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Worship Wars in Early Lutheranism Choir, Congregation and Three Centuries of Conflict$

Joseph Herl

Print publication date: 2008

Print ISBN-13: 9780195365849

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2010

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195365849.001.0001

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(p.205) APPENDIX 3 Choral versus Congregational Singing in the Mass

(p.205) APPENDIX 3 Choral versus Congregational Singing in the Mass

Source:
Worship Wars in Early Lutheranism Choir, Congregation and Three Centuries of Conflict
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

The tables below summarize the frequency of Latin versus German singing and choral versus congregational singing in the mass, as indicated in the church orders. The data on which the tables are based are contained in appendix 4.

The dates in the far left column are the dates the orders were published (for printed orders) or written (for manuscript orders). The numbers within the table are a count of church orders; totals are given as both sums and percentages. Percentages for the Latin vs. German data are calculated from the first four columns only. The fifth column (the number of orders in which the language cannot be determined) is useful in determining the completeness of the data in the first four columns, and it is used in the calculations of the choral vs. congregational percentages, but it is irrelevant to the ratio of Latin to German parts of the liturgy. Percentages may not total one hundred because of rounding.

Proportions for choral vs. congregational singing are given in two ways. The upper row gives the percentage of total orders containing the part of the liturgy under consideration in which we know the singing was by the choir (either because it is so specified in the order or because the singing was in Latin), followed by the percentage of total orders in which we know the singing was by the congregation (because it is so specified in the order; the use of German is not necessarily an indication of congregational performance). These percentages are calculated by first adding either the total of column “Co” (for the congregational percentage) or the sum of the totals of columns “Ch” and “Ch/L” (for the choral percentage) to one-half the total of column “L-G” (thus including in the calculation parts sung twice, once by choir and once by all), then dividing the result by the sum of the totals in the five Latin vs. German columns. The percentage for column “C/C” is calculated by dividing the total in that column by the sum of the totals in the five Latin vs. German columns.

The lower row gives the ratio of orders that expressly call for choral performance to those that expressly call for congregational performance. Each ratio is calculated by dividing the total of each column (“Ch” and “Co”) by the sum of the totals of these columns.

(p.206) These two rows tell us different things about whether the singing was choral or congregational. The upper row indicates a minimum percentage of total orders in which we can be certain that the singing was by either the choir or the congregation. The actual percentages (if the church orders are to be taken at face value) cannot be less than these figures. The lower row, which is based on explicit directions in the church orders, puts the figures for choral vs. congregational performance on an equal footing. These numbers are much less precise than those in the upper row, but they are the best estimates we can produce as to actual practice.

For simplicity’s sake, the fact that the choir would sing on congregational parts and the possibility that at least some members of the congregation would sing along on choral parts are ignored in the calculations. The sequence, where performed in Latin, is counted as a choral performance even though congregational verses in German were commonly interspersed on the three chief feasts.

It is important that the conclusions drawn from the data not be overly broad. Territories that frequently revised or reprinted their agendas will be represented to a greater degree than those that continued to use existing copies of agendas throughout decades or centuries. Territories also varied considerably in size, and accurate population estimates are rarely available for the sixteenth century, so there is no means of assessing how many people used each agenda.

Later Editions of Church Orders with Substantially the Same Liturgical Content

Appendix 4, the source of data for the tables below, saves space by excluding editions of church orders whose liturgical content is substantially the same as that of an earlier edition (see part 1 of the bibliography for an explanation of “substantially the same”). But in order to present a more accurate picture, most of these later editions are represented here. Not represented are new editions that appeared within five years of an earlier one. They are excluded in order to avoid allowing territories that produced church orders in several formats (quarto and octavo, with music and without, in both Low and High German, etc.) to exercise undue influence on the results. Five years is an arbitrary choice, but it accomplishes its purpose and avoids the need to conduct an enormous amount of bibliographical research for relatively little gain.

Following is a list of later editions of church orders containing mass liturgies, arranged by date of the original edition. Those excluded under the five-year rule are struck through with a line. Those remaining are represented in the tables. The total number of orders providing the data for the tables is shown following the list.

