is that the schoolmaster with the boys in the choir should sing.

  55. 54. The choir sings the Latin Gloria, then the congregation sings the German Allein Gott in der Höh sei Ehr. If this is too long, either the Latin or the German may be omitted, or the entire Gloria may be omitted if desired.

  56. 55. In villages where no one understands Latin the Epistle and Gospel are read only in German.

  57. 56. A German song is sung by the people, followed by a Latin Alleluia and Sequence or Tract.

  58. 57. The sequence or a German psalm is sung.

  59. 58. Either a Latin Sequence or a German psalm or other song is sung.

  60. 59. In certain seasons a German psalm is sung in place of the Sequence.

  61. 60. An offertory or a German psalm is sung.

  62. 61. The exhortation, which includes a paraphrase of the Our Father, may occasionally be replaced with a Latin preface, Latin Sanctus and German Our Father, with the Latin Agnus Dei sung during the communion.

  63. 62. Follows the Agnus Dei and a prayer in Latin. The Agnus Dei precedes the other songs during communion.

  64. 63. Follwed by a corporate confession and absolution.

  65. 64. Sung after the responsory or German song.

  66. 65. Followed by the Pax Domini in German.

  67. 66. Preceded by the German Benedictus sung by the people.

  68. 67. The sequence of events is: the people sing a German psalm, the pastor reads a lesson on Holy Communion, an exhortation and corporate confession are done, and where there are clerics and scholars they sing an Introit in Latin. Where there are no clerics, everything is sung and read in German, and the singing is shortened so as to be most edifying to the people.

  69. 68. The pastor should see to it that the people learn to sing the Kyrie and Gloria in German as well.

  70. 69. The German Gloria sung by the congregation is placed within the Latin Gloria sung by the choir.

  71. 70. The exhortation to prayer for all sorts and conditions is read in place of the Epistle, followed by a section of the catechism.

  72. 71. In small villages two or three scholars sing the Litany in German after the Epistle, and the rest of the choir and people answer; followed by the Da pacem with the Collect. In 1545 the direction is that the priest may read whatever is most serviceable to his office, or the scholars may sing an Alleluia and Gradual or a German psalm.

  73. 72. Sung during the communion.

  74. (p.241)
  75. 73. The Latin of the choir alternates with the German of the congregation.

  76. 74. Sung in alternation.

  77. 75. The mass presumably concludes with the Collect and benediction, as in the village order for the same year.

  78. 76. The Introit, Kyrie and Gloria are sung by the choir. Where there is no choir, the priest may sing or speak them or the congregation may sing a German hymn.

  79. 77. Preceded by the singing of the Veni, sancte by the schoolmaster and the boys and the singing of a German collect for the Holy Spirit by the priest.

  80. 78. Followed by a brief hymn.

  81. 79. Lacking in the order but presumed to have been present.

  82. 80. The congregation sings the German Creed or another hymn at the beginning of the sermon.

  83. 81. The sermon follows the communion. The German creed is sung by the congregation immediately before the sermon.

  84. 82. The sermon follows the communion.

  85. 83. Another psalm is sung, or the choir sings the German Litany.

  86. 84. Before the Verba a brief eucharistic prayer is read, and the Verba precede the Sanctus and Our Father.

  87. 85. Followed by the Pax Domini in German.

  88. 86. The choir sings the Latin Communion and perhaps a responsory; where there is no choir the people sing a German hymn.

  89. 87. Two Collects are done, the second in Latin.

  90. 88. Preceded by the Benedicamus Domino in Latin.

  91. 89. This is an Interim order and so cannot be taken as representative of the Lutheran position. German is to be used only where the choir cannot sing in Latin.

  92. 90. During the Confiteor the choir sings the Veni Sancte is Latin, after which the priest sings a versicle and Collect in Latin or German.

  93. 91. Sung by the choir and people in alternation; followed by a corporate confession and absolution.

  94. 92. Preceded by a corporate confession and absolution.

  95. 93. Sung by the choir and people in alternation.

  96. 94. The choir or clerk sings the Kyrie to the people so that they might learn it, or the choir sings it in Latin.

  97. 95. Sung by the “two choirs” in alternation. It is unclear whether this refers to the two halves of the choir or to the choir and the people.

  98. 96. For all preceding the Epistle the reader is referred to the “agenda”; according to Sehling (1:101), no such agenda has been found.