Wittenberg (Luther) 1523—1524

Braunschweig 1528—1531, 1563

Brandenburg-Nuremberg 1533—1534, 1536, 1556, 1564, 1592

Augsburg 1537–1545

Saxony (A) 1539/40, city—1548, 1555, 1558, 1563, 1564, 1580, 1582, 1584, 1600, 1618, 1647, 1658, 1681, 1712, 1748

Saxony (A) 1539/40, village—1548, 1555, 1558, 1563, 1564, 1580, 1582, 1584, 1600, 1618, 1647, 1658, 1681, 1712, 1748

Calenberg-Göttingen 1542—1544

Nuremberg (Dietrich) 1543/45, villages with schools—1546, 1556, 1560, 1563, 1565,1569

Nuremberg (Dietrich) 1543/45, villages without schools—1546, 1556, 1560, 1563, 1565, 1569

Mecklenburg 1552, city—1554, 1562

(p.207)

Mecklenburg 1552, village—1554, 1562

Württemberg 1553—1555, 1559, 1582, 1615

Palatinate 1554—1556

Waldeck 1557–1640

Wittenberg 1559, city—1565, 1566

Wittenberg 1559, village—1565, 1566

Palatinate-Zweibrücken 1563, city—1570

Palatinate-Zweibrücken 1563, village—1570

Braunschweig-Lüneburg 1564, city—1598, 1619, 1643

Braunschweig-Lüneburg 1564, village—1598, 1619, 1643

Prussia 1568, city—1598

Prussia 1568, village—1598

Pomerania 1569, city—1591, 1661, 1690, 1691, 1731

Pomerania 1569, village—1591, 1661, 1690, 1691, 1731

Hesse 1574–1662, 1724

Saxe-Lauenburg 1585, city—1651

Saxe-Lauenburg 1585, village—1651

Strassburg 1598—1601, 1603, 1605, 1606, 1633

Mecklenburg 1602, city—1650, 1708

Mecklenburg 1602, village—1650, 1708

Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel 1615, city—1649, 1651

Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel 1615, village—1649, 1651

Magdeburg (Han) 1615–1647, 1692

Magdeburg (Schrader) 1621–1636, 1649, 1660, 1670

Saxe-Coburg 1626, city—1713

East Frisia 1631–1716

Württemberg 1657—1660, 1743

Magdeburg 1663–1727, 1740

Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel 1709–1769

Date of Publication

Count of Orders from Appendix 4

Count of Later Editions of Orders

Total Orders Represented in Appendix 3

1523–1540

35

0

35

1541–1560

52

9

61

1561–1600

47

26

73

1601–1650

17

19

36

1651–1780

21

29

50

TOTAL

172

83

255

(p.208) Explanation of Abbreviations in the Column Headings

  • L—performed in Latin. Represents the designations L, (L) or L/(G?) in appendix 4.

  • G—performed in German. Represents G, (G) or (L?)/G in appendix 4.

  • L/G—performed in either Latin or German, whichever was possible or desirable in a locality. Represents L/G or G/L in appendix 4.

  • L-G—performed in Latin by the choir and also in German by the congregation or choir. Represents L-G or G-L in appendix 4.

  • ✓—an indication is given in the order for the part to be done, but it is unclear whether the performance is in Latin or German. Represents ✓ or (L?) or (G?) in appendix 4.

  • Ch—indicated in the order as performed by the choir. Represents ˚L, ˚G, ˚L/G, ˚L-G or ˚L/˚G in appendix 4.

  • Ch/L—not specifically indicated as performed by the choir, but so presumed because it is in Latin. Represents L, (L) or L/(G?) in appendix 4.

  • Co—indicated in the order as performed by the congregation. Represents G˚ in appendix 4.

  • C/C—indicated in the order as performed by either the choir or the congregation, or once each by choir and congregation. Represents ˚L/G˚, ˚L-G˚, L/G˚, (L)/G˚ or ˚G˚ in appendix 4. Also includes instances in which choir and congregation are directed to alternate stanza by stanza (indicated by a footnote in appendix 4).

(p.209)

APPENDIX 3 Choral versus Congregational Singing in the Mass

Introit

APPENDIX 3 Choral versus Congregational Singing in the Mass

Kyrie

(p.210)

APPENDIX 3 Choral versus Congregational Singing in the Mass

Gloria and Et in terra

APPENDIX 3 Choral versus Congregational Singing in the Mass

Alleluia or Gradual

(p.211)

APPENDIX 3 Choral versus Congregational Singing in the Mass

Sequence

APPENDIX 3 Choral versus Congregational Singing in the Mass

Credo and Patrem

(p.212)

APPENDIX 3 Choral versus Congregational Singing in the Mass

Psalm or Hymn before Sermon

APPENDIX 3 Choral versus Congregational Singing in the Mass

Psalm or Hymn after Sermon

(p.213)

APPENDIX 3 Choral versus Congregational Singing in the Mass

Sanctus

APPENDIX 3 Choral versus Congregational Singing in the Mass

Agnus Dei

(p.214)

APPENDIX 3 Choral versus Congregational Singing in the Mass

Psalm(s) or Hymns during Communion

APPENDIX 3 Choral versus Congregational Singing in the Mass

Psalm or Hymn after the Benediction