  99. 97. The Epistle and Gospel are sung in Latin on high feasts.

  100. 98. Sung by the “two choirs” in alternation. It is unclear whether this refers to the two halves of the choir or to the choir and the people.

  101. 99. The German Litany is occasionally sung in place of the Sequence.

  102. 100. The Gospel is read in German immediately before the sermon.

  103. 101. In villages the sermon is held after the Creed.

  104. 102. The Offertory, a Latin responsory, or a German psalm or hymn is sung.

  105. 103. Preceded by a corporate confession and absolution.

  106. 104. Preceded by a corporate confession and absolution.

  107. 105. The choir sings an Alleluia, Gradual, Sequence, or German psalm.

  108. 106. A sequence or other spiritual song is sung.

  109. 107. Followed by a Collect.

  110. 108. Sung by the entire church.

  111. 109. Options for singing during the communion include the Latin or German Sanctus and the Agnus Dei.

  112. 110. Where there are schools a German or Latin Introit, Kyrie, and Et in terra are sung, then the Collect, the Epistle, and further as above.

  113. 111. Followed by a corporate confession and absolution.

  114. 112. In the 1557 revision, on festivals the choir sings the hymn de festis instead of the Creed.

  115. 113. Mentioned in 1640 but not in 1557.

  116. (p.242)
  117. 114. Followed by a Collect.

  118. 115. The instruction to sing the Preface if time permits, especially on festivals, is present in 1555 but lacking in 1557.

  119. 116. Sung by the entire church.

  120. 117. In 1557, German hymns are sung by either the choir or the congregation; in 1640 they are sung by the choir and congregation together.

  121. 118. The Rothenburg orders are copied almost exactly from Veit Dietrich’s order for Nuremberg (1543, 1545).

  122. 119. Preceded by a corporate confession and absolution.

  123. 120. Preceded by a corporate confession and absolution.

  124. 121. The exhortation to prayer for all sorts and conditions is read in place of the Epistle, followed by a section of the catechism.

  125. 122. In small villages two or three scholars sing the Litany in German after the Epistle, and the rest of the choir and people answer; followed by the Da pacem with the Collect. In 1545 the direction is that the priest may read whatever is most serviceable to his office, or the scholars may sing an Alleluia and Gradual or a German psalm.

  126. 123. A Sequence or other spiritual song is sung.

  127. 124. No instructions are given for communion, although it is noted that only very rarely are there no communicants.

  128. 125. Preceded by the Benedicamus Domino.

  129. 126. Preceded by a German psalm or hymn and a corporate confession and absolution.

  130. 127. Preceded by a corporate confession and absolution.

  131. 128. Preceded by a corporate confession and absolution.

  132. 129. Preceded by a corporate confession and absolution.

  133. 130. Several psalms are sung (in villages one or two psalms), followed by a corporate confession and absolution.

  134. 131. Either a Sequence or an Alleluia is sung in German, followed by “O allmächtiger Gott” or another Collect, then the confession Nimm von uns, Herr is sung, then the tract Domine non secundum peccata nostra.

  135. 132. Sung by either the priest or the congregation.

  136. 133. The only direction given for any part of the service preceding the sermon is that “the congregation may sing hymns with the clerk before the sermon. Before the sermon Wir glauben all is sung.

  137. 134. The children sit in the chancel, and the pastor exhorts them to sing along on the psalms.

  138. 135. Because the sermon is so long it is frequently shortened by omitting the Et in terra, the Patrem and the Sanctus, and the shortest hymns are chosen.

  139. 136. Followed by the singing of the Litany.

  140. 137. Either the sequence, Erhalt uns, Herr or something else in German is sung.

  141. 138. A Sequence, motet, or German hymn is sung, or it is omitted if time is limited.

  142. 139. Followed by Nun bitten wir den heiligen Geist.

  143. 140. The service directions end here, but it may be presumed that the mass is concluded as in the cities.

  144. 141. The Latin Sanctus may also be sung.

  145. 142. The Sanctus and Agnus Dei are included among the songs that may be sung during the communion.

  146. 143. On high feasts a hymn de festo is sung before the Introit.

  147. 144. Followed by a corporate confession, declaration of grace (“Trostspruch”) and absolution.

  148. 145. A prayer and the catechism are read in place of the Epistle.

  149. 146. The sequence pro tempore is sung with an Alleluia, or on ordinary Sundays a psalm, or occasionally the Litany (long or short form).

  150. 147. A Sequence or Alleluia is sung by the choir, or a German psalm from Luther’s hymnal by the congregation.

  151. 148. Before the Sequence the Latin or German Da pacem domine may occasionally be sung.

  152. 149. Before the Creed the clerk reads to the people a section of the catechism with (Luther’s) explanation. Another German hymn may be sung in place of the Creed.

  153. 150. The exhortation should not be readily omitted, but rather the preceding hymn should be shortened or omitted if time is short.

  154. (p.243)
  155. 151. Followed by a corporate confession and absolution. This instruction is given only in the (separate) order for communion, which is held six times per year; it is not clear whether this confession replaces the one earlier in the service or whether two confessions are held.

  156. 152. The Latin Agnus Dei is included among the songs that may be sung during the communion.

  157. 153. Preceded by Gelobet sei der Herr Gott Israel with its antiphon.

  158. 154. Preceded by Komm, heiliger Geist sung by the choir.

  159. 155. The choir sings Veni sancte spiritus or (in places without schools) Komm, heiliger Geist before the Introit.

  160. 156. The instruction here and throughout the order is for the “cantor” to sing, presumably with choir or congregation.

  161. 157. The order notes that the entire liturgy is not given but only those portions needing commentary. Presumably there was an Introit, Kyrie, Gradual, etc., even though they are not mentioned.

  162. 158. The Sequence or a German psalm is sung.

  163. 159. A Sequence, Alleluia or German psalm is sung.

  164. 160. Sung after the sermon, during (!) which the minister goes to the altar and reads the exhortation to the communicants.

  165. 161. On festivals the choir sings the hymn de festo instead of the Creed.

  166. 162. Preceded by the singing of the Da pacem in German, Polish, or Latin.

  167. 163. The reader is referred to Veit Dietrich’s order (Nürnberg 1543, 1545) for the communion liturgy.

  168. 164. The order simply says that the communion is done, then the blessing and a hymn of praise. We may assume that the communion included at least the Our Father and Verba and probably the Thanksgiving Collect.

  169. 165. During the distribution the choir sings psalms or the congregation sings Jesus Christus, unser Heiland; Gott sei gelobet; and the like.

  170. 166. Followed by an exhortation to prayer and a corporate confession and absolution.

  171. 167. The Introit, which is sung by the pastor, is preceded by Herr Gott, wir loben dich played on the organ, or sung if there is no organ.

  172. 168. In villages a German or Bohemian psalm or hymn may be sung in place of the (Introit and?) Kyrie.

  173. 169. German hymns are sung by the entire congregation before the Epistle and Gospel, and the cantor is to post the hymn numbers on a board so that the people can sing along from Luther’s hymnal

  174. 170. The organist plays a motet and the choir sings.

  175. 171. The choir sings a Latin sequence or Nimm von uns, Herr Gott; then if desired the people may sing a German psalm.

  176. 172. Preceded by an exhortation to confession and a form of prayer.

  177. 173. The first stanza is played by the organ, the second is sung by the choir, and the third is sung by the congregation.

  178. 174. The cantor sings Verleih uns Frieden or another verse.

  179. 175. Most of the communion order is omitted, but it probably included (in addition to the Sanctus and Agnus Dei) the Our Father, the Verba, the Thanksgiving Collect and the benediction.

  180. 176. In German or Bohemian.

  181. 177. German hymns are sung by the choir and congregation, alternating verses; if there are many communicants a figural piece may be sung.

  182. 178. In German or Bohemian.

  183. 179. The pastor sings a German psalm or Latin song with the clerk.

  184. 180. Followed by a versicle, corporate confession and absolution and another hymn.

  185. 181. In 1708 only German hymns are to be used.

  186. 182. Following the Kyrie the organist alternates with the choir and congregation in the Te Deum; this is followed by a psalm or hymn selected by the preacher.

  187. 183. The exhortation to the communicants is to be read the previous day.

  188. 184. Followed by a Collect.

  189. 185. The order directs that the mass proceed further as directed (where?).

  190. 186. German hymns are sung except when there is figural music.

  191. 187. Preceded by the choir singing Veni sancte spiritus and the Collect of the Holy Spirit.

  192. 188. A Sequence or Alleluia is sung, or a German psalm related to the Gospel.

  193. (p.244)
  194. 189. A chapter from the Old Testament is read, or on high feasts the lesson de festo. Then two schoolboys recite the six chief parts of the catechism. Confession and absolution follow before the Creed.

  195. 190. Either the Creed or Nun bitten wir is sung.

  196. 191. To begin the service there is figural music and chant (“Figural und Choral Gesang”) related to the Gospel; then an exhortation, corporate confession, absolution, and prayer; then a part of the catechism is read; then there is another “Figural und Choral Gesang”; then the preacher reads the Gospel and preaches the sermon.

  197. 192. The order for communion is not specified, but it may be presumed to include at least the Our Father and the Verba, ending with a collect and benediction.

  198. 193. The order for communion is not specified, but it may be presumed to include at least the Our Father and the Verba, ending with a collect and benediction.

  199. 194. There is no corresponding mass order for villages.

  200. 195. Preceded by the Veni sancte spiritus.

  201. 196. The Introit is preceded by Veni sancte spiritus or Komm heiliger Geist sung by the choir.

  202. 197. The sermon follows the communion.

  203. 198. The sermon follows the communion.

  204. 199. The order of service ends here, but there are directions elsewhere to sing the Our Father and the Verba to the usual melody.

  205. 200. Either the full Latin preface may be used, or a half-Latin, half-German preface.

  206. 201. The communion order is incomplete, but it would certainly have included at least the Our Father and the Verba.

  207. 202. Either the Our Father is sung or the exhortation with the paraphrase of the Our Father is read, whichever is customary.

  208. 203. This order is a reprint of Magdeburg, Halberstadt 1632.

  209. 204. The sermon precedes the service.

  210. 205. The clerk sings a psalm.

  211. 206. The German Creed or another hymn is sung.

  212. 207. A prayer replaces the exhortation.

  213. 208. Sung by the congregation.

  214. 209. Either the Our Father is sung or the exhortation with the paraphrase of the Our Father is read, whichever is customary.

  215. 210. The Agnus Dei is sung at St. Lorenz but not at St. Sebald.

  216. 211. Following the communion and before the Thanksgiving the priest reads Psalm 23 to the congregation.

  217. 212. Following the communion and before the Thanksgiving the priest reads Psalm 23 to the congregation.

  218. 213. Followed by a corporate confession and absolution.

  219. 214. Preceded by an organ prelude and a motet, or in Lent by the Benedictus or Nunc dimittis and Vivo ergo. This order and the 1710 order are, strictly speaking, not church orders but rather devotional books intended to be read by the people during the service; the service directions serve as a commentary on the liturgy.

  220. 215. Preceded by an organ prelude and a motet.

  221. 216. On festivals figural music replaces the hymn.

  222. 217. The Gospel is replaced by a reading from Luther’s catechism.

  223. 218. The direction is for “a chapter from the Bible with the summary” [of Veit Dietrich] to be read.

  224. 219. After the Creed a German hymn is sung, or figural music is performed on festivals, where possible.

  225. 220. The Credo is always intoned, but the Patrem is sung only during Advent and Lent when there is no instrumental music; in other seasons a piece of concerted music is performed. The German Creed is sung after the music.

  226. 221. After the Creed Herr Jesu Christ, dich zu uns wend is sung.

  227. 222. Followed by a Collect.

  228. 223. A Collect follows.

  229. 224. The liturgy immediately preceding the communion is not given, but it may be assumed to include at least the Our Father and the Verba.

  230. 225. Music or a motet precedes the German hymns.

  231. (p.245)
  232. 226. Either figural music is performed or there is choraliter singing.

  233. 227. After the communion the priest or congregation reads Psalm 23.

  234. 228. Preceded by a Latin motet.

  235. 229. Preceded by the reading of one or two chapters from the Old Testament.

  236. 230. Followed by a corporate confession and a sentence from Scripture (replacing the absolution).

  237. 231. Herr Jesu Christ, dich zu uns wend or Liebster Jesu, wir sind hier is sung after the Creed.

  238. 232. Verleih uns Frieden or something similiar is sung by the cantor.

  239. 233. The Creed is sung here.

  240. 234. The exact order for communion is not given, but it may be presumed to include at least the Our Father and the Verba.

  241. 235. The liturgy preceding the communion is not given, but it would have included at least the Our Father and the Verba.

  242. 236. Sung as a dismissal hymn on days when communion is held.

(p.246)